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  • I'm here because I have a very important message:

    我在此是為了傳達一個非常重要的訊息。

  • I think we have found

    我認為我們已經發現

  • the most important factor for success.

    成功最重要的因素。

  • And it was found close to here, Stanford.

    它是在離這裡非常近的史丹福大學被發現的。

  • Psychology professor took kids that were four years old

    心理學教授找來一些四歲大的幼童

  • and put them in a room all by themselves.

    讓他們隻身在一間房間內。

  • And he would tell the child, a four-year-old kid,

    並告訴這位四歲大的小孩,

  • "Johnny, I am going to leave you here with a marshmallow

    「強尼,我將要把這顆棉花糖留給你,

  • for 15 minutes.

    十五分鐘。

  • If, after I come back, this marshmallow is here,

    如果我回來時這顆棉花糖還在,

  • you will get another one. So you will have two."

    你會多得到一顆。這樣你就有兩顆了。」

  • To tell a four-year-old kid to wait 15 minutes

    告訴一個四歲的孩子等十五分鐘

  • for something that they like,

    才能享受他們喜歡的東西,

  • is equivalent to telling us, "We'll bring you coffee in two hours."

    就如同告訴我們,「兩小時後我們會幫你帶杯咖啡回來。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Exact equivalent.

    那感覺完全一樣。

  • So what happened when the professor left the room?

    那麼當教授離開房間後發生了什麼事?

  • As soon as the door closed...

    只要那扇門一關上…

  • two out of three ate the marshmallow.

    三個小孩中有兩個吃了棉花糖。

  • Five seconds, 10 seconds, 40 seconds, 50 seconds,

    五秒,十秒,四十秒,五十秒,

  • two minutes, four minutes, eight minutes.

    兩分鐘,四分鐘,八分鐘。

  • Some lasted 14-and-a-half minutes.

    某些堅持了十四分鐘半。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Couldn't do it. Could not wait.

    沒辦法做到。沒辦法等。

  • What's interesting is that one out of three

    有趣的是,每三個中會有一個

  • would look at the marshmallow and go like this ...

    會看著棉花糖然後像這樣…

  • Would look at it.

    看著它。

  • Put it back.

    把它放回去。

  • They would walk around. They would play with their skirts and pants.

    他們會走來走去。他們會拉扯他們的裙子或是褲子。

  • That child already, at four, understood

    這些小孩,儘管才四歲,已經懂得

  • the most important principle for success,

    成功最重要的原則。

  • which is the ability to delay gratification.

    那就是「延遲滿足」的能力。

  • Self-discipline:

    自律,

  • the most important factor for success.

    成功最重要的因素。

  • 15 years later, 14 or 15 years later,

    十五年後,十四到十五年後,

  • follow-up study.

    在追蹤研究中

  • What did they find?

    他們發現了什麼?

  • They went to look for these kids who were now 18 and 19.

    他們回去找這些現在已經十八或十九歲的孩子。

  • And they found that 100 percent

    然後他們發現百分之百地

  • of the children that had not eaten the marshmallow were successful.

    沒有吃棉花糖的孩子都很成功。

  • They had good grades. They were doing wonderful.

    他們的成績很好。表現優異。

  • They were happy. They had their plans.

    他們很快樂。對未來有計劃。

  • They had good relationships with the teachers, students.

    他們與老師和同學關係良好。

  • They were doing fine.

    一切都很順利。

  • A great percentage of the kids that ate the marshmallow,

    而吃了棉花糖的孩子中有很大一部份,

  • they were in trouble.

    遭遇到了麻煩。

  • They did not make it to university.

    他們沒考上大學。

  • They had bad grades. Some of them dropped out.

    成績不好。有些輟學了。

  • A few were still there with bad grades.

    有些雖然還在唸書但是成績很糟。

  • A few had good grades.

    少數一些成績不錯。

  • I had a question in my mind: Would Hispanic kids

    於是我腦中浮現一個問題:拉丁美洲的小孩

  • react the same way as the American kids?

    跟美國小孩的反應會是相同的嗎?

  • So I went to Colombia. And I reproduced the experiment.

    所以我去了哥倫比亞。並重複了這個實驗。

  • And it was very funny. I used four, five and six years old kids.

    這個實驗非常好玩。我用了四,五,六歲大的小孩。

  • And let me show you what happened.

    讓我們看看發生了什麼事。

  • (Spanish) (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So what happened in Colombia?

    所以哥倫比亞的孩子是如何反應的?

  • Hispanic kids, two out of three ate the marshmallow;

    三分之二的拉美小孩吃了棉花糖。

  • one out of three did not.

    三分之一沒吃。

  • This little girl was interesting;

    這個小女孩非常有趣。

  • she ate the inside of the marshmallow.

    她把棉花糖的內部吃光光了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • In other words, she wanted us to think that she had not eaten it, so she would get two.

    換句話說,她希望我們認為她沒有吃,這樣她可以拿到兩個。

  • But she ate it.

    但她還是吃了。

  • So we know she'll be successful. But we have to watch her.

    所以我們知道她將會成功。但是必須有人能夠監督她。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • She should not go into banking, for example,

    例如說,她不能去金融業上班,

  • or work at a cash register.

    或者當個收銀員。

  • But she will be successful.

    但是她將會成功。

  • And this applies for everything. Even in sales.

    這能應用到任何事情上。甚至是推銷。

  • The sales person that --

    如果一個推銷員 —

  • the customer says, "I want that." And the person says, "Okay, here you are."

    當客戶說,「我要那個。」這個推銷員說,「好的,您要的東西在此。」

  • That person ate the marshmallow.

    他當初一定吃了棉花糖。

  • If the sales person says, "Wait a second.

    如果這個推銷員說,「請等一下,

  • Let me ask you a few questions to see if this is a good choice."

    讓我問您一些問題,看看您的選擇是否適合。」

  • Then you sell a lot more.

    你可以賣出更多東西。

  • So this has applications in all walks of life.

    所以這個研究可以應用在生活各式各樣的面相中。

  • I end with -- the Koreans did this.

    我用這個來做結束 — 韓國人這麼做了。

  • You know what? This is so good

    你知道嗎?這真是太棒了

  • that we want a marshmallow book for children.

    我們需要一本訴說棉花糖故事的童書。

  • We did one for children. And now it is all over Korea.

    我們為小孩設計了一本。現在全韓國都在看這本書。

  • They are teaching these kids exactly this principle.

    他們教導孩子同樣的原則。

  • And we need to learn that principle here in the States,

    我們在美國的人也需要學習這個原則。

  • because we have a big debt.

    因為我們欠了一屁股債。

  • We are eating more marshmallows than we are producing.

    我們吃的棉花糖比我們製造的更多。

  • Thank you so much.

    非常謝謝你們。

I'm here because I have a very important message:

我在此是為了傳達一個非常重要的訊息。

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 棉花糖 小孩 成績 成功 孩子 笑聲

【TED】Joachim de Posada 說,先別吃棉花糖 Joachim de Posada: Don't eat the marshmallow!

  • 25185 2012
    許瓊文 發佈於 2014 年 09 月 16 日
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