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  • On this episode of China Uncensored,

    本集《中國解密》:

  • with China playing a bigger role,

    隨著中國的地位逐漸攀升

  • what will the Internet become?

    網際網路將會變成什麼樣子?

  • Hi, welcome to China Uncensored,

    歡迎收看《中國解密》

  • I'm your host Chris Chappell.

    我是主持人 Chris Chappell

  • The Internet!

    網際網路!

  • Some of you watching may not have even been alive

    可能有些正在收看的觀眾

  • at a time when the Internet wasn't everywhere.

    在出生時網路就已經很發達了

  • But I remember such a time.

    但我記得那個

  • When computers were mysterious novelties,

    電腦仍然神秘新鮮的年代

  • completely misunderstood by popular media.

    那時大眾媒體徹底誤會了電腦

  • What's your preference?

    你比較偏好哪個?

  • Apple, Pear, Wang?

    蘋果、梨子、王?

  • Oh listen, I don't know anything about computers?

    喔,我對電腦一無所知

  • Nobody does!

    每個人都是!

  • Electric Dreams was popular, right?

    《神通情人夢》很受歡迎吧?

  • Anyway, the world has now changed in weird, wild ways.

    總之,世界已詭異而狂野的改變了

  • Because Internet.

    因為網際網路

  • But at the beginning,

    但在一開始

  • no one really knew what to do with computers.

    沒有人真的知道要拿電腦來做什麼

  • Other than, you know

    除了…

  • designing your own woman.

    設計出你理想中的女人

  • Okay, look.

    你看

  • You know how you're always talking about how you can

    你總是講說可以如何

  • simulate all that stuff on your computer?

    在你的電腦上模擬那些東西吧?

  • You know?

    對不對

  • What's the difference,

    有什麼差別?

  • why can't we simulate a girl?

    為什麼我們不能模擬出一個女生?

  • The 80s were magnificent.

    80 年代棒透了

  • But clearly at that time,

    但很明顯的在那個年代

  • no one really could predict

    沒有人能夠預料

  • where this whole Internet thing was going.

    這整個網際網路將會如何發展

  • Although it is largely still about finding the perfect woman.

    儘管現在仍然有很大一部份 被用來找尋那個完美的女人

  • Anyway, the point is, 20 years ago,

    總之重點是,20 年前

  • the Internet was still developing.

    網際網路仍然在發展中

  • And so in 1998

    因此在 1998 年

  • the US government helped create the Los Angeles based non-profit,

    美國政府協助成立了 總部位於洛杉磯的非營利組織

  • ICANN.

    ICANN

  • To put it very simply,

    簡單來說

  • there's a department of ICANN that's in charge

    ICANN 裡頭有個部門專門負責

  • of the Internet's address book.

    網際網路的通訊錄

  • It makes sure users get to the website

    它確保使用者能夠連線到

  • they intend to visit.

    他們想要去的網站

  • Like when you type in YouTube.com,

    例如你輸入 YouTube.com

  • it sends you to YouTube's website

    它就把你送到 YouTube 的網站

  • so you don't have to type in the long string of numbers

    所以你就不需要輸入一大串數字

  • which is YouTube's actual IP address.

    也就是 YouTube 的實際 IP 位址

  • It's like how you don't bother remembering

    就像是你不需要費心

  • your mom's phone number anymore

    記住你媽媽的電話號碼

  • because you can just go to your phone's Contacts

    因為你可以直接到你手機的通訊錄裡頭

  • and click her name.

    然後點一下她的名字

  • But you use ICANN way more than you call your mother.

    但你使用 ICANN 的次數 遠多於打電話給你媽媽

  • ICANN is like if the entire world shared Contacts

    ICANN 就像是整個世界

  • for Internet addresses.

    共享網路位址的通訊錄

  • That's really important because

    這非常重要

  • whoever controls the Internet's address book

    因為誰掌控了網路位址的通訊錄

  • also has the ability to censor the Internet.

    就掌控了審查網際網路的能力

  • Let's say ICANN removes the domain name youtube.com.

    假設 ICANN 移除了 youtube.com 的網域名稱

  • YouTube itself may still exist,

    YouTube 這個網站可能仍然存在

  • but would you know what numbers to type in

    但你知道要輸入哪些號碼

  • to get there?

    才能連線過去嗎?

  • 99.9% of people wouldn't be able to access it.

    99.9% 的人沒有能力辦到

  • So ICANN is really important.

    因此 ICANN 十分重要

  • As the Economist puts it,

    就像《經濟學人》說的

  • That is why,

    「這就是為什麼

  • as the internet grew up,

    當網際網路越來越壯大

  • America decided not to hand control to the United Nations

    美國決定不將控制權交給聯合國

  • or another international body steered by governments.”

    或其他由政府掌控的國際機構

  • But for the most part,

    但大多時候

  • the US government has been pretty much hands off,

    美國政府不太插手

  • which let the Internet thrive

    因此導致了

  • as the global depository of cat videos

    我們今天所看到

  • we know today.

    滿滿來自世界各地的貓咪影片

  • But something changed this past Saturday.

    但上週六有件事情改變了

  • Because the US let its contract with ICANN expire.

    美國和 ICANN 的合約到期

  • As of October 1,

    10 月 1 日起

  • it will be run on a “multi-stakeholder model.”

    ICANN 將會以多方利益關係人模式經營

  • In other words,

    換句話說

  • a “mix of corporate interests, government officials,

    該模式將包含散佈在四個國際組織中的

  • activists and experts

    營利企業、政府官員

  • spread across four international bodies.”

    社運人士及專家

  • Whew, this is getting complicated!

    越來越複雜了!

  • Can we go back to the old days for a bit?

    我們可以回到美好的過去嗎?

  • Much better

    好多了

  • You see,

    要知道

  • the Internet was never meant to have a central authority.

    網際網路本來就不應該有個中央管制機構

  • And the less say that governments have,

    政府插手干預得越少

  • the more free the Internet, right?

    網路就越自由,對吧?

  • After all,

    畢竟

  • there are 3.6 billion Internet users,

    全球有 36 億網路使用人口

  • so of course

    所以當然

  • the vast majority are outside the US.

    大多數都在美國境外

  • And after Edward Snowden revealed

    而且自從史諾登揭露了

  • that the NSA was spying on the global Internet,

    美國國安局在監控全球網路後

  • a lot of people called for the US

    很多人都要求美國

  • to give up control.

    放棄控制權

  • So did a lot of

    其中也包含了

  • major technology and telecommunication companies.

    許多重要的科技及電信公司

  • So the US did give up control.

    因此美國的確放棄了掌控

  • Well, not completely.

    不是完全放棄

  • the US will still have one seat

    在 ICANN 171 個會員的政府顧問委員會中

  • on ICANN's 171-member Governmental Advisory Committee.

    美國仍然占有一席

  • In other words,

    換句話說

  • the US's position on the committee

    美國在委員會中的地位

  • will be theoretically equal

    理論上等同於

  • to a country like Barbados,

    巴貝多

  • a country you think about so little,

    一個你完全不在意的國家

  • that you didn't even notice that's not Barbados.

    你甚至沒有注意到那不是巴貝多

  • This is Barbados.

    這才是巴貝多

  • Oh, that is fun! No wonder John Oliver can't stop doing it

    真好玩!

  • No wonder John Oliver can't stop doing it!

    難怪約翰·奧利佛玩不膩

  • But just because Barbados has a population smaller than Wichita, Kansas

    但只因為巴貝多的人口 比堪薩斯州的威奇托市還少

  • doesn't mean it shouldn't have an equal say

    並不表示對於網際網路如何運作

  • over how the Internet gets run.

    它不該擁有平等的發言權

  • But that's not the whole picture,

    但那並非事情的全貌

  • since in reality,

    因為在現實中

  • not all countries have equally small stakes

    針對網際網路如何運作

  • in how the Internet will be run.

    並非所有國家都擁有公平對等的發言權

  • Actually,

    事實上

  • the US will still have lots of sway.

    美國仍然有許多影響力

  • But you know who else does?

    但你知道還有誰的影響力也很大嗎?

  • China.

    中國

  • A country I talk about so much,

    一個我太常談論的國家

  • you were wondering when I was going to get to it.

    你都好奇我到底什麼時候要才提到它

  • You see, China

    中國

  • or Chinese authorities to be precise

    或者更準確的說,中共當局

  • are very happy about the US giving up its control.

    非常開心美國放棄控制權

  • As one Chinese cyber security professor said,

    如同中國一位網路安全教授說的

  • China has the capability now

    「中國現在擁有能力

  • to set up international rules for cyberspace

    打造網路空間的國際規範

  • and use our strategy and our rules

    並且使用我們的手段及規範

  • to influence the world.”

    影響全世界」

  • I mean,

    我說

  • who wouldn't want China's Internet rules

    誰不想要中國的網路規範

  • to apply to the entire world?

    在全世界通用呢?

  • I mean, first of all,

    我的意思是,首先

  • we'd get actual Internet police.

    我們會有實際的網路警察

  • But that's just some professor

    但那只是某個教授

  • saying that's the plan.

    的片面之詞

  • I mean,

    我意思是

  • it's paranoid delusion to imagine

    認為中國真的考慮

  • that China is actually considering setting up

    要在網路空間建立它自己的規範

  • its own rules in cyberspace.

    那是一種被害妄想

  • Except that,

    但是

  • according to another guy,

    根據另一名男子

  • China is considering setting up

    「中國確實考慮在網路空間

  • its own rules in cyberspace.”

    建立它自己的規範」

  • And that other guy is the Premier of China,

    而那另一名男子就是中國的總理

  • Li Keqiang.

    李克強

  • So, maybe there is something to the idea

    所以,也許共產黨

  • that the Communist Party might be trying to influence

    真的有打算要試著影響

  • the global Internet.

    全球網路

  • It's pretty well known the Chinese regime

    中共政權對中國網路的緊密掌控

  • has kept a tight grip on China's Internet

    眾人皆知

  • with two million people employed to police it,

    中國雇用了兩百萬人監督網路

  • so they can monitor what Chinese citizens do and say.

    方便政府監看中國人民 說什麼跟做甚麼

  • They also block access to websites

    他們也阻擋了

  • they consider subversive.

    他們認為會危及政權的網站

  • Like YouTube.

    像是 YouTube

  • But over the past few years,

    但在過去幾年

  • the Chinese regime been pushing to control the world's Internet

    中共政權不斷爭取

  • by filling the void left by the United States

    控制世界網路的機會

  • as it steps back from ICANN.

    填補美國放手 ICANN 後所留下的空缺

  • But how?

    但怎麼做呢?

  • Isn't there thatmulti-stakeholder model?”

    不是有個「多方利益關係人模式」嗎?

  • Well, the Chinese regime has gotten pretty good

    中共政權很擅於操弄

  • at manipulating international bodies

    國際組織

  • and foreign tech companies,

    以及國外的科技公司

  • like the ones that will now oversee ICANN.

    像是那些現在監督 ICANN 的公司

  • Take, for instance,

    舉例來說

  • China's Technical Committee 260,

    中國的「全國信息安全標準化技術委員會」

  • or TC260.

    或簡稱 TC260

  • It was founded in 2002.

    成立於 2002 年

  • Yeah,

    是的

  • so they've been secretly planning this

    他們已經秘密籌畫

  • for a long time.

    好長一段時間了

  • China has been using the TC260 in part

    中國一方面利用 TC260

  • toactively participate

    「積極參與

  • in international rules and standards making in cyberspace,

    制定網路空間的國際規範及標準

  • so as to improve discourse and China's influence

    好增進對話以及中國的影響力

  • and increase international adoption of China's standards.”

    以及增加國際對於中國標準的接受度」

  • Now if the name TC260 sounds a bit like ED-209 from RoboCop,

    如果 TC260 聽起來有點像是 電影《機器戰警》中的 ED-209

  • well,

    嗯…

  • that's a not too far off.

    其實相去不遠

  • Think of it like an ED-209

    就把它想成是 ED-209

  • designed to make internet policy

    只不過是設計用來制訂網路政策

  • instead ofurban pacification.”

    而不是維持「市區和諧」

  • The TC260 helps draft laws that focus on encryption,

    TC260 針對編碼、大數據

  • big data,

    還有其他網路安全的議題

  • and other cybersecurity issues.

    協助草擬法案

  • And as the Wall Street Journal says,

    如同《華爾街日報》所說

  • it makes sure technology issecure and controllable.”

    它確保科技是「安全且可控制的」

  • Secure and controllable?

    安全且可控制?

  • By the CCP?

    由中共控制?

  • That doesn't sound too good.

    聽起來不太好

  • But wait!

    但等等!

  • The TC260 is not just the CCP.

    TC260 不是只有中共參與其中

  • It's a committee.

    它是一個委員會

  • Foreign tech companies like Microsoft, Cisco, Intel, and IBM

    外國科技公司如微軟、思科、英特爾和 IBM

  • are members.

    都是成員

  • Surely,

    當然

  • they will help China move in the right direction

    在網路自由上

  • in terms of Internet freedom.

    他們會協助中國往正確的方向邁進

  • Except,

    只不過

  • many companies in the West

    很多西方的公司

  • get a little funny when access to the Chinese market

    只要一遇到中國市場擺在眼前

  • is dangled in front of them.

    就會變得有點奇怪

  • Like when IBM caved to pressure from the Chinese regime

    像是 IBM 就對中共政權妥協

  • and gave one of the world's biggest violators of Intellectual Property

    然後讓全世界最大的智慧財產竊取者

  • access to their source code.

    取得他們的原始碼

  • Or when Cisco sold routers to China

    或者像思科賣路由器給中國

  • with the intention of helping the regime censor its citizens.

    好協助中共政權審查它的人民

  • So my guess is these companies

    所以我猜這些公司

  • aren't really going to change China,

    與其說要改變中國

  • as much as China is going to change them.

    倒被中國給改變得更多

  • Anyway,

    總而言之

  • if you're worried about the TC260

    如果你很擔心 TC260

  • drafting scary big brother Internet regulations

    會草擬可怕的網路老大哥規範

  • well, yeah.

    嗯,當然

  • But those regulations only apply to people inside China.

    但那些規範只適用於中國境內的人

  • However,

    然而

  • the TC260 is also part of a broader plan

    TC260 也是中共當局

  • by Chinese authorities to exert control over the world's Internet.

    掌控世界網路計畫的一個環節

  • The TC260 reports directly to the Cyberspace Administration of China.

    TC260 直屬於中國國家互聯網信息辦公室

  • And the Cyberspace Administration of China

    而中國國家互聯網信息辦公室

  • just happens to report directly to report directly

    正好又直屬於

  • to the Leading Small Group for Network Security and Information,

    中共網絡安全和信息化領導小組

  • which is chaired by the leader of the Chinese Communist Party,

    這個小組的主席是中國共產黨領導人

  • Xi Jinping.

    習近平

  • In other words,

    換句話說

  • the TC260 ultimately reports to the head of the Communist Party.

    TC260 最終直屬於中共的領導人

  • And its goal is to influence international rules and standards for the Internet.

    而它的目標是要影響 網路的國際規範和標準

  • And that's just one example

    而那只是中共如何試著影響網路政策

  • of how the CCP is trying to influence Internet policy.

    的一個例子而已

  • There's also a sort of related organization

    還有一個相關的組織

  • called the CyberSecurity Association of China.

    叫做中國網絡空間安全協會

  • Its goal is to strengthen the CCP's control over China's Internet,

    它的目標在於強化中共 對於中國網路的控制

  • including how foreign companies can operate in China.

    包含外國公司如何在中國營運

  • But while the CyberSecurity Association

    雖然網絡安全協會

  • has representatives from Chinese companies like Alibaba,

    有來自中國公司的代表,如阿里巴巴

  • it has no foreign companies among its members.

    它的成員當中卻沒有任何外國公司

  • Oh,

  • and its chairman is this guy

    而它的主席是這個傢伙

  • who created the Great Firewall of China.

    中國防火長城之父

  • So suffice it to say,

    不需要多說

  • it's not pro-Internet freedom.

    這絕對無助於網路自由

  • And its Secretary General is Li Yuxiao,

    而它的秘書長是李欲曉

  • who once said this:

    他曾經這麼說過:

  • Now is the time for China

    「現在正是中國

  • to realize its responsibilities.

    負起責任的時候

  • If the United States is willing to give up its running of the internet sphere,

    假如美國願意放棄經營網路領域

  • the question comes as to who will take the baton

    問題在於誰會接下棒子

  • and how it would be run.”

    以及它會如何經營」

  • So if all of this seems a bit complicated,

    假如這一切看來有點複雜

  • it is.

    是這樣沒錯

  • That's the point.

    這就是重點

  • The Chinese regime doesn't want people figuring it out.

    中共政權不想要人們搞懂