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  • This video is sponsored by Skillshare.

    這個影片是由Skillshare贊助

  • If hang around til the end, I'll give you a link to try 2-months of Skillshare for free!

    影片最後會有連結,讓你免費試用Skillshare 2個月

  • It's 3,000 BCE, and it's an unbearably hot day in Sumer, a civilization which thrived

    現在是西元前3000年,這是個很熱的一天,而我們在蘇美文明,

  • in what is now known as southern Iraq.

    而蘇美文明位於我們目前所知伊拉克南部

  • Under the bright sun, two Sumerians quench their thirst with a nice wheat beer.

    在艷陽下,兩名蘇美人想用一杯小麥酒來止渴

  • But they've been having a problem.

    但他們碰到了一個問題

  • Their fermentation process often leaves some unwanted solid byproducts floating at the

    他們的發酵過程通常讓一些多餘的固體副產品

  • top of their drink that are hard to avoid.

    浮在他們的飲品上面,很難避免不喝到

  • Luckily they found a solution: a straw.

    幸運地,他們找到了一個替代方案:吸管

  • Crafted from bone, metal, or even organic materials like reed, Sumerians used the straw

    由動物骨頭、金屬或甚至蘆葦等有機材料,蘇美人用吸管

  • as a way to safeguard their sipping activities from bugs, grain husks, and any sort of sediment

    來避免喝到不小心跑進飲品裡的蟲、穀物外殼

  • that may have happened to sneak into their drinks.

    以及任何的沉澱物

  • Fast-forward thousands of years and straws are still very much a staple across the globe.

    快轉幾千年後,而吸管目前在全球各地都被使用

  • But now these straws are plastic (and bendy).

    但現代吸管是塑膠製的,而且可彎曲

  • A fact to which many environmentalists take umbrage.

    這個事實讓許多環保主義者感到不滿

  • So much so, that plastic straw bans have now been enacted in Vancouver, Seattle, as well

    不滿到,塑膠吸管現在在溫哥華、西雅圖等地被禁用

  • as has been proposed by the European.

    在歐洲各地也被提議禁用

  • Despite the recent passage of these bans, I'm curious about their effectiveness.

    儘管最近這些禁令紛紛被通過,我很好奇這些禁令是否真的有效用

  • Today, I want to figure out whether straw bans are effective, but more importantly,

    今天,我想探討塑膠吸管禁令是否真的有效,而更重要的是

  • what are the ramifications of banning plastic straws?

    當塑膠細管被禁用後,有哪些延伸效應

  • One number, at least for me, puts straw bans into a broader context: .025%.

    有個數據對我來說,能幫助我們釐清塑膠禁令: 0.025%

  • According to Phys.org, plastic straws account for only .025% of the total mass of trash

    根據Phys.org的數據,塑膠吸管僅造成海洋垃圾組總質量的0.025%

  • in the ocean.

    根據Phys.org的數據,塑膠吸管僅造成海洋垃圾組總質量的0.025%

  • According to the Ocean Conservancy's annual clean up report they pulled 643,542 straws

    根據海洋保護協會的年度清理報告,在2018年,他們從海洋中清出了

  • or roughly .26 metric tonnes from the ocean in 2018.

    643,542支吸管,這大約是0.26公噸

  • Scientists Denise Hardesty and Chris Wilcox estimate that there could be as much as 8.3

    Denise Hardesty和Chris Wilcox兩名科學家估計,全球各地的海岸總和起來

  • billion plastic straws on the world's coastlines.

    大約有830億支塑膠吸管

  • But when you consider that a straw weighs .4 grams, 8 billion straws equate to roughly

    但需要考慮的是,一支吸管重約0.4克,而800億支吸管大約等於

  • 3,320 metric tonnes of plastic.

    3320公噸的塑膠

  • While that is a large number, it's remarkably small compared to the 8 million metric tons

    這的確是個很大的數字。但相較於每年約有800萬公噸的

  • of pieces of plastic that enter the ocean annually.

    塑膠垃圾被送到海洋之中,這個數字並不算大

  • So, straws are just a small part of a much larger ocean trash problem.

    所以,吸管只是海洋垃圾問題的其中一小部分

  • In fact, if we look at the make-up of trash in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, fishing

    事實上,如果我們看太平樣垃圾帶的組成成分

  • nets and gear make up 46% of the mass.

    漁網和捕魚用具佔了46%的總質量

  • So, plastic straws are not a large part of the piling mountain of trash, but they are

    所以,塑膠吸管並不是造成一大堆垃圾的主因

  • a part.

    但他們仍舊是其中一部分

  • For that reason, the possibility of straw bans is cropping up in major metropolises

    因此,全球各大都市都開始禁用塑膠吸管

  • like New York City.

    像是紐約

  • And part of the reason people are so eager to ban them is that they seem like low hanging

    而人們如此熱衷於禁用塑膠吸管,其中一部分原因是它們是容易下手的目標

  • fruit.

    而人們如此熱衷於禁用塑膠吸管,其中一部分原因是它們是容易下手的目標

  • Most people can get away with not using them.

    大部分的人可以不用吸管

  • But this seemingly linear connection between banning single-use plastic straws and minimizing

    但這個「禁用塑膠吸管」和「環境影響最小化」看起來很直觀的連接

  • environmental impact is more nuanced upon closer inspection.

    當我們更仔細檢視後,我們會發現並沒有那麼簡單

  • In fact, calls for straw bans have experienced strong pushback from the people with disabilities,

    事實上,塑膠吸管禁令承受了來自身心障礙人士相當大的反彈

  • and rightfully so.

    而這個反彈,並不是毫無道理的

  • Eliminating plastic straws is a prime example of eco-ableism.

    取消塑膠洗管是個典型的「環保健全中心主義」

  • But to understand straws and ultimately eco-ableism, we need to first discuss spoons.

    但要了解吸館,以及環保健全中心主義,我們必須先討論湯匙。

  • In a blog post for the University of Alabama's Institute for Human Rights, Marlee Townsend

    在阿拉巴馬大學的人權研究所,Marlee Townsend寫的文章裡

  • describes the concept of spoon theory initially coined by blogger Christine Miserandino.

    她描述了湯匙理論的概念,這個概念起初是由Christine Miserandino啟發。

  • Townsend writes that within this spoon theory metaphor, able-bodied people wake up every

    文章裡寫道,這個以「湯匙」作為隱喻的理論是,身心健全的人每天醒來

  • day with an infinite amount of spoons, while people with disabilities only wake up with

    都能有無限支的「湯匙」能使用。但身心障礙人士每天醒來,

  • a couple of spoons.

    只能有一些「湯匙」能夠使用。

  • Every activity, like putting on socks or brushing your teeth requires a spoon.

    每個活動,像是穿上襪子、或刷牙洗臉,都需要消耗一支「湯匙」

  • People with disabilities have to be deliberate with how they spend their spoons.

    身心障礙人士須要慎選他們要把有限的「湯匙」用在哪些事情上

  • Otherwise, as Townsend writes, they'll be out of spoons before lunch, immobilized and

    否則,他們在午餐前就會用完「湯匙」,

  • exhausted.

    無法活動,身疲力竭。

  • So not having access to a bendy straw, requires spending a spoon whenever someone wants to

    所以當沒有可彎曲的吸管,每次他們想喝東西的時候

  • take a drink.

    身心障礙人士都需要額外使用「湯匙」

  • In short, straw bans represent an instance of eco-ableism because in our haste to frontline

    簡短來說,塑膠吸管禁令代表了我們急於處理環境議題時

  • environmental concerns, able-bodied people have made the lives of disabled folks harder

    身心健全的人將身心障礙者的生活變得更困難

  • by eliminating a product of convenience.

    透過消除一個帶來便利的用品

  • At this point, you might be saying, “Hey, but what about the other straw alternatives!!”

    此時,你可能會說:「嘿,那塑膠吸管的替代品呢?」

  • You're right, there are currently paper, metal, and bamboo straws out there that restaurants

    沒錯,現在有些餐廳開始提供紙、金屬以及竹製的吸管

  • have started to use, but unfortunately they are not as easy to use, durable, and flexible

    但不幸地,他們相較於塑膠吸管, 較不容易使用、耐用和可彎曲

  • as plastic straws.

    但不幸地,他們相較於塑膠吸管, 較不容易使用、耐用和可彎曲

  • In an op-ed in The Guardian disability rights activist, Penny Pepper, tackles this issue

    在一篇英國衛報的專欄裡,倡導殘疾人權者 Penny Pepper直接談到了這個問題

  • head-on.

    在一篇英國衛報的專欄裡,倡導殘疾人權者 Penny Pepper直接談到了這個問題

  • She notes that flexibility is one of the key reasons why plastic straws are so useful because

    她寫道,塑膠吸管如此好用關鍵因素之一, 就是可彎曲。

  • it's much easier to get the right angle for safe drinking, especially when you can't

    這讓安全飲用更加簡單,尤其如果你無法

  • hold a cup or even if another person holds it for you.”

    用手拿一個杯子,或讓其他人幫你拿。

  • Metal and bamboo straws are often too hard or wide, which can prove problematic for people

    金屬和竹製的吸管通常太堅硬或太寬,

  • with biting issues.

    讓有咀嚼困難的人們難以使用

  • Alternatives also may be too costly, be a choking hazard, cause an allergic reaction,

    替代吸管也可能會太昂貴、有窒息風險、造成過敏反應

  • or might not be able to hold up to high temperatures.

    或無法承受高溫

  • But to believe that people with disabilities are at odds with the environmental movement

    但如果認為身心障礙人士不關心環境議題

  • would be a mistake.

    是個錯誤的想法

  • In her op-ed Pepper goes on to write, “The irritating thing is that somehow disabled

    在專欄裡,Pepper寫到:「最令人生氣的是 社會把殘疾人士塑造成

  • people are tainted as not caring about environmental issues.

    不關心環境議題,

  • The truth, in my experience, is that many actually care more

    但事實上,以我的經驗來說,他們其實更關心。

  • I don't actually want to use harmful chemicals in the interests of my personal care.”

    他們不想用對環境有害的物質, 只為了他們個人的身體健康」

  • In essence, straw bans seem to be such a small portion of ocean plastic.

    重點是,塑膠吸管禁令是海洋塑膠垃圾中的一小部分。

  • The environmental good that bans will create will be minimal.

    而這個禁令會對環境造成的好處,相當的微小

  • We have not listened to or considered the effects a straw ban will have on disabled

    我們沒有傾聽,或考慮過這個禁令對殘疾人式的影響

  • folks.

    我們沒有傾聽,或考慮過這個禁令對殘疾人式的影響

  • If indeed, cleaning up ocean trash is our goal, then the management of fishing nets

    如果清理海洋垃圾是我們的目標,那麼漁網

  • and refuse, which make up a larger percentage ocean trash, might be a much better use of

    和垃圾廢料都佔有更大的海洋垃圾比例, 處理這兩個問題

  • our time.

    應該是更好的做法

  • The point here is that straws are just a small piece of the plastic problem, and other areas

    我的論點是,吸管只是塑膠問題的一小部分,而處理其他垃圾問題

  • of waste management would have a greater effect on our global drawdown of plastic use.

    會更有效地減少全球塑膠用量

  • Straw bans show environmental action can't be done unilaterally and without viable alternatives

    塑膠吸管禁令顯示,不能單方面的處理環境議題

  • for those who need them.

    也不提供替代品給那些需要使用的人

  • It's not just that marginalized people will have it worse if the environmental movement

    不僅少數社會邊緣族群會因為環境保護運動

  • continues to ignore and create forms of oppression, it's that we cannot do any of this work without

    持續忽略或欺壓下,過得更加辛苦。 我們需要注意任何的環境保護運動

  • marginalized people.

    若沒有這些社會邊緣的族群,也難以成功

  • Most oppressed communities experience the worst of the world and therefore also tend

    大部分受壓迫的社群,經歷過世界上最糟的事情,於是

  • to have the most radical solutions and build the most successful movements.

    通常會有最根本的解決辦法,且發起最成功的社會運動

  • Despite the amount of time I spend honing my flashy graphics and slick visuals, the

    即使我花了很多時間精進我的圖像和視覺效果

  • hardest part about making videos is writing a well-crafted story.

    製作影片最困難的部分是寫一個精心架構的故事。

  • At the end of the day, if the script isn't good, then the video isn't good.

    畢竟,如果獎搞不好,影片就不會好。

  • That's why I've recently turned to Skillshare to learn more about developing strong narratives

    這就是為何我最近使用Skillshare來學習更多非小說的寫作手法

  • in non-fiction writing.

    這就是為何我最近使用Skillshare來學習更多非小說的寫作手法

  • Skillshare is an online learning community with over 25,000 classes covering topics like

    Skillshare是個線上的學習社群。它有超過25000堂課

  • motion graphic design, video creation, and much much more.

    有各式各樣的主題像是:圖像設計、影片製作以及更多

  • Skillshare has been an essential way for me to work on my storytelling and writing in

    Skillshare已經成為我精進說故事和寫作能力的重要方法

  • order to create more engaging and informational videos.

    為了要創造更吸引人,更資訊豐富的影片

  • I recently dove into New Yorker Staff Writer Susan Orlean's Creative Nonfiction writing

    我最近觀看了紐約客雜誌作家Susan Orlean的創意非小說寫作課

  • class, which guides you through every step of the writing process from finding a subject

    她在寫作每個步驟都一步步地引導你

  • to the final edit.

    從最初的尋找主題、到最後的編輯

  • And I'm absolutely loving it.

    而我非常的愛

  • Above all else though, Skillshare is affordable.

    最重要的是,Skillshare不而貴

  • Their Premium Membership gives you unlimited access to high quality classes for under $10

    會員資格僅需每月10美元以下

  • a month if you sign up for an annual membership.

    就能讓你觀看這些高品質的課程

  • So, join the millions of creators and learners on Skillshare today with a special offer just

    所以,快來和上百萬名創作者和學習者一起加入Skillshare

  • for you: If you use the link in the description below you can get 2 months of unlimited access

    底下連結能讓免費試用2個月的Skillshare

  • to Skillshare for free.

    底下連結能讓免費試用2個月的Skillshare

  • Hey everyone, it's Charlie.

    嘿大家,我是Charlie

  • Just wanted to let you know that there is a global climate strike happening on September

    想讓大家知道,9月20號會有個全球氣候罷課

  • 20th and I'd highly recommend supporting in whatever way you can.

    而我希望大家盡自己所能支持

  • Also, speaking of support, thank you so much to people like Chris Lam who support me on

    談到支持,我像感謝Chirs Lam在Patreon上的贊助

  • Patreon.

    談到支持,我像感謝像Chris Lam的人們 在Patreon上的贊助

  • They're really the backbone of this whole operation and help bring consistency to my

    他們是整個企畫的背後核心,也讓我能維持頻道的一致性

  • channel.

    他們是整個企畫的背後核心,也讓我能維持頻道的一致性

  • So thanks again, and I'll see you in two weeks.

    再次感謝,兩周後見

This video is sponsored by Skillshare.

這個影片是由Skillshare贊助

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 吸管 塑膠 禁令 湯匙 身心 海洋

为什么塑料吸管禁令不是答案(Why plastic straw bans aren’t the answer.)

  • 19 2
    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 12 日
影片單字