字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Hello. 您好！ I'm Oli. 我是Oli。 Welcome to Oxford Online English! 歡迎來到Oxford Online English！ In this lesson, you can learn about how to improve your English writing. 在本節課裡，您能學到提高英文寫作能力的 一些技能。 Learning to write well is often the most difficult skill for English learners. 學習怎樣寫好對英文學習者來說通常 是最困難的。 Writing well requires great control of language and extreme attention to detail. 好的寫作技能要求很棒的語言控制能力， 以及很注意細節。 Even then, it's not easy, even for native speakers. 這對母語人士來說， 也不容易。 In this video, you can see some advice that will help you to improve your English writing, 在本影片裡，您可以看到一些 會幫您提高英語寫作技能的建議， whatever level your English is now. 無論現在您的英文等級怎樣。 First, understand your audience. 首先，理解您的讀者。 Before you start writing, you need to answer two questions. 在您開始寫作之前， 您需要回答兩個問題。 Question one: who are you writing for? 問題一：您寫給什麼人？ Are you writing for your friend, your colleague, your teacher, your manager, an examiner, who? 您寫給您的朋友、您的同學、您的老師、 您的經理、一位考官，還是誰？ Secondly, what are you trying to achieve? 其次，您想達到什麼目的？ Are you trying to give someone information? 您想給某人訊息嗎？ Are you trying to convince somebody of your point of view? 您想勸說某人同意您的觀點嗎？ Are you trying to entertain somebody and make them laugh? 您想逗某人發笑嗎？ Are you just trying to pass an exam, or are you trying to achieve several different things? 您只是想通過一個測驗， 或是您想做幾件不同的事情？ Thinking about your purpose in writing can really help you to organize your ideas. 考慮您的寫作目的真的 能幫您組織您的想法。 Now these questions: who are you writing for, and what do you want to achieve, they are 現在有些問題：您要寫給誰， 您想要達到什麼目的， important. 他們是很重要的。 But there's an even more important question: what does your reader want? 但是，有一個更重要的問題： 您的讀者想要什麼？ Remember, when you write, you're normally writing for someone else, unless you're writing 在您寫作時，通常您是要寫給 某人，除非您在寫 a diary or a journal for yourself, in which case you can write however you want. 一篇日記或自己的傳記，在這些事情上， 您可以隨便寫您想要的。 Normally, however, you're writing for another person. 正常來說，無論怎樣， 您是在寫給另一個人。 Whoever reads your writing will give their time and their attention to read what you've 讀您所寫的東西的人會花 時間和精力來讀 written. 您所寫的。 Why? 為什麼？ Why will someone give their time to read what you've written? 為什麼有人會花時間來 讀您寫的東西？ Okay, so for example, if you're writing an essay at school or at university for your 好，那麼，例如您在學校或 大學裡寫一篇議論文交給 teacher, your teacher will spend time reading your essay to see if you've understood the 您的老師，您的老師會花時間讀 您的議論文，看您是否 topic or not. 理解主題。 If you're writing an email or a letter to a friend, your friend will probably want to 如果您給朋友寫一封電郵或一封信， 您的朋友可能會想 hear some news about your life and maybe hear some funny stories. 聽到您生活裡的一些新聞， 或是聽到一些趣事。 If you're writing in an exam, the examiner will be looking for some specific things which 如果您在一個測驗中寫作， 考官會看您在寫作裡有沒有寫 you do or don't do in your writing in order to decide your score. 一些特定的東西， 以便來判定您的得分。 Understanding your reader, or your readers, and understanding what they want from your 理解您的讀者或讀者們， 理解他們想要從您的寫作裡看到什麼 writing is essential. 是必要的。 You need to think about this from the beginning to the end of the writing process. 您要在寫作的過程裡 自始至終都考慮這個。 So are you ready to start writing yet? 那麼您準備好開始寫了嗎？ Not quite. 還沒完。 Next, you need to plan your writing. 接下來，您需要規劃一下您的寫作。 If you don't plan your writing, there's a good chance you will miss out some important 如果您不規劃，您很可能會錯失 一些重要的想法， ideas, you won't include them in your writing, or you might include some unnecessary ideas 您沒有把他們寫進去，或許您可能 寫了一些不必要的 that will confuse your reader and make your purpose unclear. 會讓您的讀者產生混淆和 目的不清的想法。 Have you ever written something and got stuck in the middle? 您曾經寫了某些事情， 然後在中間停頓？ You start a paragraph, or you start a sentence, and in the middle you stop and you think, 您開始一個段落，或您開始一個句子， 您在中間卡住了，您想， "What am I doing? “我在寫什麼？ Where am I going? 要寫到什麼程度？ What do I say next? 接下來我要說什麼？ Uh, help!" 噢，幫幫我！” Why does this happen? 為什麼會這樣？ Often it happens because you haven't planned enough. 這種情形通常是您沒有規劃好。 Imagine that you're in a new city and you're trying to find your way somewhere. 想像一下，您在一個陌生的城市， 您想找路到某個地方。 You don't have a map, you don't have a smartphone, there's nobody you can ask. 您沒有地圖，您沒有一部智慧型手機， 沒有人可以問。 Of course, you'll get lost. 當然，您迷路了。 You'll go down streets without knowing where they go. 您會走到不知道會通向哪裡的街道。 You'll go around in circles. 您會繞圈。 If you do find the place you were looking for, it will just be because you were lucky. 如果您找到了您要找的地方， 那只是因為您很幸運。 Writing without planning is very similar. 沒規劃的寫作是很簡單的。 You'll start sentences or paragraphs without knowing where they're going. 您會開始那些不知道會 寫到哪裡的句子和段落。 You'll waste lots of time writing things, deleting them, rewriting them, deleting them, 您會浪費很多時間寫東西， 刪掉他們，重寫，再刪掉， writing them again. 再寫。 If you do achieve your goal, it will only be because you were lucky. 如果您達到了您的目的， 那僅僅是因為您是幸運的。 Remember, you're writing for someone else, and you're writing for a reason. 記住，您寫給某人，以及 您是有目的而寫的。 That means you have a goal, even if it's a simple goal. 那意味著您有一個目標， 即使那是一個簡單的目標。 You need to have a plan of how you're going to reach that goal. 您需要對要怎樣達成目的而有所規劃。 That means you need to think about these questions: what are you going to include? 那意味著您要考慮這些問題： 您想寫什麼內容？ What are you going to leave out? 您要忽略什麼？ And, how are you going to organize your ideas? 以及您要怎樣匯集您的想法？ If you're writing something simple, you might just think for a minute or two about what 如果您在寫某些簡單的事情， 您也許在想要說什麼這件事上 to say. 僅耗費一到兩分鐘。 If you're writing something longer and more complex like a long essay, you might need 如果您在寫某些較長的且更複雜的，像是 長篇議論文這類的東西，您也許要 to make a written plan. 制定一個寫作計劃。 So what points should you include and what points should you leave out? 那麼，哪幾點您要寫進去， 哪幾點您不用寫進去？ Well, that's a general question. 好，那是一個一般問題。 If you're not sure, think about your goal and your reader's needs. 如果您不確定，考慮一下您的目的 以及您的讀者的需求。 Ask yourself, "Does my reader need to know this? 問自己：“我的讀者需要知道這些嗎？ Will my reader want to know this? 我的讀者會想知道這些嗎？ Does including this point, or including this idea, help me to reach my goal?" 把這一點或這個想法寫進去， 會幫我達成我的目標嗎？” Thinking about these questions will help you to decide what to include in your writing 考慮這些問題會幫您決定 要寫什麼以及 and what to leave out. 不寫什麼。 What about the third question: how are you going to organize your ideas? 問題三：您怎樣 匯集您的想法？ Let's look. 我們來看看。 You need to organize your ideas into clear paragraphs. 您需要把您的想法清晰地 寫到段落裡。 Organizing your ideas into paragraphs is important for many reasons. 因為各種理由，段落裡表達您的 想法是重要的。 It helps your reader understand what your main points are. 他會幫您的讀者去理解您的 主要觀點是什麼。 It helps your reader see where you're going and why, and it helps you to stay focused 會幫您的讀者去理解您寫到哪裡以及 為什麼，他會確保您的寫作不離題， on your plan and reaching your goal. 並達成寫作目的。 So what does it mean in practice to organize your ideas into clear paragraphs? 那麼，在實踐裡將您的想法在段落裡清晰地 表達意味著什麼？ Firstly, each paragraph should have one main idea. 首先，每個段落都必須有一個主要觀點。 If you're writing an essay and you have a list of points to include, put one point in 如果您寫一篇議論文，且您有一份要 寫進去的論點的目錄， each paragraph. 每個段落闡述一個論點。 Even if you're writing something shorter or simpler, you still need to organize your ideas 甚至如果您在寫某些較短的或是 較為簡單的文章，您仍然需要在 into paragraphs. 段落裡表達您的想法。 Don't try to do too much. 不要寫太多。 Your writing will be much clearer and much easier to read if each paragraph is only trying 如果每個段落只表達一個意思， 您寫的將會是十分清晰且 to do one thing. 易懂的。 An extra point: there's no minimum or maximum length for a paragraph. 一個額外的要點：一個段落是沒有最短或 最長限制的。 Sometimes when I teach students writing, they try to make paragraphs longer because they 有時，當我教學生們寫作時，他們想把 段落寫得很長，因為他們說， say, "Oh, this paragraph is too short. “噢，這個段落太短了。 It needs more words, it needs more sentences." 要多些一些單字和句子。” No, a paragraph should be as long as it needs to be to make your point. 不是這樣的，一個段落必須剛剛好長到 可以表達您的觀點。 There's no minimum length. 它沒有最短的限制。 Next, you need to decide how many paragraphs you're going to have and what you're going 接下來，您要決定您要寫幾個 段落，以及每個 to put in each one. 段落裡要寫什麼。 Remember, this is still part of planning. 記住，這仍然是寫作計劃的一部分。 We haven't even written a single word yet. 我們還沒有寫一個字。 Again, you could do this planning in your head, or you could make some short notes, 重複一遍，您可以把這個寫作計劃放在 腦海裡，或者是做一個簡短的筆記， or you could make a more detailed written plan. 或者您可以做一個更詳細的寫作計劃。 It depends how much time you have, what you're trying to write, and how important it is. 那取決於您有多少時間，您想寫 什麼，以及有多重要。 But the important point is when you start writing, you won't have to think about questions 但重要的一點是當您開始寫作時， 您不得不考慮一些問題， like, "What do I put in this paragraph? 像是，“我要在這一段寫什麼？ How many more paragraphs do I need? 我還要寫幾個段落？ How am I going to finish this sentence? 我怎樣去結束這句話？ You will have thought about all of these things already. 您已經學會考慮所有這些事情。 This will make it much easier to write whatever you're trying to write. 這會讓您寫任何您想寫的 東西都更簡單。 Okay, so now you're ready to start writing. 好吧，那麼您準備好開始寫作了。 What next? 下一步是什麼？ Part four: cut empty words and sentences. 第四部分：削減多餘的單字和句子。 There's a simple rule you can use to make your English writing better and clearer: write 有一個簡單的可以讓您的英文 寫作更好且更清晰的規則： as little as possible. 盡可能少寫一點。 Let's look at some examples. 我們看一些例子。 First, don't use two words if you can use one word. 首先，如果您可以用一個單字， 就不要用兩個。 Don't use three words if you can use two words. 如果您可以用兩個，就不要用三個。 For example, don't say "very tired," say, "exhausted." 例如，不要說“very tired”，要說“exhausted”。 "Very" is generally a weak word, and it should be avoided. "Very" 是一個很弱的詞，要少用。 It doesn't add much to your meaning. 那並沒有把您的意思提高到“更加”層次。 The same is true for words like "really" or "absolutely." 類似這樣的單字有"really"或"absolutely"。 Use these words as little as possible. 盡可能少用這些詞。 They're very rarely necessary. 他們是完全沒必要的。 Don't say "as a result" if you can say "consequently." 如果您可以用"consequently"，就不要說"as a result"，。 Don't say "on the other hand" if you can say "nevertheless." 如果您可以用"nevertheless"，就不要說"on the other hand" 。 Use fewer words. 用少點單字。 Don't say, "This will get better in the future," say, "This will improve in the future." 不要說 "This will get better in the future," 說 "This will improve in the future." Don't say, "She gave me a lot of help," say, "She helped me a lot," or even, "She helped 不要說 "She gave me a lot of help,"，說 "She helped me a lot," ，或是 "She helped me greatly," or just cut "greatly" and say, "She helped me," if you can. me greatly,"，如果可以的話，刪掉"greatly"，說 "She helped me," 。 Use fewer words. 用少點單字。 Don't say, "Maybe this will solve the problem," say, "This will solve the problem." 不要說 "Maybe this will solve the problem,"， 說"This will solve the problem."。 Words like "maybe" or "perhaps" are generally not necessary. 像是"maybe"或"perhaps"的單字通常是沒必要的。 If you're not sure about something, do you really need to include it? 如果您不確定某事， 您真的需要寫進去嗎？ If you do want to include something that you're not sure about, use verbs like "might" or 如果您想把某些您不確定的事情 寫進去，用動詞“might" "could." 或”could“。 Say, "This might solve the problem." 說"This might solve the problem."。 Don't say, "We need to find someone who can teach our son," say, "We need to find a teacher 不要說"We need to find someone who can teach our son,"。說"We need to find for our son." a teacher for our son." Cut unnecessary words and use as few words as possible. 刪掉不必要的單字，盡可能用少點單字。 You can also look at sentences. 您也能看一下句子。 In essays, many people tend to include sentences like, "There are many advantages and disadvantages 在議論文裡，很多人想這樣寫： "There are many advantages and disadvantages to this. to this. Of course, there are two sides to this issue. Of course, there are two sides to this issue. In this essay, I will discuss all the ideas relevant to this point." In this essay, I will discuss all the ideas relevant to this point." What do these sentences tell you? 這些句子告訴您什麼？ Do they give you any useful or relevant information? 給了您任何有用的相關信息嗎？ No, and so they should be cut. 沒有，那麼要刪掉他們。 Why is this important? 為什麼那很重要？ Well, using fewer words and fewer sentences will make your writing clearer and easier 好吧，少用點單字和句子，您的 寫作會更清晰和 to read. 更易懂。 It will also help you to focus on what you want to say. 那也會幫您聚焦在您想要說的上面。 Try to look at each sentence you write and think, "What does this add to my ideas? 試著看看您寫的和想的每一個句子 “那給您的想法添加了什麼東西？ What does this give my reader? 要給您的讀者什麼？ How does this help me reach my goal in writing this?" 寫這些怎樣可以幫到您？“ If you can't answer these questions, consider cutting it, or try to make it shorter. 如果您不能回答這些問題，就要考慮 刪掉它，或者試著去縮短它。 It's not easy to write in this way. 用這種方式寫並不是很容易的。 You won't be able to watch this video and go away and write like this. 您不會看到這個影片， 但要像這樣寫。 Even in this script, there are probably several places where I could use my own advice! 即使在本腳本裡，我有可能在幾個 地方用我自己的建議！ However, you can try thinking about it the next time you write something in English. 然而，您下次可以試著考慮用 英文寫某些東西。 Over time you can learn the habit of cutting empty words and sentences from your writing. 隨著時間過去，您能學到在寫作時 刪掉多餘單字和句子的習慣。 Your writing will be much better and much clearer if you can learn to do this. 如果您能學到這樣做，您的寫作 會更好，更清晰。 Next, let's look at some more advice to make your writing clearer and easier to read. 接下來，我們看更多的有助於您的寫作 更清晰且易讀懂的建議。 Use short simple sentences where possible. 盡可能地用簡單句。 Shorter sentences are easier to read and understand. 精簡的句子是易讀懂的， That's not my opinion, that's a fact. 那不是我的觀點，是事實。 There's a lot of research behind it. 之前已有大量的研究。 Longer sentences are harder to read and harder to understand, generally. 通常來說，較長的句子是比較難讀懂的。 If you're a non-native speaker of English, writing longer sentences is especially dangerous. 如果您不是一個英文母語人士， 寫長句特別危險。 There's a higher chance you'll make some grammatical or language errors which will make your sentence 您在語法上和用語上犯錯的機率會很高， 那樣您的句子會很難讀懂， difficult to read, or even worse, hard to understand. 甚至是錯的。 How long is too long? 怎樣算是太長？ Well, 10 words is a good target length, 10 to 20 words is okay. 好吧，10個單字是一個合適的長度， 10-20個單字也還可以。 Longer than 20 words--this is dangerous. 超過20個單字，就危險了。 There's a high chance your sentence will become unclear and difficult to read. 您的句子可能會 不清晰且難讀懂。 So how can you do this? 那麼您能怎麼做呢？ Well first, remember what we talked about before. 好，首先，記住我們之前談的。 Using fewer words will make your sentences shorter and tighter. 用較少的單字，這樣您的句子會 簡短而緊湊。 Here are some other rules you can use to keep your sentences shorter and clearer. 這有一些規則，您可以用它保持 句子的簡短和清晰。 First, don't use the passive voice unless you have a good reason. 首先，不要用被動語態， 除非您有一個好的理由。 Using the passive always makes a sentence longer and more complex. 用被動語態總是會讓一個句子 更長且更複雜。 Now, sometimes it's fine to use the passive, but not if you don't have a good reason. 現在，有時用被動語態是不錯的，但是，如果 沒有一個好的理由，那會適得其反。 If you want to use the passive, make sure you know why you're using it, and make sure 如果您想用被動語態，確定您知道 為什麼用它，確定 it's really necessary. 那是真的有必要。 Secondly, start your sentence with the subject whenever possible. 其次，如有可能， 您的句子要開宗明義。 Thirdly, don't use relative clauses, with who, which, that, where, etc., unless it's 第三，不要用who、which、where等來 造關係從句，除非 really necessary. 真的有必要。 When you use a conjunction, like "and" or "but," or "or," and so on, think, "Do these 當您用連詞，像是 "and"或"but"， 或"or"類似這樣的，想一想 two ideas really need to go together?" "這兩種想法真的需要合併在一起嗎？“ If they don't, consider breaking your sentence into two shorter pieces. 如果沒必要，考慮把句子破開成兩個短句。 To be clear, long sentences are not automatically bad. 需要明確的是，長句並非自然而然 就是糟糕的。 Good writers can produce long sentences which are clear, and focused, and elegant. 好的作者可以寫清晰、 目的明確的長句。 If you're writing about a particularly complex topic, you might need to use longer, more 如果您在寫一個特別複雜的 主題，您可能需要更長的、 complex sentences to express more complex ideas. 更複雜的句子去表達更複雜的想法。 The point is you should only use a longer, more complex sentence if it's really necessary. 關鍵之處在於如果那是真的有必要，您必須要用 一個更長的、更複雜的句子。 If you can express the same point in a shorter, simpler sentence, you should. 但是，如果您可以用更短的、更簡單的句子來表達 相同觀點，您就必須要用短句。 Let's review what we've talked about today. 我們複習一下今天所談的。 First, you need to understand who you're writing for and what they want from your writing. 首先，您需要明白您要寫給誰、您的讀者 想從文章裡得到些什麼。 Secondly, before you start writing, you need to have a plan. 其次，在您開始寫作之前， 您要有一個寫作計劃。 You need to know what you're going to include, what you're going to leave out, and how you're 您需要知道什麼要寫進去， 什麼不能寫進去，以及 going to organize your ideas. 怎樣組織您的想法。 Thirdly, your ideas should always be organized into clear paragraphs with one main idea per 再次，您的想法必須總是按每段一個 主要觀點的方式安排 paragraph. 到清晰的段落裡。 Fourth, cut unnecessary words and sentences. 要點四，刪掉不必要的單字和句子。 And fifth, use shorter, simpler sentences where you can. 要點五，盡可能用更短、 更簡單的句子。 Follow these points, and I guarantee your writing will get better. 遵循這些要點，我保證您會寫得更好。 I'm not just saying that. 我不只是那樣說而已。 I use these points when I write something or edit something, and I see the difference. 當我寫某些東西或編輯某些東西時，我遵循 這些要點，然後我看到了區別。 Even now, I'm still learning this. 甚至是現在，我仍然在學這些。 You're never finished. 學習永無止境。 Follow these points, and you will see a difference. 遵循這些要點，你會看到差別。 Okay. 好了。 That's the end of the lesson. 這是本節課的最後一個內容。 Thank you very much for watching. 非常感謝您的觀看！ If you want to see more of our free lessons, check out our website, oxfordonlineenglish.com. 如果您想看我們的更多免費課程， 請瀏覽我們的網頁，oxfordonlineenglish.com. That's all. 本節課就到這。 Thanks again! 再次感謝! I'll see you next time. 下次見。 Bye-bye! 再見!