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  • This video was made possible by Skillshare, an online community where you

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  • can learn anything, from graphic design, to how to grow a YouTube channel. The

    Skillshare是一個線上社群 讓你學習從圖像設計到經營YouTube頻道

  • first 650 people to sign up will get two months for just 99 Cents. Check out the

    前650位註冊用戶將獲得每月99美分的優惠方案 點擊下方網址獲得更多資訊

  • link below. In the late 1960's, Dassault Aviation made a huge bet. The company

    在1960年代晚期,達梭航太決定來場豪賭

  • designed its first commercial airliner, the Mercure 100, to do one thing

    推出該公司第一款商用客機,達梭水星100

  • fantastically well. Fly short routes more efficiently than any other airliner. With

    只為一個目標:在短程飛行上比其他客機更有效率

  • the hope of taking on rival giants like Boeing, Dassault invested large sums into

    為了對抗像波音這樣的航太巨人 達梭投入了巨額資金

  • developing its new jet, and built several factories in anticipation of demand. But

    並開設數條生產線來滿足預期中的需求量

  • if you've never heard of the Mercure, it's because airlines weren't interested

    如果你沒聽過它 那是因為當時的航空公司都對它並沒有興趣

  • in buying it. And Dassault's new jet would go down as one of the worst commercial

    達梭的這款新型噴射機

  • failures in aviation history.

    成為了史上最大的商業失敗之一

  • designed and built by French aircraft manufacturer Dassault,

    由法國的航太製造商達梭設計開發

  • the Mercure 100 first flew in 1971. It was an impressive aircraft for its day

    水星100 於1971年首次啟航

  • with advanced aerodynamics and a wider cabin than its competitors. And it

    其先進的空氣動力學設計和寬廣的機艙空間 受到各界矚目

  • offered some pretty impressive features, including a heads-up display system for

    此外還配備了極為先進的設備 例如駕駛艙內的抬頭顯示系統

  • its pilots. The Mercure had great performance characteristics, especially

    這架水星客機具有很好的性能特徵

  • climbing out of congested airports. But most importantly, it was efficient. The

    尤其在繁忙的機場中更為出色

  • Mercure had been highly optimized for short-range air routes. So here's a plane

    更重要的是它很有效率

  • that would save Airlines money. But to understand why virtually no airline

    水星客機專為短程航線而生

  • ended up buying it, we need to look at the Mercure's development, and why

    所以它理論上會為航空公司節省成本

  • Dassault built the aircraft in the first place. In the 1960s Dassault was a

    而為了理解它為何不受青睞

  • company renowned for its iconic Mirage military fighter aircraft and Falcon

    我們必須了解水星客機的開發過程

  • business jets, but the company had bigger ambitions and had spotted an opportunity.

    以及達梭航太建造它的原因

  • See many civil air routes around the world were actually very short, under a

    1960年代

  • thousand miles and at the time a lot of these short haul routes were served by

    達梭航太以生產幻象戰機 和獵鷹商務噴射客機聞名

  • Boeing's recently introduced 737 and Douglas DC-9. Dassault figured that if it

    而他們有著更大的野心 並發現一個大展身手的好機會

  • could design an airliner optimized specifically for these very short routes

    事實上,世界上許多國內航線都很短 不到1000英里 (約1609公里)

  • then it could outperform Boeing's and Douglas's offerings in a key segment of

    而大多時候這些航線都是由 波音新推出的737

  • the market. With low operating costs and a break-even load factor, airlines

    和道格拉斯DC-9來執飛

  • initially showed interest. But building such a plane was an ambitious

    達梭航太認為如果能專門為了短程航線 設計出一款飛機

  • undertaking. Luckily for Dassault the French

    它在該領域的表現可能超越波音和道格拉斯 並成為分割市場版圖的關鍵

  • government was also convinced of the market demand for a specialized

    憑著較低的營運成本和收支平衡負載率 一開始成功吸引到航空公司的注意

  • short-range airliner. The government was eager for Dassault to build a 737

    然而這樣的計畫只是空有野心的承諾

  • competitor and to spur France's aviation industry. It provided a loan for just

    幸好達梭航太成功說服法國政府

  • over half the development costs, which were to be repaid through sales of the

    認為這樣的市場需求 使短程客機的發展前景看好

  • aircraft. Development started in 1967 and Dassault was so confident in the Mercure

    當局急切地希望達梭推出一款 能和波音737抗衡的產品

  • concept that had built four factories across France to meet the anticipated

    藉此刺激法國的航空製造業

  • demand. Reportedly the company was expecting to

    研發資金中有一半來自政府投資

  • built its 300th airliner in less than a decade. Like the rival Boeing 737, the

    預計在銷售獲利中回收成本

  • Mercure was powered by a pair of proven but now dated Pratt & Whitney turbo fans

    研發始於1967年 達梭航太對於水星客機的概念很有信心

  • But despite having virtually the same engines as the 737, the Mercure could

    為了因應預期中的銷售量 而在法國各地共建造四間工廠

  • carry more passengers and despite being larger the Mercure could even out climb

    該公司在報告中指出 預計要在十年內打造三百架

  • the 737. These impressive performance advantages were due to the Mercure being

    一如其對手波音737

  • so well optimized for short sectors. By significantly reducing fuel tank size,

    水星客機配備兩具當時最先進的 普惠渦輪風扇發動機

  • Dassault reduced the structural weight of its airliner by as much as 10%. By

    儘管動力引擎和737一模一樣 水星客機能承載更多乘客

  • using state-of-the-art computer design tools, Dassault created a specialized wing

    雖然體積比737更大 速度卻更快

  • giving the Mercure excellent climb and descent performance - an important

    這些性能優點都是針對短程飛行而設計

  • metric for efficient short haul flights. But these advantages, of course, come with

    藉由大幅縮小油箱

  • some trade-offs. See a fully loaded Mercure had a maximum range of only one

    達梭為該型客機減少約10%的結構重量

  • thousand miles. A Boeing 737-200 had a much greater range, up to three times as

    藉由當時最先進的電腦軟體 設計出特製的機翼形狀

  • much on some later variants. But there was also another important design

    賦予水星客機極佳的爬升和下降性能 在短程飛行中相當受用

  • difference. A 737 was a robust aircraft which could be suited to serve both

    為了這些優點 設計時必然有些取捨和犧牲

  • short and medium sectors, so Boeing was able to adapt the airframe and adopt new

    一架滿載的水星客機 最高航程只有1000英里 (約1609公里)

  • engines to cater to different segments of the market

    而一架波音737-200能飛更遠 其衍生型甚至擁有三倍航程

  • a 737-100 introduced in 1968 carried a 103 passengers over 1,700

    更重要的還有其他設計差異

  • miles. But after four decades of development the 737 had evolved into an

    波音737是一款性能強大的客機 被設計來應付短程和中程航行

  • entire family of aircraft, with some variants having more than twice the

    於是波音能藉由改造機體和更換引擎

  • passenger capacity and range of the original. While the Mercure had also been

    以迎合不同的市場需求

  • designed with stretch potential, its mission was always going to be decidedly

    1968年推出的737-100能承載103位旅客 飛行長達1700英里 (約2735公里) 遠

  • short-haul. Modifying the aircraft to increase its range so it could serve a

    然而發展了四十年後 已經衍生出一個737家族

  • broader segment of the market like the 737 wasn't going to be easy.

    有些衍生型的載客量甚至是原型的兩倍

  • And so the Mercure's high degree of design optimization for short-haul

    雖然水星客機也被設計成具有衍生的潛力

  • routes, rather than being a competitive advantage quickly became an enormous

    它的目標仍然是以短程客機為主

  • problem. Dassault aggressively marketed the Mercure as an economical choice for

    想要增加其航程 讓它跟737一樣擁有更寬廣的市場

  • airlines. With its unparalleled short range performance, it should have been

    並不是一件容易的事

  • attractive to airlines that were operating 737's

    既然水星客機是以短程航線為目標來設計

  • and DC-9's on short-haul routes. But the Mercure refused to sell. See if

    這些所謂的「優勢」 很快地變成它的銷售弱點

  • you operate the Mercure out of France, Dassault's proposition makes some sense.

    達梭航太積極地將其宣傳為 經濟實惠的選擇

  • But from outlying European countries like Spain, the Mercure's limited range

    照理說它在短程飛行的優勢

  • is... well very limiting. And in the United States that limited range becomes an

    應該能吸引到原本使用737和DC-9的航空 用在短程航線上

  • even bigger problem. Airlines, as it turns out, we're willing to take a hit on

    然而它沒有被賣出去

  • operating efficiency even if it meant they'd have an aircraft that was

    如果以法國的機場為樞紐 達梭的客機還派得上用場

  • versatile to fill both medium and short range roles. Some argue that Dassault's

    但是地處偏遠一點的歐洲國家,像西班牙 水星客機有限的航程就難以應付啦

  • decision to market the Mercure as a direct 737 competitor also contributed

    而在美國境內 這樣的窘境更加明顯

  • to its commercial failure. Well in many ways the Mercure was a conventional

    結果顯示 航空公司大多希望

  • airliner its range made it more of a high-capacity regional jet. But there

    能更有效率地運用其手上的班機

  • were other factors going against the aircraft, like the 1970 Oil Crisis which

    這意味著他們更喜歡 能夠同時應付中程和短程的機型

  • limited Airlines purchasing power, a devalued US dollar and a high rate of

    有些人認為達梭當年 將水星客機塑造為737的競爭對手

  • European inflation - all of which had made the Mercure

    也是導致其銷售失敗的原因之一

  • more expensive to purchase. Air Inter, an airline in which the French government

    水星客機的航程 使其定位侷限在地區性的高承載噴射機

  • had a large ownership stake, was the only airline to ever purchase Mercure's and it

    但還有其他因素對其銷售不利

  • ordered only 10. An 11th Mercure, a prototype that had been refurbished was

    例如1970年石油危機 使航空公司財政緊縮

  • later also delivered to the airline. Dassault struggled to recover from its

    加上美元貶值 以及歐洲嚴重的通貨膨脹

  • colossal commercial miscalculation, and reportedly the company would need to

    種種因素導致水星客機的價格居高不下

  • sell somewhere between 120 and 150

    由法國政府控股的 法國內陸航空 (Air Inter)

  • Mercure's just to break even. So the company raced to develop improved

    是該型客機唯一買家 且僅僅買下10架

  • versions like the Mercure 200C, which was to have improved range. But the

    至於第11架是原型機 被翻新後也交給了法國內陸航空

  • Mercure design's had been so carefully optimized for short routes, you could say

    達梭航太試圖從這次嚴重的 商業失敗中翻身

  • the company had engineered itself into a corner. Because the extensive design

    根據分析

  • modifications that would have been needed to give the Mercure additional

    至少需要賣出120到150架水星客機 才能回收成本

  • fuel capacity, well, were simply too expensive to ever make it a profitable

    於是公司決定研發進階版本 例如水星200C

  • proposition. The 11 Mercure's that did enter service would go on to fly until

    增加其航程

  • 1995. They safely carried over 44 million passengers and made over 400,000 flights -

    然而其原先設計只適合短程飛行

  • albeit short efficient flights. But the story of French

    該公司等於把自己逼入一條死胡同

  • aviation didn't end with the Mercure, it was really just the beginning.

    因為衍生型的改良設計 必須擴大其油箱容量

  • I've been getting a lot of emails asking for advice on growing a YouTube channel,

    售價又更上層樓 雪上加霜

  • so I want to share some insights and to plug our sponsor Skillshare, an online

    最後總共11架水星客機投入營運 直到1995年為止

  • learning community with over 18,000 courses on just about anything, including

    期間執行了44萬次航班且無事故 累積載運量達4400萬人次

  • design business technology, even courses specifically designed to help YouTube

    當然,都是短程航線

  • creators. If you're gonna start a YouTube channel, persistence and creating quality

    但水星客機作為先驅 仍為法國的航太發展寫下嶄新的一頁

  • content is just the beginning, because there's more to this YouTube thing than

    常常有人寫信問我 該怎麼經營YouTube頻道

  • meets the eye. Every minute 300 hours of content gets

    所以我想跟大家分享一個好東西 同時也是我們贊助商的Skillshare

  • uploaded to YouTube, so if you want your videos to stand out, you'll need to

    一個擁有超過18000個課程的線上學習平台 內容包羅萬象

  • understand how YouTube actually works, the importance of things like effective

    有設計、商業、科技 甚至是專為YouTuber設計的課程

  • video descriptions, SEO tags, video thumbnails, sharing on social media, even

    若你要經營一個YouTube頻道 維持影片的品質和數量只是第一步

  • the time of day you upload can impact your chances of success. The formula that

    除了影片要吸睛之外 還有更多要學的

  • makes a successful video is more of an art than a science, so you want to make

    在YouTube上平均每分鐘 有多達300小時長的影片被上傳

  • sure you have all your bases covered. A great Skillshare course to help you do

    想要讓你的影片脫穎而出 就必須了解YouTube究竟如何運作

  • that is Matt Ballek's How To Grow Your YouTube Channel which teaches the

    例如影片下方的內容描述怎麼寫、

  • fundamentals of optimizing your video so you have a much better shot of reaching

    如何運用標籤改變你的搜尋排名、 影片縮圖、社群網站分享

  • viewers. I'd also recommend checking out Phil Ebiner's Youtube's Best Practices

    甚至是上傳日期都可能影響你的成功機率

  • for a great high level discussion on how you can find and grow your audience. Of

    要找出成功的方程式 不只是科學問題,更是一門藝術

  • course you could scour the internet for bits and pieces of this information, but

    所以至少要把基本功練好

  • if you're anything like me you'd rather spend your time actually making videos.

    Skillshare上有一門很棒的課程 Matt Ballek的《如何經營你的YouTube頻道》

  • And that's why Skillshare with its thousands of videos designed to help you

    揭露原理 教你如何調整作法來吸引觀眾

  • with YouTube video editing, animation and much more is such a fantastic resource.

    另外我也推薦Phil Ebiner的 《YouTube最佳指南》

  • The first 650 viewers who sign up for Skillshare using the link in the

    裡面詳細討論到 如何找到目標客群並增加瀏覽量

  • description will get two months of learning for just 99 cents, after that

    當然你也可以到處爬文 在其他地方找到類似資訊

  • it's just $10 a month. Whatever your passion skill share have got you covered.

    但如果你像我一樣 想把時間花在真正的製作影片上

This video was made possible by Skillshare, an online community where you

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商业失败:达索美居的故事(A Commercial Failure: The Dassault Mercure Story)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 29 日
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