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  • Thanks to SquareSpace for making this video possible.

    感謝SquareSpace讓這支影片成為可能

  • More on that after this video.

    影片尾聲有更多介紹

  • With a wingspan greater than a Boeing 747's, this was

    有著比波音747更大的翼展的它 是英國有史以來建造過的最大型飛機

  • the largest aircraft ever built by Britain.

    相比同期飛機它更像是艘「飛行郵輪」

  • More a flying oceanliner than plane, it had sleeping cabins, a dining room, a cocktail

    機上備有獨立臥艙、餐廳

  • bar and lounge.

    雞尾酒吧和休息室

  • Even a 23 seat movie theater.

    甚至還有二十三個座位的電影院

  • And if it had been the 1930's, when transatlantic crossings were pretty much always by boat,

    若它出現在靠坐郵輪跨洋旅行的1930年代

  • it might've been a hit.

    它應該會大賣

  • But this lumbering super-sized piston airliner was being introduced for the 1950's, when

    但這充滿噪音的巨無霸螺旋槳客機

  • the first jets were already taking to the skies.

    卻是在噴射客機投入服務的1950年代完成的

  • After a massive development effort, Britain was stuck with a plane that nobody wanted,

    在耗費大量心血完成後

  • designed for an era that no longer existed.

    英國得到了一款生錯年代沒人想搭的飛機

  • In the midst of the Second World War, with battles raging across the globe, the British

    耗盡心血的失敗品 英國布里斯托布拉巴宗型客機

  • began to worry.

    在戰火延燒全球的二戰中期,英國開始擔憂

  • Not just about the war, but what happens after.

    不只是因為戰爭,他們同時也煩惱著戰後將發生什麼事

  • Because as soon as victory was assured, Britain would almost certainly begin losing a different

    因為二戰的勝利就近在眼前 但英國在轉眼間就要輸在另一個戰場上

  • kind of battle; one for the future of their aviation industry.

    戰後的航空產業爭霸戰

  • Because the Americans had a whole range of military transports which they could easily

    美國發展出各式的軍用運輸機

  • redesign into airliners after the war.

    戰後能輕易轉換為民用客機

  • But Britain's industry had been focused on building bombers, so they could dish it

    但為了能更有效率對德國做出反擊

  • back to Germany.

    英國全心投入在轟炸機的設計上

  • But these bombers couldn't easily be redesigned into airliners.

    但這些轟炸機無法輕易改裝成民用客機

  • So Britain came up with a plan.

    所以英國發起了一系列計畫

  • They'd design a whole range of cutting edge airliners, completely from scratch.

    它們從零開始設計了一系列劃時代客機

  • Some, were incredibly ambitious.

    有些設計極具野心

  • Like building the world's first jet powered airliner.

    像是世界第一種噴射客機

  • But the way Britain really planned to get ahead of the Americans, was to build the world's

    但英國計畫真正用來超越美國的

  • largest Commercial Transport.

    是建造出世界最大的商用客機

  • An enormous luxury-liner of the skies, which they'd name the Brabazon.

    而它就是後來名為布拉巴宗的奢華客機

  • It would have true transatlantic capability.

    它將擁有真正橫渡大洋的能力

  • Able to fly non-stop from London to New York against prevailing eastern winds.

    它能突破由西吹來的強烈信風 從倫敦直飛到紐約

  • In the 1940's, this would have been quite the feat.

    若它出現在1940年代會非常成功

  • Transatlantic flights were almost always done in stages to allow for refueling.

    因為當時的客機需要停靠在中繼站加油

  • The task of building this behemoth was assigned to The Bristol Aeroplane Company.

    這空中巨獸的建造計畫交付給了布里斯托飛機公司

  • And its development was given the highest priority, over all the other planned airliners.

    這計畫擁有最高的優先度 高過其他計畫中的客機

  • But the Brabazon wasn't just going to push the limits of airliner size and range.

    但布拉巴宗計畫 不僅於突破客機極限大小與航程

  • This plane was also going to redefine luxury.

    這架客機將重新定義奢華

  • Because, although the Brabazon would have been large enough to seat over 300 passengers,

    盡管布拉巴宗的大小能搭載超過三百名乘客

  • it was only ever intended to carry between 50 and one hundred.

    它卻只被設計搭載五十到一百名乘客

  • And some felt even that was too many.

    甚至還有人認為這樣已經載太多了

  • Because comfort was the highest priority, in luxury class each passenger was allotted

    因為這架飛機的設計著重在旅客的舒適度

  • an incredible 283 cubic feet of space.

    每位尊貴艙乘客將能分配到八立方公尺的 生活空間

  • The less fortunate would have to settle for 212.

    而在稍微便宜的艙等能分到六立方公尺

  • There would be private sleeping compartments, a dedicated dining room.

    機上配著私人睡覺用隔間與餐廳

  • A kitchen for preparing fine meals.

    用來準備高級飲食的廚房

  • A cocktail lounge and bar for schmoozing.

    休閒用的雞尾酒吧

  • And of course, no flight is complete without a movie.

    當然,一趟好的飛行當然少不了電影

  • But on this plane.

    而在這飛機上呢

  • we're talking about an actual movie theater with seating for 23.

    有一個有二十三個座位的小電影院

  • The Brabazon was also fitted with cutting edge innovations.

    布拉巴宗上有著不少劃時代的技術創新

  • A fully pressurized, air conditioned cabin.

    像是全機艙都有空氣加壓

  • Electric engine controls, and high-pressure hydraulics to operate its massive control

    電子引擎控制裝置 還有用來控制這龐然大物的液壓控制面板

  • surfaces.

    但要讓這滿載重量為一百三十噸的龐然大物

  • But getting this 130 tone, fully loaded behemoth to make it all the way from London to New

    一口氣從倫敦飛到紐約並不容易

  • York.. in one shot, wasn't going to be easy.

    設計公司減輕重量上花了大量努力

  • Every effort was made to save weight.

    布拉巴宗客機使用了專門設計的機殼

  • A custom, lighter, non-standard aircraft skin was used.

    巨大的機翼上乘載著一萬六千加侖的燃料和

  • It's enormous wing housed more than 16 thousand gallons of fuel, and eight of the most powerful

    八具當時推力最大的活塞式引擎

  • piston engines available.

    這些引擎的裝設......非常複雜

  • And their arrangement was, well, complex

    再也沒有甚麼能比有著十八對汽缸的增壓引擎 讓旅客有自信地進行跨洋飛行

  • Nothing instills confidence over the middle of the Atlantic Ocean like a pair of 18 cylinder

    經由傳動軸連接到超壓變速器後

  • supercharged engines, each connected by a drive shaft to an overstressed gearbox, which

    再由每兩具引擎各驅動一組同軸反轉螺旋槳

  • then drives a pair of contra-rotating propellers.

    多虧了這驚人的複雜度

  • And for all the incredible complexity.

    這八具引擎勉強能產生足夠讓它起飛的推力

  • the 8 engines produced barely enough power to get this enormous plane off the ground,

    最後它的巡航速度來到了每小時四百公里

  • and give it a cruise speed of only 250 miles per hour.

    但布拉巴宗真正需要的是 推力更大的渦輪螺旋槳引擎

  • What the Brabazon really needed was more powerful turboprop engines.

    不幸的是發展出推力夠的新引擎 會趕不上計劃時間

  • But these wouldn't be ready in time.

    所以計畫上第一架布拉巴宗測試機 使用的是活塞引擎

  • So a decision was made to finish the first brabazon with piston engines, and begin building

    第二架再使用布里斯托公司開發的渦輪引擎

  • a second one using a new turboprop being developed by Bristol.

    1949年夏末

  • In late summer 1949, the first Brabazon rolled out of it's enormous hanger to make its

    第一架布拉巴宗 從巨大的機庫駛出進行首度試飛

  • first flight.

    當時飛機內部結構還未完成

  • It's interior hadn't yet been finished.

    但布拉巴宗向人們證明了它的適航性 並讓目睹者驚嘆

  • But the Brabazon proved it's airworthiness to awestruck crowds, attracting enormous praise

    更從媒體那得到極高的評價

  • from the press.

    但它未能吸引到任何一家航空公司前來訂購

  • But what it didn't attract was a single airline.

    問題是 布拉巴宗並不是設計用來跟其他客機競爭的

  • The problem was, the Brabazon wasn't really designed to compete with any other airliners.

    相反的,它是用來搶奪跨洋航班的富裕客群

  • Instead, it was going steal away wealthy passengers away from ocean liners.

    若這是發生在1943年這將會是很棒的計畫

  • And in 1943 that might've been a solid plan.

    但在1949年的定期跨洋航班早已大幅增加

  • But by 1949, the number of aircraft making regular transatlantic flights, had grown dramatically.

    與布里斯托公司一起研發布拉巴宗的 英國海外航空也就是後來英航

  • BOAC, later known British Airways, had worked closely with Bristol to develop the Brabazon.

    到最後也不想要布拉巴宗

  • And in the end, even they didn't want it.

    當布拉巴宗首飛時

  • By the time the Brabazon made its first flight, the airline had already begun purchasing Boeing

    英國海外航空早已採購波音同溫層巡航者 負責跨洋服務

  • Stratocruisers for their transatlantic flights.

    同溫層巡航者能攜帶一百名乘客

  • A plane that carried up to a 100 passengers, with half as many engines, and nearly half

    卻只用布拉巴宗一半的引擎數與 一半的起飛重量

  • the weight.

    首度投入服務的噴射客機―彗星型客機 更比布拉巴宗早幾個月試飛

  • And the Comet, the first jet airliner to enter service, beat the Brabazon to the skies, making

    徹底地把布拉巴宗從空中「踢」下來

  • its first flight several months earlier.

    彗星型客機航程沒有布拉巴宗那麼遠

  • The Comet didn't fly far as the Brabazon, nor did have a cocktail lounge.

    更沒有雞尾酒吧在機上

  • But it flew nearly twice as fast.

    但它的飛行速度接近布拉巴宗的兩倍快

  • And that was far more appealing for passengers who could afford the tickets.

    對買得起機票的乘客來說這更具吸引力

  • For the next three years, the Brabazon lumbered around Britain and Europe, making high profile

    在這之後的數年布拉巴宗以高姿態 在英國與歐洲間往返

  • appearances and wowing crowds with its size.

    用它驚人的大小使看過它的人驚嘆

  • But few airlines showed any interest in the enormous complex plane.

    但只有少數幾家航空公司 對它產生那麼一丁點興趣

  • Meanwhile, back in Britain, the second Brabazon sat half finished as Bristol struggled to

    此時的第二架布拉巴宗以半成品的姿態 在英國停擺

  • develop more advanced turboprops.

    因為開發商無法發展出 夠先進的渦輪螺旋槳引擎

  • By 1953, it was clear that Britain was parading around a giant white elephant.

    到了1953年,很明顯的英國是在帶著 她的高貴失敗品到處遊行

  • After 6 million pounds spent on it's development,

    在耗費了六百萬英鎊的研發後此計畫宣布取消

  • the program was cancelled. And the Brabazon, and it's half finished turboprop successor were

    最後布拉巴宗與它的半成品渦輪螺旋槳引擎 被秤重賣出

  • sold for their weight in scrap.

    在僅僅9個月後 波音推出了他們的新型噴射客機Dash80

  • And remarkably, just 9 months later, Boeing unvaild it's Dash 80.

    也就是後來把跨洋飛行 壓縮在七小時以內的波音707

  • A jet powered airliner that would become the 707, bringing a transatlantic crossing down

    盡管布拉巴宗的諸多創新影響後來的航空業

  • to as little as 7 hours.

    它的核心概念還是太過時了

  • Despite introducing new innovations, many of which influenced the future of aviation,

    隨著新科技的發展 乘客不再是那群1930年代的有錢人

  • the Brabazon's driving philosophy was outdated.

    布拉巴宗一點成功的機會也沒有

  • New disruptive technologies and a completely new generation of airline passengers, not

    也許你有一個創業的野心

  • the same ultrarich ones from the 1930's, meant that the Brabazon never really stood

    或是想要經營點小副業

  • a chance.

    不管怎樣,有個網站總能幫助你行銷自己的想法

  • Maybe you've got big ambitions to launch a business, or maybe you've been thinking

    那麼就來使用SquareSpace建立自己的優秀網站吧

  • about something more modest, like a side hustle.

    不論是線上商店、產品介紹或任何你想做的

  • Whatever you do, a good website is key to getting you or your idea out there.

    多虧了SquareSpace的簡易註冊方式 只要短短幾分鐘便能讓你的網站迅速上線

  • So, make your next move with SquareSpace's all-in-one platform for building stunning

    除此之外SquareSpace大量的美術模板能幫助你吸引顧客

  • websites, online stores, portfolios, or whatever else you've got going on.

    現在就來用squarespace.com/mustard建立自己的網站吧!

  • With their seamless easy domain registration, you'll literally have a site up in minutes.

    使用mustard代碼能讓你的首購打9折歐!

  • After that, you've got an incredible range of beautiful award-winning templates to help

  • you impress.

  • Start building your website for free at squarespace.com/mustard, and when you're ready to launch your website,

  • use the code mustard for 10% off your first purchase.

Thanks to SquareSpace for making this video possible.

感謝SquareSpace讓這支影片成為可能

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英國造過最大的飛機布里斯托布拉巴宗(The Largest Aircraft Ever Built By Britain: The Bristol Brabazon)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 30 日
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