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  • I can't focus I can't work I can't function

    我不能專心 我不能工作 我不能動了!

  • It's like the end of the world to me

    對我來說這就是世界末日阿!

  • I'm so sorry to hear that

    我很抱歉聽到這個消息 你還好嗎?

  • Are you feeling better ?

    恩我有好一點了

  • Yeah I'm getting better but I'm just so forgetful now

    但我變得有點容易健忘耶!為什麼?

  • Why?

    大家好,歡迎收看美醫學英文

  • Hi everyone welcome to MEnglish

    讓我們一起變美吧!

  • Well First things first subscribe

    恩第一件事最重要的就是訂閱我們啦

  • Because you do care about health and beauty right

    因為各位都很在乎健康與美麗對吧?

  • So simply subscribe subscribe subscribe

    那就動動你的手指訂閱訂閱再訂閱啦

  • And all this presented to you by MEmedia

    所有的優質內容都由美醫誌為您呈現喔

  • Do you easily forget things ?

    你是不是容易忘記事情

  • like walked into the kitchen

    就像走進廚房裡面卻不知道要找什麼

  • but forgot what you were looking for

    這就要當心了

  • This could be neurocognitive disorder or dementia

    這可能會是神經認知障礙或是失智症的前兆

  • and even at such a young age it's still very possible

    即使是在年輕的族群也是有可能的

  • But don't be afraid we'll be speaking to Dr. Wu today

    但各位不要太擔心今天我們請來了吳醫師來幫助我們

  • who's here to help us

    讓我們歡迎吳醫師

  • Let's welcome Dr. Wu

    大家好我是我是Ana吳醫師

  • Hello everyone I'm Dr. Ana Wu

    很開心今天跟大家在這裡見面

  • It's such a pleasure to be here

    吳醫師我聽說有些人似乎是容易健忘

  • Dr. Wu I've heard that some people are just more forgetful

    但有可能在年輕的時候得到失智症或是神經認知障礙嗎?

  • but is it possible to be getting dementia or the

    這的確是有可能的

  • neurocognitive disorder at such a young age ?

    即使這個機率很低但的確有這個可能性存在

  • It is possible even though the risk is lower

    各位聽到了嗎?我想我們有必要了解更多

  • but it is definitely a possibility

    你在找什麼呢?

  • Wow you heard that

    我在找我的手機啦吳醫師,你有看到它嗎?

  • I think we need to find out more

    我看看喔…..喔它在這裡啦

  • What are you looking for ?

    真是謝謝你耶,我找了它一整天了

  • I'm looking for my phone Ana did you see it ?

    發生什麼事了嗎?

  • Let's see oh wait I think it's over here

    噢告訴你一個秘密我上個月跟我男朋友分手了

  • Thank you

    而且自從那之後我就心不在焉的

  • I've been looking for it all day

    我不能專心 我不能工作 我不能動了!

  • What's going on ?

    對我來說這就是世界末日阿!

  • Well tell your a secret actually I broke up with my boyfriend last month

    我很抱歉聽到這個消息 你還好嗎?

  • and since then I've been so absent-minded

    恩我有好一點了

  • I can't focus I can't work I can't function

    但我變得有點容易健忘耶!為什麼?

  • It's like the end of the world to me

    有時候你處在一個極端的壓力之下

  • I'm so sorry to hear that

    你會經歷很多事情

  • Are you feeling better ?

    尤其是大腦會思考很多事情

  • Yeah I'm getting better but I'm just so forgetful now

    但通常來說這是暫時的而且會隨著時間過去

  • Why ?

    恩我真是鬆了一口氣呢!

  • Well sometimes when you're very stressed

    我甚至還請AMY醫師陪我去醫院掛號

  • or you're going through a lot you can

    你不用太擔心啦

  • You can interfere with how your brain functions

    其實健忘跟神經認知障礙或是失智症是不太一樣的喔

  • But that's usually temporary and it goes away with time

    吳醫師我有看到很多年輕人案例是關於失智症的

  • What a relief to hear that !

    你可以簡短介紹一下什麼是失智症和神經認知障礙嗎?

  • You know I was so worried I even asked Dr. Amy

    好的失智症是一種由多數症狀引起的病症

  • to please go to the hospital with me later for a checkup

    它會干擾人們的思想、記憶

  • You don't have to worry too much

    以及人如何看待個世界與人們溝通的情形

  • Being forgetful and having dementia or neurocognitive disorder is quite different

    不單單只是健忘這麼簡單,它是很複雜的

  • Hi Dr. Wu we do see a number of cases

    那如果有人得到了失智症我們怎麼去分辨它

  • where young people are getting dementia

    這是個好問題

  • Can you briefly explain what is dementia

    基本上我們診斷出一個人有失智症

  • or the neurocognitive disorder ?

    表示我們看到那個人在行為認知上有明顯的下降

  • Sure so dementia is a collection of symptoms

    尤其是在行動前後的對比

  • that can be caused by a variety of different diseases

    這種認知上的損害至少是有六大項

  • and so it interferes with how people think

    每一項都有點不太一樣

  • how people remember how people see the world and

    第一項要素是語言和記憶

  • how people communicate

    這也是關於失智症發生最多的一環

  • So it's not just being about being forgetful

    每個人都有數不清記不起來的事

  • It's a lot more than that

    所以每個人記憶的變化在開始是非常微妙的

  • Wow so how can we tell if a person has this ?

    失智症患者例如他們可能會忘記電話號碼

  • That's a very good question

    會忘記今天發生的一些事件

  • So basically we diagnose a person with dementia

    甚至會忘記早餐吃了什麼

  • when we see that there's a

    這些都是在短期記憶中會出現的

  • significant cognitive decline in the same person

    但他們會記得他們小學時代喜歡的人

  • compared to how they were functioning before

    還有人會記得他們是怎麼去學校的

  • And this impairment has to be in at least

    就長期記憶來說是被保存的

  • one of six cognitive domains

    這就是第一項要素

  • and these domains are very different

    第二項是語言能力的喪失

  • So the first one is language and memory

    有些人對於了解其他人開始變得困難

  • which is the most relatable one

    還有些人與外在溝通上出現了問題

  • Everyone has bouts of forgetting things

    這就是語言能力受損,類似雙向溝通的事

  • so their memory changes can be very subtle in the beginning

    這聽起來真的很複雜

  • For example they might forget phone numbers

    那麼狀況惡化了會怎麼樣?

  • or they might forget events that happened during the day

    對我們提到了對於認知領域兩項要素的變化

  • or just things they had for breakfast

    第三個就是執行功能上的不完整

  • So really a prominent in recent memory

    就像是我們大腦會想計畫一天的行程並安排妥當

  • But they will remember for example

    但是失智症病人可能沒辦法做到這點

  • who was their elementary school sweetheart

    執行旅遊計劃都有困難

  • and they will remember um where they went to school

    或是維持個薪資本都顯得困難

  • like long-term memory is preserved

    這也是其中之一

  • So that's the first cognitive domain that's affected

    第四點是整體的注意力會不集中

  • But also language can become impaired

    注意力不集中大家就比較知道

  • So some people have trouble understanding people

    失智症患者很容易被外在事物分心

  • and some other people have some patients

    在工作上也沒辦法多工或一心多用

  • have trouble communicating

    第五點是知覺動作的退化

  • what they're thinking to the outside world

    舉例來說你看到一把梳子

  • So it's like a bidirectional thing

    你卻不知道它是用來做什麼的

  • in terms of language

    你知道它看起來似曾相識但是你並不會用它來梳頭髮

  • Wow this is quite complicated

    基本上就是你看到但卻不知道

  • So what are the worsening signs ?

    這就是知覺動作的退化

  • Right so we mentioned two changes in cognitive domains

    最後一點是社交認知的混亂

  • and the third one is called executive functioning

    身為成年人我們都知道什麼該做什麼不該做

  • So that's like a set of mental skills

    有點類似察言觀色的感覺

  • that allows us to plan our day and stay organized

    但失智症患者或神經認知障礙患者可能沒有這層顧慮

  • So for example patients might start having trouble

    他們會變得異常的誠實,或是誠實過了頭

  • planning what to do throughout the day

    或是做一些一般大眾不被接受的事情

  • or they might have trouble planning a trip

    以上六點只要有一點發生在身上

  • or just even maintaining like a paycheck book

    就會診斷的出來失智症或是神經認知障礙

  • That's one of them

    那哪個年齡層是最容易得到呢?

  • And then the fourth one is complex attention

    因為我們都叫這個阿茲海默症

  • So complex attention means that patients

    而且年輕的案例也是所在不有

  • are having trouble concentrating

    這是一個好問題

  • They become easily distracted and

    我們通常會把神經認知障礙與年紀

  • they might not be able to multitask

    有一點點長的人聯繫在一起

  • And the fifth dimension that's affected

    通常是65歲以上的長者

  • it's called perceptual-motor

    不過也有可能發生在45歲左右的人

  • So what that means is that for example

    假如你在45歲前有被診斷出失智症或是神經認知障礙

  • you see a hairbrush

    我們叫做早發期失智症

  • and you don't know what is it for

    大約30歲左右?這也太年輕了吧

  • You know that it's something that looks familiar

    這樣的年輕人生才剛開始

  • but you don't know to pick it up and brush your hair

    有些人也剛結婚生小孩啊!

  • So basically means you don't know what you see

    有任何預防措施嗎?還是有任何的療法?

  • That's what a perceptual-motor means

    這也是一個好問題

  • And the sixth domain that's affected

    有很多的治療方式像是藥品或另類藥物治療

  • it's called social cognition

    不過這些方式只是延緩症狀

  • So as grown-ups we know what's socially acceptable

    不能說是真正的治癒

  • and what's not

    以我的觀點來看最好的方法是事前去預防

  • But this filter kind of becomes a little permeable

    預防方式是有幾點可以去做的

  • when you have dementia or

    要做到的就是過著健康的生活

  • neurocognitive disorder

    舉例來說先從健康飲食開始

  • So the patients become very honest brutally honest

    每個醫師都這麼說對吧?健康飲食

  • or they start doing things that are not so socially acceptable

    健康飲食之所以重要是因為

  • And out of the six domains you just need one of them

    如果你吃了太多的甜食或炸物

  • at least one impairment in one area

    或是有些食物吃了會讓你身體發炎

  • and that's how dementia or

    呈現發炎的前兆這就會引起很多的問題

  • neurocognitive disorder is diagnosed

    慢性病就會找上你了

  • So which age group is the most vulnerable ?

    比如像是高血壓、血糖過高

  • Because we call this the alzheimer's disease

    糖尿病以及心臟問題等等

  • but we do see cases of young people

    這些慢性病都有可能引發失智症或是神經認知障礙

  • That's a very good question

    所以健康飲食中包含大量的綠色蔬菜是非常重要的

  • So usually we associate neurocognitive disorder

    第二個重點就是要運動

  • with patients who are a little bit older

    運動一方面可以幫助你減壓

  • So usually it's above the age of 65 years old

    壓力對人們來說是不好的

  • But so there's cutoff and that's somewhat

    而且壓力會導致身體發炎更多

  • arbitrary at the age of 45

    所以要盡可能地去紓解壓力

  • So if you're diagnosed with dementia

    而運動就是一個好方法

  • or neurocognitive disorder before the age of 45

    另外運動可以讓你的血液循環變的更好

  • then we call that early onset dementia

    那是很重要的因為如果血液循環順暢

  • Like 30 something years old

    就可以排出身體的毒素

  • That's so young I mean we are just starting

    也可以排出那些有可能造成失智症的物質

  • a new chapter in our life

    第三點就是要睡個好覺

  • People are just getting married or having kids

    這也是超級重要的

  • Are there any preventions or how about treatments ?

    每天我們的大腦都會分泌一種蛋白質

  • That's a really good question too

    我們叫做類澱粉斑塊

  • So there are many treatment options available

    當類澱粉斑塊製造過多時阻礙我們大腦

  • in terms of drugs and pharmacotherapy

    就會造成失智症或是神經認知障礙

  • But what these drugs do is they slow the progression

    雖然每個人身體製造出此類的蛋白質

  • of the disease without really curing it

    但大腦是非常聰明的

  • or terminating it

    大腦有一種機制是膠狀淋巴系統

  • So in my opinion the best way to approach

    它可以清除此類的蛋白質

  • or tackle this problem is to prevent it

    而且它只在睡覺的時候出現

  • And in terms of prevention there are

    如果你睡的不夠多也睡得不夠好

  • a number of things that you can do

    這就會促進失智症的產生

  • And they all have to do with like a healthy lifestyle

    第四點呢我認為是重點也是非常必要的

  • For example first you can eat a healthy diet

    就是保持開放接納的心態

  • Every doctor says that right

    願意讓自己學習更多的新事物

  • Healthy diet

    並且保持自己的彈性和靈活

  • But that's very important because if you're

    大腦就會認為有受到刺激

  • eating a lot of sugary foods or fried foods

    但如果你很頑固而且都做同樣的事

  • or just foods that promote inflammation in the body

    不學習新的東西的話

  • What it does is that your body goes into a

    大腦認為你很無聊

  • pro-inflammatory state

    你就有可能會促進失智症和神經認知障礙的症狀了

  • And that causes a lot of problems

    挖聽起來健康飲食和規律運動是非常必須的

  • because it gives you chronic medical conditions

    你知道嗎我可是有常常讓我的大腦在活動呢

  • like hypertension like blood sugar problems

    我每天都看很多臉書的資訊

  • diabetes or heart problems

    哇這是一種方式啦

  • And all of that can contribute to the development

    不過你要不要試試看讀一本真正的書