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  • Hello.


  • I'm Oli.


  • Welcome to Oxford Online English!

    歡迎來到Oxford Online English!

  • In this lesson, you can learn about how to improve your English writing.

    在本節課裡,您能學到提高英文寫作能力的 一些技能。

  • Learning to write well is often the most difficult skill for English learners.

    學習怎樣寫好對英文學習者來說通常 是最困難的。

  • Writing well requires great control of language and extreme attention to detail.

    好的寫作技能要求很棒的語言控制能力, 以及很注意細節。

  • Even then, it's not easy, even for native speakers.

    這對母語人士來說, 也不容易。

  • In this video, you can see some advice that will help you to improve your English writing,

    在本影片裡,您可以看到一些 會幫您提高英語寫作技能的建議,

  • whatever level your English is now.


  • First, understand your audience.


  • Before you start writing, you need to answer two questions.

    在您開始寫作之前, 您需要回答兩個問題。

  • Question one: who are you writing for?


  • Are you writing for your friend, your colleague, your teacher, your manager, an examiner, who?

    您寫給您的朋友、您的同學、您的老師、 您的經理、一位考官,還是誰?

  • Secondly, what are you trying to achieve?


  • Are you trying to give someone information?


  • Are you trying to convince somebody of your point of view?


  • Are you trying to entertain somebody and make them laugh?


  • Are you just trying to pass an exam, or are you trying to achieve several different things?

    您只是想通過一個測驗, 或是您想做幾件不同的事情?

  • Thinking about your purpose in writing can really help you to organize your ideas.

    考慮您的寫作目的真的 能幫您組織您的想法。

  • Now these questions: who are you writing for, and what do you want to achieve, they are

    現在有些問題:您要寫給誰, 您想要達到什麼目的,

  • important.


  • But there's an even more important question: what does your reader want?

    但是,有一個更重要的問題: 您的讀者想要什麼?

  • Remember, when you write, you're normally writing for someone else, unless you're writing

    在您寫作時,通常您是要寫給 某人,除非您在寫

  • a diary or a journal for yourself, in which case you can write however you want.

    一篇日記或自己的傳記,在這些事情上, 您可以隨便寫您想要的。

  • Normally, however, you're writing for another person.

    正常來說,無論怎樣, 您是在寫給另一個人。

  • Whoever reads your writing will give their time and their attention to read what you've

    讀您所寫的東西的人會花 時間和精力來讀

  • written.


  • Why?


  • Why will someone give their time to read what you've written?

    為什麼有人會花時間來 讀您寫的東西?

  • Okay, so for example, if you're writing an essay at school or at university for your

    好,那麼,例如您在學校或 大學裡寫一篇議論文交給

  • teacher, your teacher will spend time reading your essay to see if you've understood the

    您的老師,您的老師會花時間讀 您的議論文,看您是否

  • topic or not.


  • If you're writing an email or a letter to a friend, your friend will probably want to

    如果您給朋友寫一封電郵或一封信, 您的朋友可能會想

  • hear some news about your life and maybe hear some funny stories.

    聽到您生活裡的一些新聞, 或是聽到一些趣事。

  • If you're writing in an exam, the examiner will be looking for some specific things which

    如果您在一個測驗中寫作, 考官會看您在寫作裡有沒有寫

  • you do or don't do in your writing in order to decide your score.

    一些特定的東西, 以便來判定您的得分。

  • Understanding your reader, or your readers, and understanding what they want from your

    理解您的讀者或讀者們, 理解他們想要從您的寫作裡看到什麼

  • writing is essential.


  • You need to think about this from the beginning to the end of the writing process.

    您要在寫作的過程裡 自始至終都考慮這個。

  • So are you ready to start writing yet?


  • Not quite.


  • Next, you need to plan your writing.


  • If you don't plan your writing, there's a good chance you will miss out some important

    如果您不規劃,您很可能會錯失 一些重要的想法,

  • ideas, you won't include them in your writing, or you might include some unnecessary ideas

    您沒有把他們寫進去,或許您可能 寫了一些不必要的

  • that will confuse your reader and make your purpose unclear.

    會讓您的讀者產生混淆和 目的不清的想法。

  • Have you ever written something and got stuck in the middle?

    您曾經寫了某些事情, 然後在中間停頓?

  • You start a paragraph, or you start a sentence, and in the middle you stop and you think,

    您開始一個段落,或您開始一個句子, 您在中間卡住了,您想,

  • "What am I doing?


  • Where am I going?


  • What do I say next?


  • Uh, help!"


  • Why does this happen?


  • Often it happens because you haven't planned enough.


  • Imagine that you're in a new city and you're trying to find your way somewhere.

    想像一下,您在一個陌生的城市, 您想找路到某個地方。

  • You don't have a map, you don't have a smartphone, there's nobody you can ask.

    您沒有地圖,您沒有一部智慧型手機, 沒有人可以問。

  • Of course, you'll get lost.


  • You'll go down streets without knowing where they go.


  • You'll go around in circles.


  • If you do find the place you were looking for, it will just be because you were lucky.

    如果您找到了您要找的地方, 那只是因為您很幸運。

  • Writing without planning is very similar.


  • You'll start sentences or paragraphs without knowing where they're going.

    您會開始那些不知道會 寫到哪裡的句子和段落。

  • You'll waste lots of time writing things, deleting them, rewriting them, deleting them,

    您會浪費很多時間寫東西, 刪掉他們,重寫,再刪掉,

  • writing them again.


  • If you do achieve your goal, it will only be because you were lucky.

    如果您達到了您的目的, 那僅僅是因為您是幸運的。

  • Remember, you're writing for someone else, and you're writing for a reason.

    記住,您寫給某人,以及 您是有目的而寫的。

  • That means you have a goal, even if it's a simple goal.

    那意味著您有一個目標, 即使那是一個簡單的目標。

  • You need to have a plan of how you're going to reach that goal.


  • That means you need to think about these questions: what are you going to include?

    那意味著您要考慮這些問題: 您想寫什麼內容?

  • What are you going to leave out?


  • And, how are you going to organize your ideas?


  • If you're writing something simple, you might just think for a minute or two about what

    如果您在寫某些簡單的事情, 您也許在想要說什麼這件事上

  • to say.


  • If you're writing something longer and more complex like a long essay, you might need

    如果您在寫某些較長的且更複雜的,像是 長篇議論文這類的東西,您也許要

  • to make a written plan.


  • So what points should you include and what points should you leave out?

    那麼,哪幾點您要寫進去, 哪幾點您不用寫進去?

  • Well, that's a general question.


  • If you're not sure, think about your goal and your reader's needs.

    如果您不確定,考慮一下您的目的 以及您的讀者的需求。

  • Ask yourself, "Does my reader need to know this?


  • Will my reader want to know this?


  • Does including this point, or including this idea, help me to reach my goal?"

    把這一點或這個想法寫進去, 會幫我達成我的目標嗎?”

  • Thinking about these questions will help you to decide what to include in your writing

    考慮這些問題會幫您決定 要寫什麼以及

  • and what to leave out.


  • What about the third question: how are you going to organize your ideas?

    問題三:您怎樣 匯集您的想法?

  • Let's look.


  • You need to organize your ideas into clear paragraphs.

    您需要把您的想法清晰地 寫到段落裡。

  • Organizing your ideas into paragraphs is important for many reasons.

    因為各種理由,段落裡表達您的 想法是重要的。

  • It helps your reader understand what your main points are.

    他會幫您的讀者去理解您的 主要觀點是什麼。

  • It helps your reader see where you're going and why, and it helps you to stay focused

    會幫您的讀者去理解您寫到哪裡以及 為什麼,他會確保您的寫作不離題,

  • on your plan and reaching your goal.


  • So what does it mean in practice to organize your ideas into clear paragraphs?

    那麼,在實踐裡將您的想法在段落裡清晰地 表達意味著什麼?

  • Firstly, each paragraph should have one main idea.


  • If you're writing an essay and you have a list of points to include, put one point in

    如果您寫一篇議論文,且您有一份要 寫進去的論點的目錄,

  • each paragraph.


  • Even if you're writing something shorter or simpler, you still need to organize your ideas

    甚至如果您在寫某些較短的或是 較為簡單的文章,您仍然需要在

  • into paragraphs.


  • Don't try to do too much.


  • Your writing will be much clearer and much easier to read if each paragraph is only trying

    如果每個段落只表達一個意思, 您寫的將會是十分清晰且

  • to do one thing.


  • An extra point: there's no minimum or maximum length for a paragraph.

    一個額外的要點:一個段落是沒有最短或 最長限制的。

  • Sometimes when I teach students writing, they try to make paragraphs longer because they

    有時,當我教學生們寫作時,他們想把 段落寫得很長,因為他們說,

  • say, "Oh, this paragraph is too short.


  • It needs more words, it needs more sentences."


  • No, a paragraph should be as long as it needs to be to make your point.

    不是這樣的,一個段落必須剛剛好長到 可以表達您的觀點。

  • There's no minimum length.


  • Next, you need to decide how many paragraphs you're going to have and what you're going

    接下來,您要決定您要寫幾個 段落,以及每個

  • to put in each one.


  • Remember, this is still part of planning.


  • We haven't even written a single word yet.


  • Again, you could do this planning in your head, or you could make some short notes,

    重複一遍,您可以把這個寫作計劃放在 腦海裡,或者是做一個簡短的筆記,

  • or you could make a more detailed written plan.


  • It depends how much time you have, what you're trying to write, and how important it is.

    那取決於您有多少時間,您想寫 什麼,以及有多重要。

  • But the important point is when you start writing, you won't have to think about questions

    但重要的一點是當您開始寫作時, 您不得不考慮一些問題,

  • like, "What do I put in this paragraph?


  • How many more paragraphs do I need?


  • How am I going to finish this sentence?


  • You will have thought about all of these things already.


  • This will make it much easier to write whatever you're trying to write.

    這會讓您寫任何您想寫的 東西都更簡單。

  • Okay, so now you're ready to start writing.


  • What next?


  • Part four: cut empty words and sentences.


  • There's a simple rule you can use to make your English writing better and clearer: write

    有一個簡單的可以讓您的英文 寫作更好且更清晰的規則:

  • as little as possible.


  • Let's look at some examples.


  • First, don't use two words if you can use one word.

    首先,如果您可以用一個單字, 就不要用兩個。

  • Don't use three words if you can use two words.


  • For example, don't say "very tired," say, "exhausted."

    例如,不要說“very tired”,要說“exhausted”。

  • "Very" is generally a weak word, and it should be avoided.

    "Very" 是一個很弱的詞,要少用。

  • It doesn't add much to your meaning.


  • The same is true for words like "really" or "absolutely."


  • Use these words as little as possible.


  • They're very rarely necessary.


  • Don't say "as a result" if you can say "consequently."

    如果您可以用"consequently",就不要說"as a result",。

  • Don't say "on the other hand" if you can say "nevertheless."

    如果您可以用"nevertheless",就不要說"on the other hand" 。

  • Use fewer words.


  • Don't say, "This will get better in the future," say, "This will improve in the future."

    不要說 "This will get better in the future," 說 "This will improve in the future."

  • Don't say, "She gave me a lot of help," say, "She helped me a lot," or even, "She helped

    不要說 "She gave me a lot of help,",說 "She helped me a lot," ,或是 "She helped

  • me greatly," or just cut "greatly" and say, "She helped me," if you can.

    me greatly,",如果可以的話,刪掉"greatly",說 "She helped me," 。

  • Use fewer words.


  • Don't say, "Maybe this will solve the problem," say, "This will solve the problem."

    不要說 "Maybe this will solve the problem,", 說"This will solve the problem."。

  • Words like "maybe" or "perhaps" are generally not necessary.


  • If you're not sure about something, do you really need to include it?

    如果您不確定某事, 您真的需要寫進去嗎?

  • If you do want to include something that you're not sure about, use verbs like "might" or

    如果您想把某些您不確定的事情 寫進去,用動詞“might"

  • "could."


  • Say, "This might solve the problem."

    說"This might solve the problem."。

  • Don't say, "We need to find someone who can teach our son," say, "We need to find a teacher

    不要說"We need to find someone who can teach our son,"。說"We need to find

  • for our son."

    a teacher for our son."

  • Cut unnecessary words and use as few words as possible.


  • You can also look at sentences.


  • In essays, many people tend to include sentences like, "There are many advantages and disadvantages

    在議論文裡,很多人想這樣寫: "There are many advantages and disadvantages

  • to this.

    to this.

  • Of course, there are two sides to this issue.

    Of course, there are two sides to this issue.

  • In this essay, I will discuss all the ideas relevant to this point."

    In this essay, I will discuss all the ideas relevant to this point."

  • What do these sentences tell you?


  • Do they give you any useful or relevant information?


  • No, and so they should be cut.


  • Why is this important?


  • Well, using fewer words and fewer sentences will make your writing clearer and easier

    好吧,少用點單字和句子,您的 寫作會更清晰和

  • to read.


  • It will also help you to focus on what you want to say.