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  • I'm assuming everyone here has watched

    我想在場各位

  • a TED Talk online at one time or another, right?

    都曾經在網上看過 TED 演講,是吧?

  • So what I'm going to do is play this.

    接下來我要播放一段音樂。

  • This is the song from the TED Talks online.

    這是 TED 演講的開頭音樂。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • And I'm going to slow it down

    然後我要放慢節奏

  • because things sound cooler when they're slower.

    因為用慢節奏聽更酷。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • Ken Robinson: Good morning. How are you?

    肯.羅賓森:早安,大家好。

  • Mark Applebaum: I'm going to -- Kate Stone: -- mix some music.

    馬克.阿波保:我要——凱特.史東:——混搭音樂。

  • MA: I'm going to do so in a way that tells a story.

    馬克.阿波保:我要以敘述故事的方式進行。

  • Tod Machover: Something nobody's ever heard before.

    塔德.馬家華:這是大家前所未聞的東西。

  • KS: I have a crossfader.

    凱特.史東:我有台唱片平滑轉換器。

  • Julian Treasure: I call this the mixer.

    朱利安.崔吉:我稱之為混搭神器。

  • KS: Two D.J. decks.

    凱特.史東:DJ 的兩塊板。

  • Chris Anderson: You turn up the dials, the wheel starts to turn.

    克里斯.安德森:你打開轉盤,然後輪盤開始轉動。

  • Dan Ellsey: I have always loved music.

    丹.艾爾西:我一直熱愛音樂。

  • Michael Tilson Thomas: Is it a melody or a rhythm or a mood or an attitude?

    麥可.湯瑪斯:這是旋律還是節奏,這是心情還是態度?

  • Daniel Wolpert: Feeling everything that's going on inside my body.

    丹尼爾.沃爾波特:感覺活躍於我體內的一切。

  • Adam Ockelford: In your brain is this amazing musical computer.

    雅丹.奧克福:在你大腦裡,這簡直就是一台不可思議的音樂電腦。

  • MTT: Using computers and synthesizers to create works. It's a language that's still evolving.

    麥可.湯瑪斯:利用電腦和合成器來創作。這是種仍不斷進化的語言。

  • And the 21st century.

    而且在二十一世紀。

  • KR: Turn on the radio. Pop into the discotheque.

    肯.羅賓森:打開收音機,跑跑夜店。

  • You will know what this person is doing: moving to the music.

    你就會知道這個人在幹什麼:接近音樂。

  • Mark Ronson: This is my favorite part.

    馬克.榮森:這是我最喜愛的部分。

  • MA: You gotta have doorstops. That's important.

    馬克.阿波保:我就得有門墊。這相當要緊。

  • TM: We all love music a great deal.

    塔德.馬家華:我們都熱愛音樂。

  • MTT: Anthems, dance crazes, ballads and marches.

    麥可.湯瑪斯:頌歌、舞曲、民歌、進行曲。

  • Kirby Ferguson and JT: The remix: It is new music created from old music.

    克比.福吉森和朱利安.崔吉:混搭曲,這是用舊歌曲創造的新音樂。

  • Ryan Holladay: Blend seamlessly.

    萊恩.何拉迪:無縫混搭,

  • Kathryn Schulz: And that's how it goes.

    凱瑟琳.舒茲:而這就是混搭。

  • MTT: What happens when the music stops?

    麥可.湯瑪斯:音樂停止時會怎麼樣?

  • KS: Yay!

    凱瑟琳 .舒茲:耶!

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • MR: Obviously, I've been watching a lot of TED Talks.

    看得出來我看了很多 TED 演講。

  • When I was first asked to speak at TED,

    我剛被邀請到 TED 演講時,

  • I wasn't quite sure what my angle was, at first,

    一開始我不確定要說什麼,

  • so yeah, I immediately started watching tons of TED Talks,

    所以沒錯,我立馬開始觀看一大堆的 TED 演講,

  • which is pretty much absolutely

    這個做法絕對是

  • the worst thing that you can do

    你力所能及最最糟糕的事情,

  • because you start to go into panic mode, thinking,

    因為你開始進入恐慌狀態,不斷地想

  • I haven't mounted a successful expedition to the North Pole yet.

    我沒有成功地到北極探索。

  • Neither have I provided electricity

    我亦從未單憑我的智慧

  • to my village through sheer ingenuity.

    為我的村莊提供電力。

  • In fact, I've pretty much wasted most of my life

    老實說,我將人生的大部分時間

  • DJing in night clubs

    浪費在夜總會裡做 DJ

  • and producing pop records.

    和製作流行音樂唱片。

  • But I still kept watching the videos,

    但是我還是鍥而不捨地觀看這些視頻,

  • because I'm a masochist,

    因為我就是一個受虐狂,

  • and eventually, things like Michael Tilson Thomas

    而且到了最後,像麥可.提爾森.湯瑪斯、

  • and Tod Machover, and seeing

    塔德.馬家華這樣的人物,

  • their visceral passion talking about music,

    看著他們滿腔熱情地談論音樂,

  • it definitely stirred something in me,

    這絕對在我內心深處激起了一些想法,

  • and I'm a sucker for anyone talking devotedly

    我對於滿腔熱血談論音樂力量的人

  • about the power of music.

    實在毫無招架之力。

  • And I started to write down on these little note cards

    我開始在這些小小的便簽紙上寫下

  • every time I heard something

    我每次聽到的什麼東西

  • that struck a chord in me, pardon the pun,

    敲動我的心弦,原諒我的雙關語,

  • or something that I thought I could use,

    或者我一想到我可以用的什麼東西,

  • and pretty soon, my studio looked like this,

    很快,我的工作室就變成了這樣,

  • kind of like a John Nash, "Beautiful Mind" vibe.

    有點像約翰.納許《 美麗心靈》的感覺。

  • The other good thing about watching TED Talks,

    觀看 TED 演講的另外一個好處是

  • when you see a really good one,

    當你看到一個相當了不起的演講時,

  • you kind of all of a sudden wish the speaker

    你就突然忍不住希望這位演講者

  • was your best friend, don't you? Like, just for a day.

    就是你的死黨,是不是?就一天也好。

  • They seem like a nice person.

    他們看起來像很親切的人,

  • You'd take a bike ride, maybe share an ice cream.

    你們一起騎單車,或者分享一份冰淇淋,

  • You'd certainly learn a lot.

    你絕對會從中受益不少。

  • And every now and then they'd chide you,

    然後時不時他們就會斥罵你,

  • when they got frustrated that you couldn't really

    因為他們覺得很挫敗,

  • keep up with half of the technical things they're banging on about all the time.

    因為你不是很懂他們一直甩出來的技術行話。

  • But then they'd remember that you're but a mere human

    但是他們會記起你不過是凡人一名,

  • of ordinary, mortal intelligence

    普通平凡、智力平平,

  • that didn't finish university,

    連大學都沒有讀完,

  • and they'd kind of forgive you,

    然後他們就原諒了你

  • and pet you like the dog.

    然後就拍拍你,就像安撫小狗一樣。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Man, yeah, back to the real world,

    天哪,沒錯,回到真實世界,

  • probably Sir Ken Robinson and I

    也許肯.羅賓森爵士和我

  • are not going to end up being best of friends.

    最終不會成為死黨。

  • He lives all the way in L.A. and I imagine is quite busy,

    他住在遙遠的洛杉磯,我想他是非常忙碌的,

  • but through the tools available to me -- technology

    但是通過我可以控制的工具——科技

  • and the innate way that I approach making music --

    以及我與生俱來的製作音樂的方式——

  • I can sort of bully our existences

    某程度上我可以將我們的存在

  • into a shared event,

    融入一個我們共享的事件中,

  • which is sort of what you saw.

    也就是大家剛剛看見的那些。

  • I can hear something that I love in a piece of media

    我可以從我喜歡的媒體作品中聽出些東西

  • and I can co-opt it

    然後我可以挑選出來

  • and insert myself in that narrative,

    將我自己插入到那個敘事聲音中

  • or alter it, even.

    或者甚至可以作出改變。

  • In a nutshell, that's what I was trying to do

    簡單來說,這就是我一直嘗試利用這些東西所做的事情

  • with these things, but more importantly,

    但更為重要的是,

  • that's what the past 30 years of music has been.

    這也是過去三十年來音樂的樣貌。

  • That's the major thread.

    這就是主線。

  • See, 30 years ago, you had the first digital samplers,

    三十年前出現了第一台數位合成器,

  • and they changed everything overnight.

    一夜間改變一切。

  • All of a sudden, artists could sample

    霎時間,藝術家可以從以前的

  • from anything and everything that came before them,

    任何作品中提取樣本,

  • from a snare drum from the Funky Meters,

    譬如,時髦米特的小軍鼓、

  • to a Ron Carter bassline,

    榮恩.卡特的大提琴曲、

  • the theme to "The Price Is Right."

    『價格競猜』節目的主題曲等。

  • Albums like De La Soul's "3 Feet High and Rising"

    各個專輯,例如迪拉索的「三尺高還要更高」、

  • and the Beastie Boys' "Paul's Boutique"

    野獸男孩的「保羅潮店」、

  • looted from decades of recorded music

    搶掠幾十年內記錄下來的音樂,

  • to create these sonic, layered masterpieces

    用來創造這些分層聲波傑作,

  • that were basically the Sgt. Peppers of their day.

    這簡直就是他們當時的「比伯軍曹」(披頭四專輯)。

  • And they weren't sampling these records

    他們當時從這些音樂中取樣,

  • because they were too lazy to write their own music.

    並不是因為他們懶得去寫自己的音樂。

  • They weren't sampling these records to cash in on

    他們從這些音樂中取樣

  • the familiarity of the original stuff.

    並不是為了從原作中賺個耳熟。

  • To be honest, it was all about sampling

    老實說,這完全這是為了

  • really obscure things,

    提取一些相當隱晦的東西,

  • except for a few obvious exceptions

    一些相當明顯的例子除外,

  • like Vanilla Ice and "doo doo doo da da doo doo"

    譬如說香草冰和「嘟嘟嘟搭搭嘟嘟」,

  • that we know about.

    大家都知道。

  • But the thing is,

    但重點是

  • they were sampling those records

    這批人之所以從那些音樂中取樣

  • because they heard something in that music

    是因為他們從那些音樂中聽到了

  • that spoke to them

    一些觸動他們的東西,

  • that they instantly wanted to inject themselves

    讓他們立馬就想將自己

  • into the narrative of that music.

    注入到那些音樂的敘述當中。

  • They heard it, they wanted to be a part of it,

    他們聽到了,他們想融入其中

  • and all of a sudden they found themselves

    然後霎時間,他們發現

  • in possession of the technology to do so,

    自己擁有那樣做的技術,

  • not much unlike the way the Delta blues

    就好像「三角洲藍調」那樣

  • struck a chord with the Stones and the Beatles and Clapton,

    突然激起滾石樂隊、披頭四和克萊普頓的心弦,

  • and they felt the need to co-opt that music

    然後他們就直覺需要用他們當時的工具

  • for the tools of their day.

    一起編撰那首歌曲。

  • You know, in music we take something that we love

    在音樂界我們撿起我們喜歡的東西

  • and we build on it.

    就馬上動手在上面進行改造。

  • I'd like to play a song for you.

    我想為大家播一首歌。

  • (Music: "La Di Da Di" by Doug E. Fresh & Slick Rick)

    (音樂:道格.佛萊許與 Slick Rick 的 "La Di Da Di")

  • That's "La Di Da Di" and it's the fifth-most sampled

    這首歌叫 "La Di Da Di"

  • song of all time.

    在當時最多人選取的歌曲中排名第五。

  • It's been sampled 547 times.

    這首歌已經被取樣 547 次。

  • It was made in 1984 by these two legends of hip-hop,

    這首歌是在 1984 年由兩位嘻哈傳奇人物創造:

  • Slick Rick and Doug E. Fresh,

    Slick Rick 和道格.佛萊許,

  • and the Ray-Ban and Jheri curl look is so strong.

    墨鏡和稀拉卷髮形象相當出眾。

  • I do hope that comes back soon.

    我真心希望這個風格會再次流行。

  • Anyway, this predated the sampling era.

    不管怎樣,這是發生在音樂取樣時代之前。

  • There were no samples in this record,

    在這張唱片中並無任何取樣混搭,

  • although I did look up on the Internet last night,

    儘管我昨晚的確在網上搜了一下,

  • I mean several months ago,

    我是說幾個月前,

  • that "La Di Da Di" means, it's an old

    "La Di Da Di" 來自於

  • Cockney expression from the late 1800s in England,

    十八世紀晚期英格蘭地區的一種倫敦方言。

  • so maybe a remix with Mrs. Patmore

    之後的《唐頓莊園》說不定會出現

  • from "Downton Abbey" coming soon,

    派特摩太太的混搭音樂,

  • or that's for another day.

    或者我們改天再談這個。

  • Doug E. Fresh was the human beat box.

    道格.佛萊許是人肉電子節奏鼓,

  • Slick Rick is the voice you hear on the record,

    而 Slick Rick 就是你在唱片上聽到的那聲音,

  • and because of Slick Rick's sing-songy,

    正因為 Slick Rick 美麗動人的歌喉、

  • super-catchy vocals, it provides endless sound bites

    超級誘人的聲帶,這首歌為日後的流行音樂

  • and samples for future pop records.

    提供了無限、可取的原聲和音樂樣本。

  • That was 1984.

    那是 1984 的情況。

  • This is me in 1984, in case you were wondering

    這是我 1984年的樣子,如果你在想

  • how I was doing, thank you for asking.

    我那時混得怎樣,謝謝關心。

  • It's Throwback Thursday already.

    這好像懷舊星期四。

  • I was involved in a heavy love affair

    當時我不可救藥地

  • with the music of Duran Duran,

    深深愛上了杜蘭杜蘭的音樂,

  • as you can probably tell from my outfit.

    這大概你也可以從我的穿著上看出來。

  • I was in the middle.

    我站在中間。

  • And the simplest way that I knew

    當時我頭腦簡單,

  • how to co-opt myself into that experience

    想讓自己以某種方式融入那首歌,

  • of wanting to be in that song somehow

    我想到的最簡單的方法

  • was to just get a band together of fellow nine-year-olds

    就是跟一群九歲大的同齡人組隊,

  • and play "Wild Boys" at the school talent show.

    一起在學校的表演秀上扮「狂野男孩」。

  • So that's what we did, and long story short,

    這就是我們當時的日子,長話短說,

  • we were booed off the stage,

    我們被轟下台了,

  • and if you ever have a chance to live your life

    如果你有那麼一個機會好好活著,

  • escaping hearing the sound of an auditorium

    不用在大禮堂上遭罪

  • full of second- and third-graders booing,

    忍受二、三年級學生在台下發出的噓聲,

  • I would highly recommend it. It's not really fun.

    我會極度建議你好好活著。那一點都不好玩。

  • But it didn't really matter,

    但這沒多大關係,

  • because what I wanted somehow

    因為當時我想要的

  • was to just be in the history of that song for a minute.

    就是加入到那首歌的歷史中,雖然只是短短一分鐘。

  • I didn't care who liked it.

    我不在乎誰喜歡這首歌。

  • I just loved it, and I thought I could put myself in there.

    我就是愛這首歌,我只想將自己放入歌中。

  • Over the next 10 years, "La Di Da Di"

    在接下來的十年裡,La Di Da Di

  • continues to be sampled by countless records,

    一直被無數的音樂專輯取樣,

  • ending up on massive hits like "Here Comes the Hotstepper"

    搖身一變成為大眾狂潮,例如 Here Comes the Hotstepper

  • and "I Wanna Sex You Up."

    還有 I Wanna Sex You Up。

  • Snoop Doggy Dogg covers this song

    史努比狗狗把這首歌

  • on his debut album "Doggystyle" and calls it "Lodi Dodi."

    加入到他的首張專輯「狗狗風格」裡,把它稱之為 Lodi Dodi。

  • Copyright lawyers are having a field day at this point.

    版權律師這時可是吵到不行。

  • And then you fast forward to 1997,

    然後你快進到 1997 年,

  • and the Notorious B.I.G., or Biggie,

    當時 Notorious B.I.G. 或者 Biggie

  • reinterprets "La Di Da Di"

    在他最熱門的「催眠術」中

  • on his number one hit called "Hypnotize,"

    重新演繹了 La Di Da Di。

  • which I will play a little bit of

    我會播放這首歌的其中一段,

  • and I will play you a little bit of the Slick Rick

    我也會播放 Slick Rick 的其中一段,

  • to show you where they got it from.

    讓大家聽聽他們從哪裡得來。

  • (Music: "Hypnotize" by The Notorious B.I.G.)

    (音樂:The Notorious B.I.G. 的「催眠術」)

  • So Biggie was killed

    Biggie 後來被謀殺了,

  • weeks before that song made it to number one,

    時間是在這首歌成為冠軍曲的前幾週,

  • in one of the great tragedies of the hip-hop era,

    這是嘻哈時代的悲劇之一,

  • but he would have been 13 years old

    La Di Da Di 推出時,

  • and very much alive when "La Di Da Di" first came out,

    他應該是 13 歲,活得好好的。

  • and as a young boy

    身為青少年,

  • growing up in Brooklyn,

    出身於布魯克林,

  • it's hard not to think that that song probably held

    很難不去想像那首歌曲

  • some fond memories for him.

    對他來說到底藏有多少美好記憶。

  • But the way he interpreted it, as you hear,

    但是他演繹這首歌的方式,正如你所聽到,

  • is completely his own.

    完全是他的個人風格。

  • He flips it, makes it,

    他改造了這首歌曲,創造了新的歌曲,

  • there's nothing pastiche whatsoever about it.

    這首歌不是東拼西湊的混合物。

  • It's thoroughly modern Biggie.

    這完全是現代 Biggie 的作品。

  • I had to make that joke in this room,

    我不得不在這裡講這個笑話,

  • because you would be the only people that I'd ever have a chance of getting it.

    因為你們大概是唯一有機會聽懂我的人。

  • And so, it's a groaner. (Laughter)

    好吧,這是我的無奈。(笑聲)

  • Elsewhere in the pop and rap world,

    在流行音樂和饒舌音樂的世界裡,

  • we're going a little bit sample-crazy.

    我們開始變成混搭迷。

  • We're getting away from the obscure samples that we were doing,

    我們開始遠離一直在做的隱晦取樣混搭,

  • and all of a sudden everyone's taking

    然後霎時間,大家都開始採用

  • these massive '80s tunes like Bowie, "Let's Dance,"

    這些80年代大眾曲調,例如鮑伊的「一起跳吧」,

  • and all these disco records, and just rapping on them.

    還有所有的迪斯科音樂,用饒舌方式唱。

  • These records don't really age that well.

    這些音樂不太會過時。

  • You don't hear them now, because they borrowed

    現在大家都不再聽這類音樂了,

  • from an era that was too steeped

    因為這是從另一個年代借來的,

  • in its own connotation.

    充滿了自身的各種隱喻。

  • You can't just hijack nostalgia wholesale.

    你不可以隨便搶劫懷舊然後批發。

  • It leaves the listener feeling sickly.

    這樣會讓聽眾受不了。

  • You have to take an element of those things

    你必須從這些歌裡面提取一個元素,

  • and then bring something fresh and new to it,

    然後把一些新鮮的東西帶進去,

  • which was something that I learned

    這也是我之前學來的東西,

  • when I was working with the late,

    那時我還在和現已逝世、

  • amazing Amy Winehouse

    光鮮亮麗的艾美.懷絲合作

  • on her album "Back to Black."

    創造她的專輯《黑色會》。

  • A lot of fuss was made about the sonic of the album

    當時為了這個專輯的音波,

  • that myself and Salaam Remi, the other producer,

    我和另一位製作人薩朗.雷米不免有些爭吵,

  • achieved, how we captured this long-lost sound,

    爭論我們怎樣捕捉這遺失很久的聲音,

  • but without the very, very 21st-century personality

    要是沒有 21 世紀現代個性和魔力,

  • and firebrand that was Amy Winehouse and her lyrics about rehab and Roger Moore

    艾美.懷絲關於戒毒所和羅傑.摩爾的歌詞就做不到,

  • and even a mention of Slick Rick,

    還有Slick Rick的元素,

  • the whole thing would have run the risk

    這個東西就會岌岌可危,

  • of being very pastiche, to be honest.

    老實說有可能會變成想到凌亂。

  • Imagine any other singer from that era over it

    要是隨意從那個時代找一個歌手

  • singing the same old lyrics.

    重新演唱同樣的老歌詞。

  • It runs a risk of being completely bland.

    這有可能會被認為極度無聊。

  • I mean, there was no doubt that Amy

    我是說,毫無疑問。

  • and I and Salaam all had this love

    艾美、我還有薩朗都同樣熱愛

  • for this gospel, soul and blues and jazz

    這樣的信仰、靈魂、藍調和爵士樂,

  • that was evident listening to the musical arrangements.

    你聽聽音樂的改編就會發現。

  • She brought the ingredients that made it urgent and of the time.

    她帶進了一些元素,使得歌曲更加緊迫、更具時代意味。

  • So if we come all the way up to the present day now,

    所以如果我們縱觀歷史,

  • the cultural tour de force that is Miley Cyrus,

    其中的文化代表作屬於麥莉.希拉,

  • she reinterprets "La Di Da Di" completely for her generation,

    她為同時代的人重新演繹了 La Di Da Di,

  • and we'll take a listen to the Slick Rick part

    我們會先聽一段 Slick Rick,