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  • This video is sponsored by Skillshare.

  • Curries. Burgers. Sushi. Pizzas. Tortillas. As a species, food is central not only to

  • our survival but also to our cultures. We love food. But as much as we love food, we

  • also love to throw it away. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that globally

  • almostof food produced for consumption never gets eaten. And in the U.S. that number

  • is even higher. 40% of the U.S.'s available food supply gets wasted every year. As a report

  • from the NRDC notes, that's like buying five bags of groceries at the store and then

  • just leaving two of them in the parking lot every time you shop. So today, we're going

  • to look at food waste with three questions: Why is excessive food waste happening? What

  • are its environmental consequences? And how can we fix it?

  • If all the food currently getting thrown into the landfill every year was instead diverted

  • into meals for those in need, we'd be able to feed as many as 1.8 billion people. On

  • top of that, food waste has been estimated to be responsible for roughly 8% of global

  • emissions. If it was a country it would rank third, under China and the United States for

  • yearly greenhouse gas emissions. So, food waste is one of many issues at the crossroads

  • of climate action and social justice. Its large emissions footprint not only comes from

  • all the energy needed to ship, process, and produce the food that ends up in the trash,

  • but also from the potent methane fumes that food emits as it decomposes in landfills.

  • But food doesn't just sprout out of the ground and then magically end up in the trash,

  • there is a long chain of business and consumer interactions that at any point might turn

  • perfectly edible food into waste. Simply put, food transforms into trash in two general

  • areas as it travels from farm to plate: Before the point of sale and after the point of sale.

  • If we look at this chart, the majority of food waste generated in the United States

  • comes after the point of sale, but let's look at food loss before that--on farms and

  • in grocery stores--in order to understand how this all starts.

  • Before I transitioned to making YouTube videos full-time, I worked in a number of food related

  • positions where I saw firsthand how the drive for perfect, abundant produce perpetuated

  • an unnecessary trend of food waste. As a farmhand at a number of different farms, when I saw

  • insect bites on arugula leaves or blemishes on peppers and tomatoes, I knew they were

  • destined to rot. All that time, effort, and fuel wasted because the farm manager knew

  • that better looking produce will always sell over imperfect ones. Thesecosmetically

  • challengedproducts, as they've come to be known, can often end up left on the

  • ground by harvesters or even make their way to landfills adding to piles of food that

  • decompose and generate harmful emissions. But the aesthetics of produce are just one

  • part of the picture. Market prices for food can also affect whether crops make it through

  • the harvest. According to one recent study that analyzed on-farm food loss in California,

  • 33.7% of produce remains unharvested every year. That's the equivalent of growing 300

  • acres of cantaloupe and leaving 100 acres of it to decay in the fields, which, according

  • to an article from Civil Eats, is exactly what happened to sixth-Generation farmer Cannon

  • Michael. Michael couldn't “justify paying workers to pick [the cantaloupe] because the

  • cost of labor, packing, and shipping would have been more than the price he could get

  • for the fruit.” And even if the food does make it off farms, it still has to navigate

  • the gauntlet of grocery store aisles. One of the best ways to sell food is through the

  • illusion of abundance. People shop visually, and to most, that last apple on the shelf

  • was left there because there was something wrong with it, not because it just happened

  • to be the last one. In order to appear abundant, grocery stores often overbuy food to trick

  • people into purchasing items. As a result, produce inevitably goes to waste as it sits

  • out all day like glorified window dressing. Farmer Delaney Zayac explains this dilemma

  • in the documentary Just Eat it: “If this was what I had and there was an hour left

  • in the market, that one bunch of chard would sit there, and no one would buy it. But if

  • I had 30 bunches of chard all bursting out I'd probably sell 25 bunches of chard.”

  • So at the grocery store and farmers markets, vendors face an uphill battle against the

  • old sayingPile it high and watch it fly.” They need to produce an excess of food to

  • sell their goods, but that excess can at times lead to more waste.

  • After the point of sale, the plague of food waste continues. Indeed, household, restaurant,

  • and food service waste accounts for 69% of the United State's annual food waste. As

  • a consumer and lover of food, I've tried hard to minimize my waste, but it can be easy

  • to cook or buy excess that ends up in the compost or trash. For a family of four, household

  • food waste costs $1,800 annually, and with the average plate size expanding by 36% since

  • 1960 and with refrigerators growing 30% in volume since 1972, it's tempting to buy

  • more food just to fill up the space. Overbuying, and the inevitablecleaning out the refrigerator

  • activitythat comes with it, can also be attributed to buy-one-get-one promotions or

  • purchasing in bulk. Our appliances, supermarkets, and even our plates are all nudging us to

  • buy more. In addition to overbuying, in the United States, there is also a severe lack

  • of clarity when it comes to dealing with expiration dates and spoiled goods. There are no federal

  • laws regulating sell-by or expiration dates. As a result labels can mean basically anything

  • depending on where you buy your food. In Missoula, Montana for example, milk's sell by date

  • is set at 12 days after pasteurization, even though the standard is 21 to 24 days. That's

  • because, in most cases, these dates are set by the milk producer and not a regulatory

  • service. As one grocery vendor in Missoula lamentsthe 12-day sell by date tells a

  • consumer nothing it's just an arbitrary number somebody came up with no scientific backing

  • whatsoever.” This lack of clear information regarding when a product actually goes bad

  • means that households throw out perfectly edible food well before it expires. In short,

  • there are marketing, labeling, cultural, and psychological forces all coming to play in

  • order to make food waste a large problem in the United States.

  • Ultimately, there are many vectors by which food becomes waste, whether in your own home

  • or even before it makes it onto a grocery store shelf. But there is hope. There are

  • very tangible solutions to these problems at all levels of the supply chain. At the

  • individual level solutions look like creating a plan to use all the food you buy, or using

  • sites like Eat by Date to truly understand whether your food has expired and then composting

  • it instead of throwing it in the trash. You can even get involved with groups like the

  • Food Not Bombs which has local chapters all over the world that recover food from local

  • restaurants and stores and give it to those in need. On the supply side, solutions look

  • like reducing food demand by eliminating buy-one-get-one promotions, donating food that's not fit

  • for sale, or even using boxes and props to maintain the illusion of abundance without

  • needed excess produce. And on a policy level this means actions like standardizing expiration

  • dates to accurately reflect the science behind foodborne illnesses. Food waste is a preventable

  • problem, and addressing food waste means tackling both climate change and hunger in the process.

  • We don't necessarily need fancy farming technologies to create more food for people

  • who go hungry; we need to work together on every level to more equitably distribute the

  • resources we already have, and in doing so we not only mitigate climate change, but also

  • create stronger communities.

  • When I started making YouTube videos, my motion graphics were terrible. I had to teach myself

  • basically everything and it took forever. Luckily, you don't have to go through that,

  • because now you can learn about animation and video editing all in one place: Skillshare.

  • Skillshare is an online learning community with thousands of classes covering topics

  • like motion graphic design, video creation, and much much more.

  • Skillshare has been an essential way for me to develop my motion graphics skills in order

  • to create more engaging and informational videos. I especially love Evan from Polymatter's

  • class on YouTube video essays, which explains how to produce a video like mine from start

  • to finish. If you're at all interested in making animated explainer videos, I'd highly

  • recommend it.

  • Above all else though, Skillshare is affordable. When you join with their annual Premium Membership,

  • you'll have unlimited access to high quality classes for under $10 a month.

  • So, join the community of creators and learners on Skillshare today with a special offer:

  • The first 1000 of my subscribers to click the link in the description will get a 2 month

  • free trial of Premium Membership.

  • Hey everyone, Charlie here. I hope you're doing well and staying safe. I just wanted

  • to give a quick shoutout to my Patreon supporters, who give me financial stability in uncertain

  • times like these. They're really the backbone of this whole operation and help bring consistency

  • to my channel. So thank you so much, and I'll see you in two weeks.

This video is sponsored by Skillshare.

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食物浪费导致气候变化(Food Waste causes Climate Change. Here's how we stop it.)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 13 日
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