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  • On this episode of China Uncensored,

    本集《中國解密》:

  • with China playing a bigger role,

    隨著中國的地位逐漸攀升

  • what will the Internet become?

    網際網路將會變成什麼樣子?

  • Hi, welcome to China Uncensored,

    歡迎收看《中國解密》

  • I'm your host Chris Chappell.

    我是主持人 Chris Chappell

  • The Internet!

    網際網路!

  • Some of you watching may not have even been alive

    可能有些正在收看的觀眾

  • at a time when the Internet wasn't everywhere.

    在出生時網路就已經很發達了

  • But I remember such a time.

    但我記得那個

  • When computers were mysterious novelties,

    電腦仍然神秘新鮮的年代

  • completely misunderstood by popular media.

    那時大眾媒體徹底誤會了電腦

  • What's your preference?

    你比較偏好哪個?

  • Apple, Pear, Wang?

    蘋果、梨子、王?

  • Oh listen, I don't know anything about computers?

    喔,我對電腦一無所知

  • Nobody does!

    每個人都是!

  • Electric Dreams was popular, right?

    《神通情人夢》很受歡迎吧?

  • Anyway, the world has now changed in weird, wild ways.

    總之,世界已詭異而狂野的改變了

  • Because Internet.

    因為網際網路

  • But at the beginning,

    但在一開始

  • no one really knew what to do with computers.

    沒有人真的知道要拿電腦來做什麼

  • Other than, you know

    除了…

  • designing your own woman.

    設計出你理想中的女人

  • Okay, look.

    你看

  • You know how you're always talking about how you can

    你總是講說可以如何

  • simulate all that stuff on your computer?

    在你的電腦上模擬那些東西吧?

  • You know?

    對不對

  • What's the difference,

    有什麼差別?

  • why can't we simulate a girl?

    為什麼我們不能模擬出一個女生?

  • The 80s were magnificent.

    80 年代棒透了

  • But clearly at that time,

    但很明顯的在那個年代

  • no one really could predict

    沒有人能夠預料

  • where this whole Internet thing was going.

    這整個網際網路將會如何發展

  • Although it is largely still about finding the perfect woman.

    儘管現在仍然有很大一部份 被用來找尋那個完美的女人

  • Anyway, the point is, 20 years ago,

    總之重點是,20 年前

  • the Internet was still developing.

    網際網路仍然在發展中

  • And so in 1998

    因此在 1998 年

  • the US government helped create the Los Angeles based non-profit,

    美國政府協助成立了 總部位於洛杉磯的非營利組織

  • ICANN.

    ICANN

  • To put it very simply,

    簡單來說

  • there's a department of ICANN that's in charge

    ICANN 裡頭有個部門專門負責

  • of the Internet's address book.

    網際網路的通訊錄

  • It makes sure users get to the website

    它確保使用者能夠連線到

  • they intend to visit.

    他們想要去的網站

  • Like when you type in YouTube.com,

    例如你輸入 YouTube.com

  • it sends you to YouTube's website

    它就把你送到 YouTube 的網站

  • so you don't have to type in the long string of numbers

    所以你就不需要輸入一大串數字

  • which is YouTube's actual IP address.

    也就是 YouTube 的實際 IP 位址

  • It's like how you don't bother remembering

    就像是你不需要費心

  • your mom's phone number anymore

    記住你媽媽的電話號碼

  • because you can just go to your phone's Contacts

    因為你可以直接到你手機的通訊錄裡頭

  • and click her name.

    然後點一下她的名字

  • But you use ICANN way more than you call your mother.

    但你使用 ICANN 的次數 遠多於打電話給你媽媽

  • ICANN is like if the entire world shared Contacts

    ICANN 就像是整個世界

  • for Internet addresses.

    共享網路位址的通訊錄

  • That's really important because

    這非常重要

  • whoever controls the Internet's address book

    因為誰掌控了網路位址的通訊錄

  • also has the ability to censor the Internet.

    就掌控了審查網際網路的能力

  • Let's say ICANN removes the domain name youtube.com.

    假設 ICANN 移除了 youtube.com 的網域名稱

  • YouTube itself may still exist,

    YouTube 這個網站可能仍然存在

  • but would you know what numbers to type in

    但你知道要輸入哪些號碼

  • to get there?

    才能連線過去嗎?

  • 99.9% of people wouldn't be able to access it.

    99.9% 的人沒有能力辦到

  • So ICANN is really important.

    因此 ICANN 十分重要

  • As the Economist puts it,

    就像《經濟學人》說的

  • That is why,

    「這就是為什麼

  • as the internet grew up,

    當網際網路越來越壯大

  • America decided not to hand control to the United Nations

    美國決定不將控制權交給聯合國

  • or another international body steered by governments.”

    或其他由政府掌控的國際機構

  • But for the most part,

    但大多時候

  • the US government has been pretty much hands off,

    美國政府不太插手

  • which let the Internet thrive

    因此導致了

  • as the global depository of cat videos

    我們今天所看到

  • we know today.

    滿滿來自世界各地的貓咪影片

  • But something changed this past Saturday.

    但上週六有件事情改變了

  • Because the US let its contract with ICANN expire.

    美國和 ICANN 的合約到期

  • As of October 1,

    10 月 1 日起

  • it will be run on a “multi-stakeholder model.”

    ICANN 將會以多方利益關係人模式經營

  • In other words,

    換句話說

  • a “mix of corporate interests, government officials,

    該模式將包含散佈在四個國際組織中的

  • activists and experts

    營利企業、政府官員

  • spread across four international bodies.”

    社運人士及專家

  • Whew, this is getting complicated!

    越來越複雜了!

  • Can we go back to the old days for a bit?

    我們可以回到美好的過去嗎?

  • Much better

    好多了

  • You see,

    要知道

  • the Internet was never meant to have a central authority.

    網際網路本來就不應該有個中央管制機構

  • And the less say that governments have,

    政府插手干預得越少

  • the more free the Internet, right?

    網路就越自由,對吧?

  • After all,

    畢竟

  • there are 3.6 billion Internet users,

    全球有 36 億網路使用人口

  • so of course

    所以當然

  • the vast majority are outside the US.

    大多數都在美國境外

  • And after Edward Snowden revealed

    而且自從史諾登揭露了

  • that the NSA was spying on the global Internet,

    美國國安局在監控全球網路後

  • a lot of people called for the US

    很多人都要求美國

  • to give up control.

    放棄控制權

  • So did a lot of

    其中也包含了

  • major technology and telecommunication companies.

    許多重要的科技及電信公司

  • So the US did give up control.

    因此美國的確放棄了掌控

  • Well, not completely.

    不是完全放棄

  • the US will still have one seat

    在 ICANN 171 個會員的政府顧問委員會中

  • on ICANN's 171-member Governmental Advisory Committee.

    美國仍然占有一席

  • In other words,

    換句話說

  • the US's position on the committee

    美國在委員會中的地位

  • will be theoretically equal

    理論上等同於

  • to a country like Barbados,

    巴貝多

  • a country you think about so little,

    一個你完全不在意的國家

  • that you didn't even notice that's not Barbados.

    你甚至沒有注意到那不是巴貝多

  • This is Barbados.

    這才是巴貝多

  • Oh, that is fun! No wonder John Oliver can't stop doing it

    真好玩!

  • No wonder John Oliver can't stop doing it!

    難怪約翰·奧利佛玩不膩

  • But just because Barbados has a population smaller than Wichita, Kansas

    但只因為巴貝多的人口 比堪薩斯州的威奇托市還少

  • doesn't mean it shouldn't have an equal say

    並不表示對於網際網路如何運作

  • over how the Internet gets run.

    它不該擁有平等的發言權

  • But that's not the whole picture,

    但那並非事情的全貌

  • since in reality,

    因為在現實中

  • not all countries have equally small stakes

    針對網際網路如何運作

  • in how the Internet will be run.

    並非所有國家都擁有公平對等的發言權

  • Actually,

    事實上

  • the US will still have lots of sway.

    美國仍然有許多影響力

  • But you know who else does?

    但你知道還有誰的影響力也很大嗎?

  • China.

    中國

  • A country I talk about so much,

    一個我太常談論的國家

  • you were wondering when I was going to get to it.

    你都好奇我到底什麼時候要才提到它

  • You see, China

    中國

  • or Chinese authorities to be precise

    或者更準確的說,中共當局

  • are very happy about the US giving up its control.

    非常開心美國放棄控制權

  • As one Chinese cyber security professor said,

    如同中國一位網路安全教授說的

  • China has the capability now

    「中國現在擁有能力

  • to set up international rules for cyberspace

    打造網路空間的國際規範

  • and use our strategy and our rules

    並且使用我們的手段及規範

  • to influence the world.”

    影響全世界」

  • I mean,

    我說

  • who wouldn't want China's Internet rules

    誰不想要中國的網路規範

  • to apply to the entire world?

    在全世界通用呢?

  • I mean, first of all,

    我的意思是,首先

  • we'd get actual Internet police.

    我們會有實際的網路警察

  • But that's just some professor

    但那只是某個教授

  • saying that's the plan.

    的片面之詞

  • I mean,

    我意思是

  • it's paranoid delusion to imagine

    認為中國真的考慮

  • that China is actually considering setting up

    要在網路空間建立它自己的規範

  • its own rules in cyberspace.

    那是一種被害妄想

  • Except that,

    但是

  • according to another guy,

    根據另一名男子

  • China is considering setting up

    「中國確實考慮在網路空間

  • its own rules in cyberspace.”

    建立它自己的規範」

  • And that other guy is the Premier of China,

    而那另一名男子就是中國的總理

  • Li Keqiang.

    李克強

  • So, maybe there is something to the idea

    所以,也許共產黨

  • that the Communist Party might be trying to influence

    真的有打算要試著影響

  • the global Internet.

    全球網路

  • It's pretty well known the Chinese regime

    中共政權對中國網路的緊密掌控

  • has kept a tight grip on China's Internet

    眾人皆知

  • with two million people employed to police it,

    中國雇用了兩百萬人監督網路

  • so they can monitor what Chinese citizens do and say.

    方便政府監看中國人民 說什麼跟做甚麼

  • They also block access to websites

    他們也阻擋了

  • they consider subversive.

    他們認為會危及政權的網站

  • Like YouTube.

    像是 YouTube

  • But over the past few years,

    但在過去幾年

  • the Chinese regime been pushing to control the world's Internet

    中共政權不斷爭取

  • by filling the void left by the United States

    控制世界網路的機會

  • as it steps back from ICANN.

    填補美國放手 ICANN 後所留下的空缺

  • But how?

    但怎麼做呢?

  • Isn't there thatmulti-stakeholder model?”

    不是有個「多方利益關係人模式」嗎?

  • Well, the Chinese regime has gotten pretty good

    中共政權很擅於操弄

  • at manipulating international bodies

    國際組織

  • and foreign tech companies,

    以及國外的科技公司

  • like the ones that will now oversee ICANN.

    像是那些現在監督 ICANN 的公司

  • Take, for instance,

    舉例來說