字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 This episode of Real Engineering is brought to you by Brilliant, a problem solving website that teaches you think like an engineer. Over the past decade we have seen multiple industries looking to transition to renewable fuel sources, and while we have been making huge strides in the production of renewable energy, the technology required to allow every industry to use it has not kept pace. In theory we could replace every coal burning power plant in the world in the morning, and manage just fine, IF we had a reasonable way of storing that energy cost effectively and efficiently. This energy storage dilemma is slowing our adoption of renewable energy, and one of the industries this is most apparent is the aviation and aerospace industry. Elon Musk is running around pushing electric vehicles and solar powered homes, yet every time a Falcon 9 launches it burns 147 tonnes of fossil fuel. Boeing and Airbus are in a constant battle to create the most fuel efficient plane, allowing their customers to save on ever increasing fuel costs and increase their bottom line, yet they are still using kerosene, when energy from the grid is cheaper. So what gives? Why isn't every industry on earth clawing at the prospect of transitioning to renewable fuels? The aviation industry has one massive hurdle to overcome before it can successful adopt renewable energy. The energy density of our storage methods. Energy density is a measure of the energy we can harness from 1 kilogram of an energy source. For kerosene, the fuel jet airliners use, that's about 43 MJ/kg. Currently even our best lithium ion batteries come in around 1 MJ/kg. Battery energy is over 40 times heavier than jet fuel. So why is this such a huge problem. A plane flies when lift equals the weight of the plane, so when we increase the weight, we have to increase the lift, which requires more power. Needing more power means we need more batteries, which increases the weight again. So are caught in a catch 22 of design. We could end the video there, but going by the demographic breakdown of this channel, we can go a little deeper. To really understand why this is such a difficult problem, let's do some back of the envelope calculations to convert two planes, the Airbus a320 and a small personal aircraft like a Cessna, to battery power. Ultimately, we want to know the power requirements of flight and how it will draw on the energy supply of the battery. Animation 5 The work-energy theorem tells us that Work = F × ∆x, where delta x is the distance over which a force acts. Power is work per unit time, so P equals work divided time. (Work/∆t). Inserting our equation for work and we get an equation for power that equals Force multiplied by distance divided by time, otherwise known as velocity. Here delta v is the velocity of whatever is getting worked on, in this case it's the air. When a plane is flying at a constant height, we know that the the force of lift and the force of gravity are balanced. That means the upward force of lift (Flift) has to be equal in magnitude to the downward pull of gravity, which equals the mass of the plane multiplied by gravity So, the power required for lift equals the mass of the plane multiplied by gravity and delta V. The question is, what is delta v? It's the downward velocity of the air that the plane pushes downward. So let's call it ∆vz. To find its value, we have to think about the mechanism of lift. The lift an airplane provides is equal to the rate it delivers downward momentum to the air it displaces.This means that the force of gravity must be equal in magnitude to the downward velocity of the deflected air, times the rate at which air gets deflected: The mass of air that the plane affects is simply the volume of the cylinder that it sweeps out per unit time, times the density of air. If we call the relevant cross sectional area, Asweep, then the volume it sweeps out per unit time is A sweep times the velocity of the plane. Therefore the mass flow rate equals the density of air times the cross-sectional area times the velocity of the plane. Now the only outstanding quantity that we don't know is the area of air affected by the plane, Asweep. This isn't the cross sectional area of the plane, it's the area of influence the plane has on the surrounding air. This changes with the relative velocity of the plane and the air around it, but at cruising speed, the plane dissipates vortices that have roughly the radius of the length of the plane's wings. Approximating this circle as a square because we don't have enough ridiculous assumptions in this calculation, the relevant area becomes L squared at cruising speed. Putting it all together, we have the force lift needs to provide with this equation. This equation is simply telling us the plane is sweeping out a tube of air and shifting it downwards, and that downward acceleration of air is equal to the downward pull of gravity on the plane. So the plane avoids falling by constantly paying the tax of streaming momentum downward via the air. Rearranging this equation, we can now solve for ∆vz in terms of quantities we can easily measure. And plugging this into our power equation, the power needed for lift is given by this equation: With this equation at hand, we can start noticing what variables really impact the energy requirements of the plane. Notice that as the plane flies faster the power drawn by the engine actually gets smaller, but this equation neglects to consider drag. It just so happens, that the total power needed to fly is minimized when the force of lift and the force of drag become equal, so we simply to to double our power requirements to get our total power requirement at cruising speed. Now we are getting a real picture of why increasing the mass of a plane is such a huge issue. The mass component of this equation is not only squared, but also doubled. Doubling the mass will increase our power requirements 8 fold. With this knowledge in hand, let's start calculating the real world consequences of converting an Airbus a32 To start, we can take the battery weight to be the usual mass fraction that's devoted to fuel, about 20% of the planes mass for both. We also need to take into account the fact that at the cruising altitude, the atmosphere is much thinner than at ground level. For the Cessna, the density falls by factor of 2, and for the Airbus, a factor of 3. Let's be generous, and take the specific power of leading edge Lithium-ion systems, at about 0.340 kilowatts per kilogram kW/kg. To meet the power demand, the Airbus and would need 31 tonnes of batteries: 10 500 kW / 0.340 kW/kg ≈ 31 000 kg (10) while the Cessna would need just 100 kilograms: 35 kW / 0.340 kW/kg ≈ 100 kg (11) For the Cessna, this compares very favorably with the typical weight of fuel it would carry otherwise, and it isn't terrible for the Airbus, but this is just the power the plane needs at any one moment in time. What we are really interested in is the weight of batteries we would need to match the typical range of these planes. For the Airbus that' s a 7 hr flight from JFK to LHR and for a Cessna, that might be a four hour flight from New York to South Carolina. The energy capacity required for a trip is given this equation, multiplying the power required for flight by the duration of the flight: Again if we use leading edge figures for Lithium ion battery capacity, we can store about 278 watt hours per kilogram. For the Cessna, the equivalent battery weight is around 500 kg or just less than two thirds the weight of the plane without fuel. For the A320, the required battery weight is around 260,000 250 000 kilograms or about 4 times the weight of the empty airplane! Compared to the typical 20% that's allocated to fuel, this is devastating. Now that we have a base figure for how heavy the batteries are going to be, we can re-calculate the actual range taking the added weight of the batteries into account. Let's assume that at the very least, we're not going to accept reduction in flight speed or increases in total energy used per flight. How much is the range diminished for flights of similar speed and total energy? As expected, this downgrades the Cessna's flight time from 4 hr to about 2 hr. Not negligible, but livable. A two seater Cessna usually holds about 150 kg fuel and another 100 kg for a passengers and luggage. It is easy to imagine endowing the Cessna with the required battery capacity through a combination of lowering the carrying capacity, lowering speed, increasing wingspan, with lighter parts and more efficient electric engines. In fact, this is exactly what we are seeing with small electric aircraft coming to market in the past few years, like the Alpha Electro. However, the downgrade is substantial for the a320, taking us from 7 hours down to just 20 min, less than one twentieth of the way across the Atlantic. If we plot the flight duration as a function of battery mass for both planes, we can see that the Cessna is already sitting around the optimum and could actually increase our battery capacity and improve our flight range. It's a different story for the airbus, where we overshot our optimum battery capacity significantly. Reducing our battery weight to 60 tonnes will increase our flight duration by about 15 minutes. So we could last a little bit longer before crashing into the ocean, assuming we could find a place to fit those 60 tonnes of batteries in the first place. But we have been seeing great strides with short range small aircraft coming to market, and if we fly very slowly with low drag wings we can even build a solar powered drone that never has to land. We won't be seeing airliners using electric engines any time soon, unless we can find a more energy dense medium for storing that energy. We will be exploring one such possibility in our next video. The Truth about Hydrogen. The derivation of the equations in this video may seem a little difficult to new comers, but if you follow along you will see it's just taking basic known equations and combining them until we have a new equation that solves problem. The value this skill will give you is immeasurable, but it takes practice. Thankfully Brilliant has a course that allows you to do just that. Take this course on Algebra through Puzzles. By the end of this course, you'll know unique problem-solving approaches in Algebra that aren't typically covered in school, and have improved intuition and strategic thinking that you can use when approaching difficult problems. If you go to Brilliant.org/RealEngineering, you can do the entire course for free! To support Real Engineering and learn more about Brilliant, go to brilliant.org/RealEngineering and sign up for free. And the first 73 people that go to that link will get 20% off their annual Premium subscription. As always thanks for watching and thank you to all my Patreon supporters. If you would like to see more from me the links to my instagram, twitter and facebook accounts are below. I will be Q&As on my instagram for each new video I release from now on, so if you would like a question answered that's the place to go.