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  • Well hey there! I'm Emma from mmmEnglish!

  • What is a gerund?

  • Do you know?

  • I can tell you that I didn't even know what a gerund was

  • before I started studying to be a teacher.

  • But native English speakers use gerunds a lot in English.

  • All the time.

  • Whether we realise it or not.

  • So it's important that you understand them too

  • and in today's lesson, I'm going to show you how.

  • Okay, I'm going to start by answering your question

  • in the simplest way possible.

  • What is a gerund?

  • Gerunds look like a verb but they're actually a noun.

  • Okay, perhaps you still don't know what that means.

  • We all know that a verb is an action, right?

  • We do a verb.

  • For example, 'I jog every morning'.

  • But sometimes, I just want to talk about an action,

  • not do it.

  • Jogging is one of my favourite ways to exercise.

  • I love jogging.

  • I'm talking about 'jogging' as an action.

  • I'm not jogging right now,

  • I'm just talking about something that I love to do.

  • So in other words,

  • I'm referring to the action of jogging as a noun.

  • Or a thing.

  • So I've just used the gerund.

  • That's a gerund.

  • I used a word that looks like a verb, as a noun.

  • So that's not too difficult, is it?

  • And if you think this video will be helpful

  • for any of your friends, then share it with them!

  • You know, the one that

  • really needs some help with their English!

  • Tell them to subscribe.

  • I make new videos answering your trickiest

  • English questions here, every week.

  • So how can we recognise the gerund?

  • What does it look like?

  • Well the gerund is formed by adding '-ing'

  • to the base form of a verb

  • or the bare infinitive form.

  • So the base form is 'jog'

  • with '-ing'

  • 'jogging'

  • I love jogging.

  • 'jog' is the base form, 'jogging' is the gerund.

  • So obviously, the reason why this is confusing

  • is because this

  • looks a lot like the continuous form of the verb, right?

  • So to recognise a gerund, you need to pay attention

  • to how it's used in a sentence.

  • And I've got a test for you.

  • I absolutely love singing.

  • But performing in public makes me really nervous.

  • Standing on a stage in front of a crowd is terrifying.

  • So did you hear all of those gerunds?

  • Did you recognise them?

  • Let's take a closer look.

  • I absolutely love singing.

  • But performing in public makes me really nervous.

  • Standing on a stage in front of a crowd is terrifying.

  • Okay. So far, we've learned so far generally

  • what a gerund is

  • and how to make a gerund.

  • So here's the next question.

  • When

  • and how

  • do we use gerunds?

  • Just like nouns,.

  • gerunds can be used in many different situations.

  • They can be used as the subject of a sentence.

  • The object of a sentence.

  • They can be used after prepositions.

  • They can be used with fixed expressions.

  • And we can sometimes use a gerund

  • after another verb.

  • That's a lot of different possibilities!

  • So let's break them down together.

  • Firstly, you can use a gerund when you want to

  • use a verb as the subject of a sentence or a phrase.

  • Volunteering is a great way

  • to give back to your community.

  • Eating fruits and vegetables

  • is important for a healthy diet.

  • Studying gerunds doesn't have to be frustrating!

  • Okay? So now it's your turn!

  • I want you to write a sentence

  • in the comments below this video to practise.

  • Tell me, what can be frustrating?

  • Or

  • what else is important to your health?

  • Write a sentence, write an answer to that question

  • in the comments below this video

  • and make sure you're using a gerund

  • not just a noun.

  • We're practising gerunds today, right?

  • Pause the video if you need to.

  • But tell me what frustrates you in the comments.

  • Next you can use a gerund as the object of a sentence.

  • Now there are some very common verbs

  • that take gerunds as objects.

  • All of these verbs can be followed by a gerund.

  • I really like cooking,

  • but my fiance is a much better cook than me!

  • She really enjoys taking pictures of sunsets.

  • I prefer buying meat from my local butcher.

  • Okay? It's your turn now!

  • What do you dislike doing?

  • What do you prefer doing?

  • Write your sentence in the comments below.

  • When you see a verb after a preposition,

  • it's actually often a gerund.

  • You remember prepositions, right?

  • I talked about them here in this lesson

  • if you need a refresher.

  • They're words like: on, at, in, under,

  • behind, without.

  • She walked out of the room without saying a word.

  • And so these rules about prepositions include

  • expressions that end in prepositions like

  • 'in spite of'

  • In spite of training for years, she got

  • knocked out of the tournament in the first round.

  • 'there's no point in'

  • There's no point in taking your jacket,

  • it's really hot outside!

  • 'fed up with'

  • I'm fed up with asking you to be quiet!

  • There are some really common expressions

  • that are followed by gerunds too.

  • Really

  • you do just need to memorise these ones.

  • Like 'can't help'

  • I can't help being a perfectionist!

  • 'can't stand..'

  • I can't stand working with people

  • who always show up late!

  • 'it's no use'

  • It's no use leaving a message,

  • she never calls back anyway!

  • '(to be) worth'

  • It's not worth spending so much money!

  • These are all really common expressions

  • that are followed by a gerund.

  • And guess what?

  • It's your turn again!

  • It's your turn to write a sentence.

  • What are some of the things that you can't stand doing?

  • Write it in the comments below.

  • Now you may also see gerunds used

  • after another verb.

  • Now some verbs can be followed by a gerund

  • or the to-infinitive.

  • And this can be a little confusing.

  • Because actually,

  • choosing one or the other

  • can change the overall meaning of a sentence.

  • Because in one sentence, the word is a noun

  • and in the other, it's a verb.

  • So for example,

  • I'll never forget driving along the coast of Sicily.

  • It was truly stunning.

  • Don't forget to take your grandma to the supermarket!

  • I've actually opened a can of worms there!

  • So

  • I've made an extra lesson, a separate lesson

  • about gerunds and infinitives

  • and you can watch it right here

  • on the mmmEnglish channel next week.

  • It's going to be my next lesson

  • so I'll go over more details about the difference between

  • infinitives and gerunds in that lesson.

  • Make sure you subscribe so you don't miss it!

  • So let's practise what we've learnt already in this lesson.

  • I want you to find the gerund in each of the examples

  • that I'm about to put here.

  • And tell me

  • is it being used as a subject,

  • an object,

  • after a preposition,

  • or with an expression?

  • It's no use avoiding him.

  • He'll keep asking you until you say yes.

  • What's the gerund?

  • 'avoiding', right?

  • And it's a gerund used with a common expression.

  • 'It's no use'

  • It's no use avoiding. It's no use asking.

  • Do you feel like watching a horror movie

  • or a romantic film?

  • Which is the gerund?

  • And it's a gerund used as an object, isn't it?

  • Not realising that one of my kids

  • is sick is one of my biggest fears!

  • So the gerund is

  • 'realising'

  • And it's a gerund used as a subject.

  • In spite of being injured,

  • she still managed to finish the marathon!

  • So the gerund is 'being'

  • and it's a gerund used after a preposition.

  • So do you feel a little more confident

  • about gerunds now?

  • I'm going to go down into the comments and check

  • your sentences now

  • so I can make sure that you've been using

  • your gerunds correctly.

  • And for all of those other pesky English topics

  • make sure you subscribe to the mmmEnglish channel,

  • I cover new topics and tips every week.

  • Just like these ones.

  • I'll see you in the next lesson.

Well hey there! I'm Emma from mmmEnglish!

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動名詞(What is a GERUND? ? Confusing English Grammar)

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    師駿愷 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 08 日
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