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  • This video was made possible by CuriosityStream.

    本期影片由CuriosityStream贊助播出

  • Watch thousands of high-quality documentaries and get access to Nebula using the link in

    想看數千條高質紀錄片還有使用Nebula的資格的話

  • the description.

    請使用下方連結

  • In 1952, the first jet airliner began carrying passengers, ushering in a new era.

    在1952年的時候,第一款噴射式客機開始載客,揭開了民航新的一頁

  • But it was also the same year this took to the skies.

    不過也就在同一年,這玩兒也首飛了

  • An enormous flying boat.

    一台飛艇界的龐然大物

  • Both of these planes were trying to predict the future of air travel.

    兩款飛機都想預測航空業的未來路向

  • And one company was convinced that its flying boat would win out in the end.

    而有一家公司就覺得飛艇會打贏這場仗

  • Because it would be a more comfortable way to fly, where passengers could relax in a

    因為飛艇舒適性比較好,乘客們都可以在

  • lounge, dine in a restaurant, even sleep in their own private suites.

    機上的酒吧輕鬆一下,也可以在餐廳裡面吃飯,甚至可以在私人套房裡面睡覺

  • Flying boats were already the giants of the skies.

    飛艇在那個時代已經是空中巨人了

  • And there seemed to be no limit to how big and luxurious they could get.

    而對於它還可以多豪華那簡直是毫無上限

  • The world just needed to be convinced that flying boats really did have a future.

    就是得全世界都相信飛艇在未來還有機會罷了 標題:“桑德斯·羅 公主型飛艇”

  • By the 1930s, two distinct kinds of airplanes had emerged land planes and seaplanes.

    1930年代,有兩種飛機發展起來了:陸上的飛機跟水上飛機

  • The obvious difference was one landed on water, and the other on a runway.

    最明顯的區別就是一個得在水上降落,另一個則是要在跑道上降落

  • But in the 1930s, that was an important distinction.

    不過在1930年代而言那可是個大區別

  • Because many cities didn't even have airports.

    因為那時候很多城市連個機場都沒有

  • And runways were often little more than dirt or grass fields.

    而跑道都基本上是泥土跑道或是草地跑道

  • On the other hand, the world is covered in water.

    而另一邊廂,這個世界很多地方都被水覆蓋著

  • So flying boats could land just about anywhere.

    所以飛艇可以在各處降落

  • Onto the Hudson River at New York came a mighty German Dornier flying boat on its first transatlantic

    紀錄片:紐約哈德遜河上飛來了德國制的道尼爾飛艇,

  • crossing.

    它剛剛完成了首次的跨大西洋飛行

  • Another milestone in the rapid advance of commercial aviation.

    這是民航急速發展的另一個里程碑

  • While the development of land planes was constrained by a lack of suitable runways, flying boats

    當陸上飛機還得受限於有否合適的跑道的時候;飛艇那時候

  • could grow larger, heavier, and more capable.

    已經可以變得更大,更重,而且更有能

  • And because they could reach parts of the world inaccessible to other planes, flying

    又因為飛艇可以飛到其他飛機飛不到的地方

  • boats opened up air travel to far flung exotic destinations.

    它又開啟了往遠方有特色的目的地的航線了

  • For the lucky few who could afford it, flying boats became the preferred way to travel earning

    而那些有錢買機票的人,飛艇因為它的舒適性

  • a reputation for comfort.

    而更受旅客的青睞

  • And even safety.

    而且它還挺安全的

  • Because over the middle of the ocean, the ability to land in case something went wrong,

    因為在大洋的中央,如果出了事還能降落的這個原因

  • was a reason why many thought flying boats were superior.

    令到很多人都覺得飛艇更好

  • And it helped calm the nerves of uneasy passengers.

    而它也能安撫那些乘客的神經

  • The rapid development of flying boats lled many to believe that they were the future

    而飛艇的急速發展也讓很多人認為

  • of long-range air travel.

    它就是未來長途飛機的模式

  • And in 1943, one iconic British Aircraft builder began designing the next generation of

    就在1943年,有一家標誌性的英國飛機廠

  • flying boats.

    開始研究新一代的飛艇

  • An enormous plane that would redefine air travel.

    一台能改寫民航這兩個字的龐然大物

  • But the plan would have to wait.

    不過這個計劃還得再等一下

  • 1943 was the middle of the Second World War.

    因為那時候是二戰的中期

  • New airliners weren't a priority.

    首要的並不是新的民航機

  • But after the War, air travel would certainly boom again.

    但是打完仗之後,毫無疑問的民航又會蓬勃起來了

  • And Saunders-Roe was going to be ready with an all-new flying boat that would put them

    而桑德斯·羅 那時候想著打完仗之後就可以讓他們

  • at the forefront.

    全新的飛艇登上舞台

  • And this is what they came up with.

    而這台飛機就是他們的結論

  • The largest, most advanced flying boat airliner ever built.

    全球最大,最先進的載客飛艇 (備註:最大的飛艇則是休斯H-4)

  • They called it the the Princess, a fitting name for an airliner with a luxurious two-level

    他們叫這台飛艇“公主”,也的確挺符合它有雙層客艙

  • cabin featuring lounges, an actual restaurant, sleeper cabins, even a promenade for its 100

    帶酒吧,餐廳,臥鋪,甚至是一個夠機上100位乘客用的長廊

  • lucky passengers.

    的這個特色的

  • The Princess was an odd looking bird, but it's unique shape helped reduce drag.

    公主型飛艇外觀很奇怪,但是這個特殊的設計也能減低空氣阻力

  • Also aiding with efficiency was a new innovation.

    而且還有一種新科技加持

  • Turboprop engines.

    此乃渦槳發動機

  • Some of the first ever on an airliner.

    也是最早採用渦槳發動機的客機之一

  • And this plane was packed with them, eight turboprops driving contra-rotating propellers

    而這台飛機上全是這款發動機,八個渦槳發動機通過變速箱連接

  • through a gearbox and another two powering single propellers.

    並聯驅動各個同軸反轉螺旋槳,此外還有兩個兩個

  • It was a complex design.

    設計的確是很複雜

  • But it meant the princess could reach speeds of over 600 kilometres per hour, climb to

    不過這10個發動機也意味著飛機能飛超過600KPH

  • 39,000 feet, and travel over 9,000 kilometres.

    爬升到39000尺(約12000米)

  • Practically doubling the performance of earlier flying boats.

    以成倍的性能超越已有個各種飛艇

  • With the Princess, Saunders-Roe brought flying boats into a new era.

    開發了公主型的桑德斯·羅把飛艇帶到了一個新時代

  • Just in time for the 1950s boom in air travel.

    剛剛好來得及趕上1950年代的民航爆發式增長

  • And the company was already designing the next generation to follow the Princess.

    而那時候的桑德斯·羅已經開始著手開發下一代的飛艇了

  • A sleek flying boat with swept wings and turbojets.

    一台平滑,採用後掠翼跟噴射引擎的飛艇

  • And for Saunders-Roe, it was flying boats all the way down.

    這家公司從頭到尾開發的飛機,(絕大部分)都是飛艇

  • They were even developing the world's first flying boat fighter jet.

    他們家就是全世界第一個開發水上噴射戰鬥機的

  • But while the company seemed confident in the future of flying boats, the rest of the

    然而當他們對於飛艇的未來很有信心的時候

  • world wasn't.

    全世界並沒有對它有信心

  • In 1952, the Princess took its maiden flight.

    1952年,公主型首飛了

  • And the enormous plane was a main attraction at the Farnborough airshow.

    這台龐然大物也成為了范堡羅航展的主要項目

  • But airlines weren't interested.

    不過沒航空公司對它有興趣

  • Because a lot had changed during the Second World War.

    因為打完二戰之後時代變了

  • For starters, the War hadn't been fought with flying boats, but enormous land-based

    簡單來說,二戰基本上沒用過飛艇來打的;而是陸基的

  • bombers.

    重型轟炸機來打的

  • Proving the long-range capabilities of land planes.

    它們也證明了陸基飛機是可以長距離飛行的

  • And over the course of the War, thousands of new airports were constructed around the

    而隨著戰爭的進程,世界各地新建了很多機場

  • world with long concrete runways.

    而這些機場都是混凝土跑道

  • After the War, many of these new airports and military aircraft using them were converted

    打完仗之後,很多這些戰時的軍用機場跟軍用機都被

  • to civilian use.

    改成民用的

  • By 1950, all of the world's major airlines had abandoned their flying boats, switching

    而1950年的時候,全部的主流航企都摒棄了飛艇

  • to land-based airliners.

    轉用陸基的民航機

  • It was simply a matter of economics.

    簡單來說就是經濟問題

  • To land on water, flying boats need stronger, bulkier fuselages, so they were naturally

    在水上降落的話,飛艇要一個夠耐用夠大的機身

  • heavier, less aerodynamic, and difficult to pressurize.

    因此本質上肯定會更慢,更違反空氣動力學跟更難為機艙加壓

  • And flying boats were more challenging to fly, requiring additional training for pilots.

    而飛艇更是難飛,又得給飛行員加訓才行

  • And the plane's exposure to corrosive salt water meant more maintenance.

    飛艇日常被鹽蝕也意味著得加倍維護

  • All factors which made flying boats, less profitable for airlines.

    這些因素都讓飛艇更難為航企獲利

  • Still, Saunders-Roe remained committed to flying boats.

    不過這家桑德斯·羅還是堅持開發飛艇

  • Convinced that their advantage in size, safety, and their ability to operate on natural stretches

    說飛艇的尺寸,安全性跟可以在沒怎麼被開發的天然海域上運行

  • of water without much infrastructure, would soon spark their resurgence..All they had

    等這些好處能讓飛艇再次復興;不過他們首先

  • to do was convince everyone else.

    得說服其他人這是真的

  • So the company went on an all-out marketing offensive, asserting that flying boats could

    他們如是者就開展了大規模推銷攻勢,斷言飛艇

  • still match the performance of land planes.

    還可以跟得上陸基飛機

  • And boasting that the Princess would mark the beginning of a resurgence in flying boat

    然後又大放厥詞的說公主型會標誌著飛艇在民航業

  • air travel.

    的復興

  • But desperation also seemed to be creeping in, as the company tried to argue that the

    不過絕望也開始浮現了,隨著製造商

  • switch to land-based aircraft had been driven by false assumptions, outdated figures, or

    反駁換成陸基飛機是因為各種錯誤的猜測,過時的數據,

  • even plain prejudice against flying boats.

    更甚者,對飛艇的偏見

  • But the marketing seemed to fall on deaf ears.

    不過整個市場都好像是聾了似的

  • even BOAC, Britain's leading airline had no interest in the Princess.

    連BOAC(英國海外航空)這家英國主流航企都對它沒興趣

  • Instead they made a bet on the world's first jet-powered airliner.

    他們反而往全球第一款噴射客機豪賭了一把

  • Ordering a fleet of de Havilland Comets.

    下單訂購了整機隊的德哈維蘭彗星

  • And by 1954, it was clear that all the marketing in the world wasn't going to bring back

    而1954年,很明顯的持續的市場攻勢還是沒辦法

  • the era of flying boats.

    讓世界重返飛艇的懷抱

  • Because Sounders-Roe hadn't sold a single plane.

    因為,他們連一台都賣不出去

  • After two years without a buyer, the company was forced to put the Princess and two half-finished

    而經歷兩年來零買家之後,製造商得把原型機跟兩台半成品機身

  • airframes into long term storage.

    拿去長期封存

  • The age of the flying boat was over.

    飛艇的時代已經過去了

  • But not before Saunder-Roe engineers got the chance to dream up the ultimate flying boat.

    不過桑德斯·羅的工程師們還是抓得住機會去異想天開的設計出了前無古人後無來者的飛艇

  • Flying boats couldn't compete with modern airliners, but maybe they didn't have to.

    飛艇不能跟民航機對壘,但是不一定得跟它們對台

  • Because in 1956, Saunder-Roe engineers came up with this.

    因為1956年的時候他們想出了這玩兒

  • A design for a truly colossal one thousand passenger flying boat, Aimed squarely ocean

    一台能搭載1000人的的怪物飛艇,專門針對郵輪市場

  • liners, which in the 1950s were still carrying passengers throughout the world.

    1950年代的時候郵輪還是主力的長距離環球客運方式

  • Over a dozen were in service between Britain and Australia alone.

    那時候有12艘以上的郵輪就只跑英澳航線

  • And one shipping company was looking for a better way to move a huge amount of people.

    而有一家航運公司就想找一個更好的辦法搞大規模的客運

  • It was an idea every bit as crazy as it sounds.

    這個計劃的每一部分都是十足的瘋狂

  • A flying ocean liner the length of a football field with five decks and a crew of 47.

    一台會飛的郵輪,總長度接近一座足球場,帶五層機艙跟47名機組人員

  • Just to get this million and a half pound flying boat airborne, Saunders-Roe envisioned

    要讓這台1.5百萬磅(約680噸)的玩兒飛上天

  • twenty-four jet engines integrated into the enormous wings.

    要把24個羅·羅 康威噴射引擎整合到那一大片機翼裡面

  • And this plane would've been so big, there would be enough room inside the wings for

    這台飛機甚至大的可以讓飛行工程師

  • engineers to walk around.

    在機翼裡面的走道走動

  • Even service all those jets in mid-flight.

    更甚者,還能在飛行期間維護飛機

  • Of course, this enormous flying boat never made it off the drawing board.

    當然這個大傢伙從來沒出過圖紙以外的地方

  • Even more outrageous than its design, would've been the cost to get it built.

    比它那不可理喻的設計更離譜的是它的造價

  • And it would be the last flying boat for Saunders-Roe.

    如果造出來了可能就是桑德斯·羅最後一款飛艇了

  • By the 1960's they shifted to other emerging fields.

    1960年代他們轉行去另一個冒氣的行業了(此為氣墊船)

  • And soon Saunders-Roe disappeared altogether, merging with another British aircraft builder.

    沒多久該公司也隨著跟其他英國國內的航空器製造商合併消失了

  • Meanwhile, the Princess Flying Boats sat in storage for over a decade.

    與此同時,公主型飛艇經歷過十數年的存放之後

  • Proposals to convert them into cargo planes, troop transports, even experimental nuclear-powered

    有計劃想把它改成貨機,運兵機,更甚者改為核動力飛機

  • aircraft never panned out.

    不過均未能成事

  • And by 1967, all three airframes had corroded.

    到了1967年,這3個機身都受到嚴重腐蝕了

  • And the enormous planes were broken up and sold for scrap.

    這款龐然大物只落得了拆解報廢的結局

  • It was the largest and most advanced flying boat airliner ever built.

    公主型飛艇是到目前為止造過最大,最先進的民航飛艇

  • Strangely futuristic but also archaic at the same time.

    有一種奇怪的未來風但同時也很過時

  • A plane designed for a future that never existed.

    一台為從不存在的“未來”而設計出來的飛機

  • Choosing my next topic isn't as easy as it sounds.

    【廣告時間】選下一期視頻的題目並不簡單

  • I have to consider whether it'll do well with YouTube's recommendation algorithm,

    我還得想想看那期視頻能不能跟YTB的推薦算法“談得來”

  • that decides which videos to promote to viewers.

    就是這玩兒決定給用戶推送視頻的

  • I also have to worry about whether my videos will get demonetized, and that means most

    我還得擔心視頻會不會被去收益掉,也就是說

  • military topics are just too risky.

    軍事題目實在是太高風險了

  • YouTube decides which videos you watch and also influences which ones I create.

    YTB決定你看什麼視頻,也影響我改弄什麼視頻

  • It's time to do something about it.

    事實上該做些啥了

  • By now you've heard that $2.99 a month gets you access to thousands of big budget documentaries

    現在你應該聽過用每月2.99美元的價格就可以在CuriosityStream上觀看上千條

  • on CuriosityStream.

    高成本紀錄片

  • And to Nebula, where independent channels like Mustard are free to create the content

    而Nebula,可以讓像我們Mustard這樣的公司自由創作

  • we want to create.

    我們想做的內容

  • In a few weeks, I'll be releasing my first Nebula original.

    幾個禮拜內我會上傳我第一條Nebula original視頻

  • A video about a secret japanese World War Two machine that almost changed the course

    一條有關二戰時期日軍一種差點把戰爭流向

  • of the War.

    改變掉的機器的視頻

  • Nebula is home to a growing number of originals, and it's where you can support Mustard and

    Nebula 也是很多原創片的集中地,你也可以在這裡支持Mustard還有

  • content from your favorite educational creators.

    其他的教育性視頻製作者的內容

  • Free from ads or sponsor messages.

    沒廣告也沒贊助商鏈接

  • If you're looking for a deeper dive into fascinating topics, CuriosityStream is where

    如果你想追尋更深層的有趣議題的話,CuriosityStream

  • you'll find thousands of high quality documentaries.

    就可以讓你找到上千條這類的高質紀錄片

  • From history and nature to engineering and design.

    從歷史到自然,再到工程學跟設計學均有涉獵

  • Get a free month of both CuriosityStream and nebula when you go to curiositystream.com/mustard

    用此條鏈接curiositystream.com/mustard 使用mustard這個優惠碼註冊

  • and use the promo code 'mustard' when you sign up.

    可同時獲得兩個網址送一個月的使用權

This video was made possible by CuriosityStream.

本期影片由CuriosityStream贊助播出