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  • The Avebury World Heritage Site is a unique complex of prehistoric monuments. Today we're going to be visiting some of the lesser-known prehistoric monuments in the Avebury landscape.

    埃夫伯里世界文化遺產是一個獨特的史前紀念碑群。今天,我們將參觀埃夫伯里石圈中一些鮮為人知的史前遺蹟。

  • Most of these monuments are accessible and you can walk between them, and that gives you a really good sense of the whole landscape and how these monuments are connected together and the different fascinating stories that each monument has to tell.

    這裡大部分的紀念碑都是可以進入參觀的,你可以在它們之間走動,這會讓你對整個石圈以及這些紀念碑如何連結在一起,以及每個紀念碑講述不同的迷人故事有很好的了解。

  • Silbury Hill is the largest prehistoric monument in the whole of Europe, and it's a pretty dominant place here in the Avebury landscape. You can't really miss it when you drive past on the A4.

    錫爾伯里丘是整個歐洲最大的史前紀念碑,它是埃夫伯里石圈中非常重要的地方,當你在 A4 上開車經過時肯定會看到它。

  • Many people have thought, what on Earth is inside this enormous mound? Is it a burial mound? Is there somebody rich inside buried with grave goods? And in the past, people have been tunnelling into the mound to find out what was inside.

    許多人都有疑問,像是「這個巨大的土丘裡面究竟有什麼?它是一個墓丘嗎?裡面是否有富人被埋在墓穴裡?」而在過去,人們一直在挖隧道進入土丘,想知道裡面有什麼。

  • And Although they found out a lot about the different phases of the mound and how it had been constructed, there is no central burial: it's not a burial mound; it's a mound built for other purposes.

    儘管他們對土丘的不同階段以及它是如何建造的有很多了解,但這裡並沒有中央墓葬,也就是說它不是墓丘,是一個為其他目的而建造的土丘。

  • Silbury Hill is one of the final monuments to be built in this landscape in the Neolithic period, and it's built in this cluster of already existing monuments, but it's located in a really interesting place:

    錫爾伯里丘是新石器時代在這個石圈中建造的最後一座紀念碑之一,它建在這群已經存在的紀念碑中,但它位於一個非常有趣的地方:

  • It's located just at the point just where the River Kennet springs out, and we think that the mound was built at the head of the river because this was a really important and perhaps sacred place.

    它就位於肯尼特河的源頭 ,所以我們認為土丘就建在河頭,因為那一個非常重要、亦或許是神聖的地方。

  • We've just walked up to West Kennet Long Barrow which is one of the earliest monuments in the Avebury landscape.

    我們剛剛走到的是西肯尼特長墳,這是埃夫伯里石圈中最古老的紀念碑之一。

  • It's a long barrow which is a funerary monument, it's where people buried their dead and it's been fully excavated which means that it's fully restored and you can go inside it and see the chambers today.

    這是一個長墳,也就是一座喪葬紀念碑,人們埋葬他們死者的地方,它已經被完全挖掘出來,表示它已經修復完成,現在就能進去看看墓室長怎樣。

  • When archaeologists excavated the Long Barrow, they found the remains of about 36 individuals in here, a whole community of people, but they seem to have been brought into the space and then moved around.

    當考古學家挖掘這個墓地時,他們在這裡發現了大約 36 個人的遺骸,是整個社區的所有人,但他們的遺骸被帶進來之後被到處移動,

  • Sometimes some of the skulls had been moved over to one side of the chamber or the long bones all put together

    有時一些頭骨被移到了洞穴的一側,或者長骨全部放在一起。

  • And there seem to have been different people placed in the different chambers. Some of them seem to have been specially for older people, some of them specially for children so there's some sort of division based on age and gender inside the space.

    而且似乎不一樣的人被放置在了不同的洞穴裡,其中一些似乎是專門為老年人設計的,有些則是專門為兒童設計的,因此這個空間內會基於年齡和性別做劃分。

  • The long barrow that we see today has this really impressive stone facade at the front, but it's actually slightly misleading.

    在我們今天看到的長墳的正面有氣派的石頭矗立著,但實際上這是個小誤會。

  • The largest stones that stand in the middle of that facade are blocking stones, so these were added to the monument right at the end of its use when the chambers had been filled up, around about 1000 years after it was first constructed.

    中間最大的石頭其實是阻擋用的石頭,當裡面的洞穴已填滿時,就會在最後把石頭放上去,大概是在它首次建造完約 1000 年後。

  • This big windswept grassy hill is called Windmill Hill, and it might not look very much today but it's actually the site of one of the oldest monuments and most important monuments in the Avebury landscape. It's the site of what we call a causewayed enclosure.

    這座被風吹過的大草山被稱為風車山,現在看起來可能數量並不多,但它實際上是埃夫伯里石圈中最古老的紀念碑之一和最重要的紀念碑——堤道圍牆的所在地。

  • There are three circuits of ditches creating a special space, and we think these monuments were places where people gathered together in large numbers.

    這裡由三圈的溝渠創造出一個特殊的空間,我們認為這些紀念碑是人們大量聚集的地方。

  • At this time, people were probably quite dispersed in the landscape and they may have come here to exchange goods, to find marriage partners, to exchange cattle, perhaps to conduct rituals and ceremonies including some funerary rituals.

    這時候的人們大概是住的比較分散的,來這裡可能是為了交換物品、尋找婚配、交換牲畜,也或許是為了舉行祭祀儀式,包括一些喪葬儀式。

  • So it's a really important site for us understanding early Neolithic life and for also understanding how archaeological ideas have changed over the 20th century.

    因此,對於我們了解早期新石器時代的生活以及了解考古觀念在過去 20 個世紀如何變化來說,這是一個非常重要的地點。

  • To fully understand the monument, so it's a good idea to go and visit the Alexander Keiller Museum in the middle of Avebury where they have quite a lot of the finds from this site on display including the Windmill Hill pottery.

    想要充分了解這座紀念碑的話,最好去參觀位於埃夫伯里中心的亞歷山大·凱勒博物館,那裡展出了在該遺址發現的許多物品,包括風車山陶器。

  • We're standing at the Sanctuary which is a really lovely little monument but not many people know about.

    我們現在站的地方是避難所,這是一個非常可愛的小紀念碑,但沒有多少人知道。

  • Originally, the Sanctuary would have been two stone circles, one set within the other, and then around them and inside them were standing timber posts.

    避難所原本應該是兩個石圈,一個嵌在另一個內,然後在它們周圍和它們內部都是立木柱。

  • We don't know exactly what those posts would have looked like because of course they've rotted away, but we think they would have been standing quite tall and possibly with a linteled linked top, horizontal timbers linking the circular settings of posts.

    我們不知道這些柱子本來長什麼樣子,因為它們當然已經腐爛了,但我們認為它們原本很高聳,並且可能帶有楣板鏈接的頂部,還有水平木材連接柱子的圓形設置。

  • After the site was excavated in 1930 they marked out the post holes and the stone holes with these concrete blocks. The red ones show timber posts and the blue rectangular ones show where stones once stood.

    1930 年發掘這個遺跡後,他們用這些混凝土塊標出了柱孔和石孔。紅色柱子顯示木柱,藍色矩形柱子顯示石頭曾經矗立的地方。

  • And in the middle of the monument is quite a complicated layout but it almost looks like there are four avenues of posts basically directed on the cardinal directions.

    而在紀念碑的中央,佈局相當複雜,但看起來是有四個指向東西南北的柱子。

  • So they're almost spaces that people were coming into and processing into the centre of the monument and it would have been quite a special inner sanctuary from the wider landscape.

    因此,這是個人們會進入的空間,從更廣闊的視野來看,它本來是一個非常特殊的市內避難所。

  • We think that The Sanctuary was built at around the same time as Avebury henge and stone circles, and it's actually linked to that monument by an avenue.

    我們認為避難所大約與埃夫伯里巨石陣和石圈同時建造,而它們之間是由一條大道相連接的。

  • The avenue is made up of two parallel rows of stones, which lead off down into the valley behind me, and skirt around Waden Hil and approach the henge, about a mile and a half away.

    這條大道由兩排平行的石頭組成,它們通向我身後的山谷,繞過瓦登山,靠近大約一英里半外的巨石陣。

  • So we think this monument was part of the ceremonial complex of Avebury, and people might have processed up and down the avenue to reach it.

    所以我們認為這座紀念碑是埃夫伯里文化的一部分,人們可能是走在大道上前往這個紀念碑的。

  • All of the sites we've explored today are free and publicly accessible, so it's worth spending a bit of time and coming out and exploring some of the lesser known prehistoric monuments in the Avebury World Heritage site.

    我們今天探索的所有景點都是免費且可供大眾參觀的,這值得花一些時間來探索埃夫伯里世界遺產地中一些鮮為人知的史前古蹟。

The Avebury World Heritage Site is a unique complex of prehistoric monuments. Today we're going to be visiting some of the lesser-known prehistoric monuments in the Avebury landscape.

埃夫伯里世界文化遺產是一個獨特的史前紀念碑群。今天,我們將參觀埃夫伯里石圈中一些鮮為人知的史前遺蹟。

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一起探索埃夫伯里世界文化遺產! (Exploring the Avebury Landscape | Walking Through Prehistory)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 04 日
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