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  • On January 4th, 1976,

  • a fleet of boats left the coast of Maui.

  • The goal was to get to the Hawaiian island of Kaho'olawe.

  • For centuries Native Hawaiians had fished and farmed here.

  • And they'd worshipped at its many religious sites.

  • Its original name had been Kohemalamalama o Kanaloa.

  • The island had been very sacred and dedicated to Kanaloa.

  • The God of the ocean.

  • But by the time this group of Native Hawaiians made the journey to the island,

  • it was a very different story.

  • The US military had taken over the island of Kaho'olawe.

  • It was just littered with all kinds of artillery bombs, unexploded bombs.

  • Nothing growing.

  • It was the worst environmental damage to land

  • that anybody could ever experience

  • or view or feel.

  • This is Dr. Emmett Aluli,

  • one of many Native Hawaiians on the boats that day in 1976.

  • They wanted to take Kaho'olawe back

  • and they were willing to go up against the most powerful military in the world.

  • What happened next turned this journey into a movement

  • not just to reclaim the island,

  • but to reclaim everything that was taken from Native Hawaiians.

  • This is the story of the taking of one Hawaiian island.

  • But before I tell you that story,

  • I have to start with the taking of all of Hawai'i.

  • More than a thousand years ago, the first Polynesian voyagers made it to the Hawaiian archipelago.

  • Over time, a distinctly Hawaiian culture emerged.

  • Fishing and agriculture were common.

  • And a blend of Polynesian language, arts, and navigation traditions took shape

  • along with an intricate social, political, and religious system.

  • For centuries Native Hawaiians exercised sovereignty over the islands.

  • By 1810 a monarch united the islands as one nation.

  • Around this time, American and European missionaries arrived,

  • along with businessmen looking to turn the land into a sugar industry.

  • Many missionaries believed Hawaiian religious practices were a moral wretchedness and so,

  • they began the work of communicating to them the knowledge of Christ.

  • When the missionaries come with their promise of enlightenment and wisdom

  • our people lost contact with who they were.

  • Over the course of the next century this new western, Christian ideology

  • slowly replaced the traditions and culture of many Native Hawaiians,

  • also known as Kanaka Maoli or Kanaka.

  • The missionaries and businessmen became advisors to the monarchs who then suppressed Hawaiian language, healing practices,

  • navigation arts, and even traditional forms of hula.

  • Soon, they set their sights on privatizing land ownership

  • and changed the political system, too.

  • In 1887, a group led by white businessmen rewrote the constitution

  • forcibly taking away much of the Hawaiian monarchy s power,

  • and disenfranchising most Native Hawaiian voters.

  • When a new monarch Queen Lili'uokalani rose to power,

  • she attempted to restore Native Hawaiian rights.

  • But, in response, much of the same group of wealthy, white businessmen,

  • now known as the Committee of Safety,

  • staged a coup to overthrow the queen's government.

  • In 1893, they illegally took over the government of Hawai'i.

  • Native Hawaiians pushed back and started a movement to reclaim Hawaiian sovereignty.

  • A massive petition drive led to 38,000 signatures

  • that eventually convinced the US Congress to reject the annexation of Hawai'i.

  • But it was a short-lived win.

  • In 1898, the Spanish-American War broke out.

  • Part of it was fought in the Philippines, and all of a sudden,

  • the location of the Hawaiian islands in the Pacific became valuable to the US military.

  • Congress quickly passed a resolution and illegally annexed Hawai'i.

  • Decades later, in 1959, Hawai'i became the 50th state of the US.

  • To have this 50th member is truly a unique experience.

  • But statehood made many Native Hawaiian problems worse.

  • The development of resorts and condos increasingly displaced families,

  • encroached on rural land, and exploited Native Hawaiians.

  • By the 1970s a new wave of Native Hawaiian activists demanded change

  • and their protests reignited the movement to reclaim Hawaiian sovereignty.

  • That gave rise to the ALOHA organization.

  • It stood for Aboriginal Lands Of Hawaiian Ancestry.

  • They had a bill for reparations for Native Hawaiians.

  • And the Congress was not taking it seriously.

  • ALOHA came up with an idea:

  • they would occupy federal land to bring attention to their cause.

  • The only question was where.

  • Kaho'olawe is the smallest of the major Hawaiian islands and it sits here,

  • in the middle of the archipelago.

  • Some traditional oli or chants spoke of the importance of the island and navigation.

  • If you are on Kaho'olawe and you're observing what the sky looks like,

  • you could see the where the Southern Cross sits in the sky

  • in relation to the Northern Star.

  • And this was important for training navigators.

  • Not so much how to get where you want to go but how do you get home.

  • Archaeological evidence also suggests that for centuries

  • Kaho'olawe was key to this kind of celestial navigation

  • and was the location of several sacred sites

  • including shrines, petroglyphs and burials.

  • But by 1832 the Hawaiian monarchy started using the island as a penal colony.

  • Then in 1858, the Hawaiian government leased Kaho'olawe out for

  • ranching introducing livestock that depleted the island's soil.

  • In 1941, just after the attack on Pearl Harbor

  • the US declared martial law in Hawai'i,

  • and turned Kaho olawe into a military bombing range.

  • A few years later, when the war ended,

  • Hawaiian territorial officials thought that the island would be returned to civilian jurisdiction.

  • But instead, President Eisenhower issued an executive decree to extend the US use of the island,

  • and then they continued to train for other arenas in Asia and the Pacific.

  • Year after year, Kaho'olawe was used as a practice target for more wars

  • like the Korean War and then Vietnam War.

  • During that period there were targets on the island that resembled Korean vehicles and Korean villages.

  • And then jets would come to practice bombing those targets.

  • The top of the island has been just defaced of any vegetation.

  • It's what we call hardpan.

  • And about eight feet of the topsoil has washed away into the ocean.

  • And every time there's a big rain event,

  • it's bleeding out into the ocean.

  • In one series of Navy explosions, they simulated an atomic bomb blast

  • and exploded 500 tons of TNT.

  • And almost every day in 1970 alone,

  • the Navy used the island for bombings or weapons exercises.

  • Those who live, particularly outside Maui,

  • would see the bombing of Kaho'olawe regularly.

  • Houses would shake.

  • It's just like this way poking a knife into the spirit of the Kanaka

  • every time a bomb would go off.

  • Local residents and politicians began demanding an end to the bombings.

  • So in January 1976, when ALOHA was looking for a location to occupy as a protest

  • they chose Kaho'olawe.

  • The mismanagement of land by the Navy, the military, was just so obvious.

  • And so it was just something we kind of like felt we had to do.

  • Aluli and other activists came together from all over Hawaii.

  • And on January 4th, they left for Kaho'olawe on a fleet of boats.

  • But there was a problem:

  • a leaked press release led to the Coast Guard intercepting them

  • bringing the risk of arrest and federal charges.

  • One boat with Aluli and eight other protesters on it snuck past the Coast Guard

  • and made it to the island.

  • But the Coast Guard wasn't far behind.

  • We saw them coming with their megaphones and telling us that we needed to board the Coast

  • Guard cutter and get taken back to Maui.

  • Myself and one of the organizers from Maui, Walter Ritte,

  • we decided we didn't come to call Kaho'olawe just to get back with the Coast Guard.

  • As the Coast Guard caught up with the group on the shore,

  • Aluli and Walter Ritte broke away and went deeper into the island.

  • There were no trails to follow and the paths were rough

  • but slowly they made their way up to the peak of the island.

  • And then once we were on the top,

  • just knowing that this island was almost central in our archipelago,

  • that it must have been something real special.

  • But then you see the devastation.

  • For two days, Aluli and Ritte hid out on the island.

  • The island was muddy, was red.

  • There were old trucks that were lined up to be caravans.

  • These are the targets.

  • The whole island was littered with targets.

  • On day three, federal marshals found Aluli and Ritte,

  • arrested them, and flew them off the island.

  • But just being able to kind of be lifted up in a helicopter

  • and seeing more damage and feeling more passionate,

  • about we got to do something.

  • It was like the land was calling to me pleading, crying, asking us to do something.

  • We decided to come over and pay a visit to the governor and pay a visit to you also.

  • Inspired by what they saw, the activists formed a new group,

  • Protect Kaho'olawe 'Ohana, to focus specifically on caring for the island.

  • At the core of their work,

  • was the concept of Aloha 'Aina.

  • Aloha 'Aina in its simplest form is just to love the land.

  • But for us Aloha 'Aina also has a deep political meaning,

  • and that it means a love of your nation.

  • The organizing for Kaho'olawe helped spark a greater movement for Hawaiian rights

  • in what became known as the Hawaiian Renaissance.

  • Congress and American people need to know we're not just happy natives

  • dancing the hula for the tourists and playing our ukulele.

  • That we have serious problems

  • with so many of our people incarcerated,

  • so many of our families having to rely upon welfare for their subsistence

  • and very serious health problems.

  • Activists across Hawaii were pushing for

  • the revival of Hawaiian culture, language and ethnic studies education

  • along with land and water rights for residents.

  • If we can give mother nature back to Kaho'olawe, fight. We got to go fight.

  • As for the island of Kaho'olawe,

  • a charismatic activist named George Helm stepped up

  • to lead the fight to put an end to the bombings.

  • And for months, the group organized further occupations of the island.

  • And if all us Hawaiians can go there and touch it, we'll all come together.

  • So that began a movement.

  • That must have been like maybe 30 other arrests, individuals,

  • There was jail time.

  • The Navy didn't know how to handle this,

  • didn't know how to control the arrests.

  • The movement was picking up but in 1977, tragedy struck.

  • Two activists Kimo Mitchell and leader George Helm

  • were lost at sea on the way back from Kaho'olawe.

  • George Helm after he disappeared, we didn't know why he left,

  • how he left and who was responsible for it.

  • We had to reorganize our movement.

  • We all felt that we had to make a commitment to make his life worthwhile,

  • that the loss would not be in vain.

  • Prior to his disappearance, Helm had spearheaded something important,

  • a class action civil suit against the Navy.

  • The suit claimed the Navy was in violation of environmental protection laws

  • and the National Historic Preservation Act.

  • There are cultural sites that are on the island.

  • And the Navy was not doing its duty to protect them.

  • In 1980, the Navy and Protect Kaho'olawe 'Ohana entered into a consent decree.

  • The Navy would have to start cleaning up the island,

  • and give the activists partial access too.

  • One of the first things activists did was revive the Makahiki ceremony

  • a religious celebration that had been suppressed for 200 years.

  • The most important thing that the Protect Kaho'olawe 'Ohana has probably accomplished

  • is reviving our connection as Native Hawaiians to our our Kua,

  • our natural elements and and calling our our deities back into our lives

  • and reviving our soul as a people.

  • After another decade of continued pressure,

  • in 1990 President George H.W. Bush ordered the complete halt to bombing practices on the island.

  • Congress also ordered the return of the island to Hawai'i

  • and Hawai'i s state legislature banned any future commercial activity on the island.

  • Fourteen years after the first landing on Kaho 'olawe,

  • a grassroots movement was able to take on the US Navy

  • and win.

  • Today, the restoration of Kaho'olawe is ongoing.

  • The US government still hasn't gotten rid of all the bomb fragments and unexploded ordnance.

  • But with the help of Protect Kaho'olawe 'Ohana and a state reserve commission,

  • the island is slowly healing.

  • The closer you get,

  • you see the island is getting green.

  • It's important that we have places like Kaho'olawe to sort of serve as

  • these kipuka, as we call them or little circles,

  • little areas where where life regenerates

  • to really reengage with environment and earth

  • and see the importance of Aloha 'Aina really.

  • Kaho'olawe is now a symbol of hope.

  • And for Native Hawaiians, who continue to fight for sovereignty,

  • reclaiming Kaho'olawe is a step towards reclaiming all of Hawaii.

  • Kaho'olawe is a model of what can be done on other islands and other communities.

  • The only disappointing frustration is that

  • I'm not going to be around for the next generation.

  • Kaho'olawe is the hope that brings us deliverance from our colonized past

  • to who we are and who we will be in the future.

On January 4th, 1976,

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B1 中級 美國腔

夏威夷原住民如何与美国海军作战并获胜(How Native Hawaiians fought the US Navy, and won)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 08 日
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