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  • The design of every new iPhone starts here at Apple's headquarters in

  • Cupertino, California by a team of industrial designers. But the resources

  • needed to make this design a reality come from all over the world.

  • Apple largely depends on outside manufacturers to produce ready-made

  • components for its devices. The company's supply chain is incredibly complex and

  • far-reaching. Apple works with suppliers in 43 countries and 6 continents to make

  • all of its products but tracing the origin of even a single component is

  • tricky. Take the A12 chips in the newest iPhones for instance.

  • Jim Morrison, Vice President of Technical Intelligence at Tech Insights, told CNBC "In the Apple A12

  • Apple designed the chip. There is an Apple logo on the packaging. Apple is

  • headquartered in California. Apple outsources chip fabrication to TSMC in

  • Taiwan. Packaging and final tests of A12 may be done by Amkor in the Philippines.

  • The A12 is then assembled into the iPhone by Foxconn and China or Pegatron in Taiwan.

  • So which is the country of origin? For the Apple A12, we recognize it

  • as a USA component because Apple's name is on the chip and Apple is a

  • california-based company. Each year, Apple publishes a broad list of suppliers but

  • the company does not specify which components come from which manufacturers

  • and they will often use more than one supplier for a part on the same model.

  • One way to get a glimpse into Apple's supply chain has been through tear downs.

  • A recent tear down by repair firm iFixit shows that Apple's iPhone 10S used

  • SDRAM memory from Micron. Another teardown by Tech Insights, a firm that

  • dissects devices in analyzes the parts inside, also found SDRAM from Micron but

  • also from SK Hynix and Samsung. The outside of the phone is protected by

  • Gorilla Glass made at Corning's Kentucky Factory. But when you break each

  • component inside of the phone down into its raw materials, an even more vast global production line appears.

  • Modern engineered materials are much more complex they were in the past. There are

  • something like 80 or 82 elements from the periodic table of elements the

  • materials engineers have at their disposal when designing modern products like a smartphone.

  • The typical smartphone uses somewhere between 60 and 70 of

  • those 80 or so elements from the periodic table of elements.

  • For example, Indium, Tin and Oxygen are used to make a thin electric film on top of the screen

  • which gives it its touch capabilities. The raw materials that make up your

  • iPhone come from almost every continent. A phone's processor is mainly made of

  • Silicon but it also uses Phosphorus, Antimony, Arsenic, Boron, Indium and Gallium to give it better electrical properties.

  • Meanwhile, the electrical connections that carry all the data are made of Gold, Silver and Copper.

  • Tantalum is also used for the micro capacitators that regulate electricity flow.

  • Apple does not disclose exactly where its elements were mined because such

  • information is extremely difficult to track but data from the U.S. Geological

  • Survey gives us an idea since it tracks yearly element production by country.

  • Four minerals that Apple does closely track our Tin, Tungsten, Gold and Tantalum, which are known as conflict mineral.

  • The U.S. government has determined that the mining and trade of these minerals has helped to finance

  • armed groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo and surrounding regions and contributed to a humanitarian crisis.

  • Leonardo DiCaprio taught us about blood diamonds but there's blood metals that are that are in our smartphones

  • because they contribute to internal violence in unstable States. In 2010, Congress passed

  • the Dodd-Frank Act, which requires all companies publicly traded in the U.S. to

  • report the source of their conflict minerals. Apple has complied. The company

  • now maps its supply chain for Tin, Tungsten, Gold, Tantalum, and Cobalt

  • and requires all of its smelters and refiners to

  • participate in third party audits to ensure humane extraction of the minerals.

  • Another set of really important minerals needed to make your phone are what are

  • known as rare earth metals. The term rare earths refers to 17 chemically similar

  • elements and rare earths are quite distinct among themselves within that

  • family but one of the characteristics that they do all share are these

  • fantastic magnetic and conductive properties.

  • Ytrium, Europium, Terbium and Gadolinium produced the brilliant colors of a phone screen

  • and Praseodymium and Neodymium are used for the magnets in the speaker and to help your phone vibrate. (iPhone chimes)

  • China is by far the largest producer of rare earth metals.

  • China produces somewhere between 80 and 85% current global supply of rare

  • earth elements. But mining these elements can be challenging and taxing on the environment.

  • What happens is frequently, you have a coincidence of rare earth

  • elements and other radioactive materials and what this does is it creates

  • alongside your mining operation a radioactive waste management problem.

  • Apple has launched a number of programs aimed at reducing its environmental footprint.

  • The company has two working robotic phone dissectors, named Daisy, that are each able to extract 93 kilograms of Tungsten,

  • 42 kilograms of Tin, 1.8 kilograms of Tantalum and .97 kilograms of Gold for every 100,000 iPhone devices.

  • Last year, Apple even made a commitment to one day use only

  • recycled materials in its products. We hope to one day eliminate our need to

  • mine new materials from the earth. Now as you can imagine this is a massive effort.

  • Apple is already making headway the company now uses 100% recycled Tin in

  • the logic boards of its newest iPhones. We really need to learn to see the

  • materiality involved in these technologies. 'Cause it's not something

  • that you'll just notice by interacting with this technology. It really takes, you

  • know, education and thinking through the very real implications of the decisions

  • we make buying every new device in technology. Apple's sold its two billionth iOS device

  • this year and though it's hard to pinpoint exactly where every component

  • of an iPhone comes from, one thing is for certain. It's the result of an incredibly

  • complex supply chain and raw materials that are Ridge innate from all over the

  • planet. It's a process that transforms the most basic elements into one of the

  • most advanced pieces of technology that fits in the palm of our hands.

The design of every new iPhone starts here at Apple's headquarters in

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你的苹果 iPhone 里有什么(What’s In Your Apple iPhone)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 08 日
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