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  • In 1964 Japan unveils the Shinkansen Bullet Train, and it has the Japanese

    1964年日本新幹線通車營運, 吸引了所有國民的目光。

  • glued to their televisions. As news helicopters filming the train struggle

    當電視台用直升機轉播列車加速的畫面時,

  • to keep up, cheers erupt in living rooms across the nation. The Shinkansen is a

    全日本的客廳都響起了歡呼聲。

  • powerful symbol of Japan's post-war recovery. But it's also groundbreaking.

    新幹線是日本二戰後復甦的強力象徵, 同樣也是世上少數具開創性的運輸方式。

  • Because at the dawn of the Jet Age, when air travel and cars seem destined to

    因為當航空運輸及汽車看似取代一切的時候,

  • replace everything else, the lowly train is about to make a comeback.

    在人們心中看似緩慢的鐵路運輸正捲土重來。

  • In the 19th century, the locomotive and steamship replaced the horse and sailing

    子彈列車-新幹線的故事

  • ship as the primary movers of humanity. In the 20th century, it seemed almost

    19世紀時, 火車與蒸汽船取代了最初的馬車跟帆船。

  • certain that the automobile and aircraft were going to do the same. Make earlier

    成為了人們最主要的交通工具

  • forms of transport largely irrelevant. Trains in particular were seen as

    而到了20世紀時,

  • obsolete. A slow and inconvenient way for people to travel. No match for the

    幾乎已經注定了汽車與飛機將要取代火車與蒸汽船作為人們主要的交通工具。

  • unfettered freedom of the personal automobile. In the 1950's, the Americans

    從這個邏輯看來,前代的交通工具便顯得無用,

  • were pouring billions into building Interstate highways and rail lines were

    而火車則被視為過時了,它是種既緩慢又不方便的旅行方式。

  • shutting down. In Europe, railways were stagnating. Many countries were still

    跟汽車的自由移動不受限無法相比。

  • operating steam locomotives. And it was in this context that Japan was blasting

    於是在50年代時,美國投入數億美金建造州際公路, 而與此同時,鐵路路線漸漸關閉。

  • through mountains, drilling 67 miles of new tunnel, and constructing over 3,000

    而在歐洲,鐵路則停滯不前, 許多國家仍在使用蒸汽動力車頭。

  • new bridges. All to build a railway. But this wasn't going to be just any railway.

    日本卻反其道而行,不僅炸穿山脈、

  • This was one of the most ambitious rail projects of the century. The Japanese

    鑽出總長67英哩的隧道、還建造超過3千座橋梁,

  • were calling it the Shinkansen, and the trains on this new line would run at

    只為了建造一條鐵路。

  • speeds unmatched anywhere in the world. Nearly twice as fast as any existing

    (新丹那隧道貫通)

  • train in Japan. And the new line would be dedicated only to high-speed trains,

    (詳見註1)

  • which meant they'd be able to travel at incredible speeds between Japan's two

    但這不會是任何一條普通的鐵路

  • biggest cities; Tokyo to Osaka. And to make such high speeds possible, the new

    這是20世紀裡最雄心壯志的鐵路計畫。

  • line would be built using a wider gauge of rail. And it would be laid out with

    日本稱之為「新幹線」。

  • gentle curves, which meant tunneling through and bridging over much of

    新幹線的營運速度將會是當時世界上其他鐵路運輸 無法比擬的,它的速度是當時日本國內其他鐵路運行速度的近兩倍快。

  • Japan's difficult terrain. But for all its ambition, many dismissed the Shinkansen

    新幹線被設計為高速列車專用,

  • as ridiculous. A senior railway executive described the project in 1964

    這使他們可以以人們能以難以置信的速度運行於日本的兩大城市間:東京與大阪 (距離:320英里,相當於512公里)

  • as the 'height of madness.' The wider gauge of rail, which was necessary for such

    為了達成高速度的目標,新幹線必須使用更寬的軌距來建造,

  • high speeds, made the Shinkansen incompatible with the rest of Japan's

    路線上也必須安排得更平順, 得靠更多的隧道與橋樑來克服日本起伏較大的地形。

  • rail network. Many questioned the value of a fast train, if it would be stuck running

    但仍有許多人把這一切當成無稽之談。

  • on a single line, and whether the effort involved in getting trains to reliably

    一位資深的鐵道官員曾形容新幹線計畫在1964年是 「瘋狂的極致」。

  • go this fast, was really worth it. But the criticisms weren't just technical. This

    為了高速而使用的標準軌距,

  • was one enormously expensive project. And to make matters worse, over five

    與當時日本國內的其他鐵道系統都不相容。(註2)

  • years of construction, the Shinkansen's budget had spiraled out of control.

    許多人質疑只能行駛在一條線的高速火車的價值,

  • Nearly doubling over the original estimate. And because of that, two visionaries

    以及為了讓火車能在此高速下可靠地運行所費的努力是否值得?

  • leading the project, the President of Japanese National Railways and his Chief

    這樣的的批評不僅僅是技術上的,

  • Engineer, both resigned before the project even finished. The media were

    因為這是項所費不貲的巨大計畫。

  • calling it Japan's Great Wall of China. A massive but ultimately misguided effort,

    而更糟的是,這耗時超過5年的建設, 使得新幹線花費的預算幾乎失控。

  • when other countries were looking towards jets and automobiles as the

    接近原本預估花費的兩倍。

  • future. But the critics would soon fall silent.

    為此兩位具遠見的領導人物: 新幹線計畫總裁「十河信二」與總工程師「島秀雄」

  • When the first Shinkansen line opened in the fall of 1964, the world took note.

    兩人皆在計畫完成前辭職。(註3)

  • Because it made cars on expressways look like they were standing still, and once

    媒體稱新幹線為日本的萬里長城。

  • profitable inter-city air routes were now being threatened by a train.

    正當其他國家致力於航空與汽車業的未來發展, 新幹線會不會只是巨大而徒勞無功的工程呢?

  • In just the first three years of service, the Shinkansen carried over 100 million

    但這樣的批評很快就平息了。

  • passengers. Demand skyrocketed. The new line not only better connected

    1964年的秋天,在新幹線正式營運後 它吸引了全球的目光。

  • Japan's two largest cities, it seemingly pulled them closer together. A Tokyo

    相對於新幹線的速度, 高速公路上的汽車就像靜止般。

  • executive could now attend a meeting in Osaka

    而城際間(東京-大阪)的航空運輸也受到新幹線的威脅。

  • more than 320 miles away, and still make it home in time for dinner.

    一開始的三年營運期間, 新幹線就達成了1億人次的搭乘

  • A combination of speed and frequent service made the world's first

    需求有如雨後春筍般冒出。

  • high-speed railway enormously profitable. It turns out that the Shinkansen

    新幹線不僅僅是連結東京和大阪, 而是讓它們生活更加地靠近。

  • was anything but ridiculous. Because the project's visionaries weren't taking a

    就算東京的主管們出差到320多英哩外的大阪去開會,

  • gamble on some radical new technology. Instead, they adapted the very best

    他們仍然可以趕在晚餐前回到家。

  • proven technologies and brilliantly integrated them into one seamless system.

    因為速度與密集班次的結合, 使得世界第一條高速鐵路有了龐大的獲利機會,

  • A Shinkansen train's streamlined shape and smooth outer

    讓新幹線不再是天馬行空

  • surfaces minimized air resistance and noise at high speeds.

    新幹線計畫不將賭注放在航空、汽車等尖端新科技上,

  • There was no locomotive, not in the traditional sense. Instead motive-power

    而是將舊有成熟的技術巧妙的融合,

  • was distributed with axles each driven by separate electric traction motors. The

    整合成為一個完美的系統。

  • setup offered superior acceleration, and a train could operate even with multiple

    新幹線列車利用流線型外觀與光滑表面

  • failed motors. It also meant more evenly distributed weight on tracks, which

    大幅降低了高速下產生的風阻與噪音。

  • reduced wear. At 130 miles per hour, the new Shinkansen trains had the highest

    不同於傳統火車由火車頭動力帶動列車,

  • service speed in the world. And yet speed had never been the real motivation. This

    新幹線將動力分散到各個動力單元。

  • wasn't some vanity project. the Shinkansen had always been about

    這樣的設計不但帶來更好的加速力道, 即使其中幾個馬達失去動力仍可運行。

  • moving a large volume of passengers, so engineers designed the new line to

    也因為重量的平均分配,更能減少機件的磨損。

  • withstand the stress of running 60 high-speed trains in each direction

    新幹線以當時世界上最快的時速130英里 (約時速208公里)運行。

  • every day. A number that would only increase through the years to hundreds

    追求速度並非新幹線的本意, 這並不是一個虛榮的計畫,

  • today. To withstand the stresses, rail ties were made of pre-stressed concrete

    新幹線的真正目標是運輸龐大的旅客,

  • and rails, each normally 82 feet long, were welded into nearly 5,000 foot long

    所以當初設計為可承受每天單一方向有60車次的運行。

  • continuous sections to reduce vibration and noise. Rail crossings were eliminated.

    經過這些年的發展, 時至今日,一天運行的車次以達百列以上。

  • Cars were routed either above or below the line to ensure safe and reliable

    為了能夠應付這種壓力, 軌道由預鑄好的水泥塊與鐵軌製成,

  • service. Moving at over 190 feet per second, a Shinkansen conductor would have

    鐵軌每段約82英尺(約25公尺)、再連接成約5000英尺 (約1524公尺)長的連續軌道,以減少震動及噪音。

  • struggled to react in time to conventional wayside signals. The

    取消所有的鐵路平交道、

  • solution was Automatic Train Control, a system that sent signal information

    汽車道路改成與鐵道立體交叉以確保安全與可靠。

  • directly on board to the conductor, regulating speed based on a train's

    在每秒移動超過190英尺(約58公尺)的速度下, 新幹線駕駛難以對傳統的道旁號誌做出反應,

  • position. The entire line was monitored by a centralized traffic control center

    解決之道是透過自動列車控制系統(ATC)。

  • in Tokyo, critical to the safe operation of a high volume of trains. And in one of

    這系統是藉由列車的位置,直接將速度控制的資訊發送給列車上的駕駛員。

  • the most earthquake-prone countries in the world, seismometers were

    全部路線都由位於東京的控制中心監控,

  • installed along the line. The system would cut power at the first sign of

    並嚴格的控制著大量的列車。

  • earthquake, automatically activating a train's emergency brakes. And to keep the

    也因為是地震好發的國家,

  • track in tip-top shape, special diagnostic trains nicknamed the 'Yellow

    新幹線沿線都裝有地震偵測器。

  • Doctor' regularly assessed the state of the track and overhead lines using

    這系統能夠在地震發生的當下切斷電力, 並自動啟動列車的緊急煞車。

  • sophisticated on-board monitoring equipment. The enormous success of the

    而為了讓新幹線保持頂尖的水準, 一列綽號為「Yellow Doctor」的工程車,

  • first Shinkansen line spurred its extension westward, and over the course

    規律地利用車上的尖端設備評估鐵軌與電車線的狀況。

  • of the next half century, new lines would be built to reach nearly every corner of

    第一條新幹線的成功也鼓勵了新幹線持續向西邊發展,

  • the nation. The opening of the world's first high-speed railway in 1964 had a

    在經歷了接下來半世紀的發展,

  • profound impact on Japan. But it also changed the way the world saw railways.

    新幹線幾乎將日本大多數的地方連結了起來。

  • In no small part, the success of the Japanese helped inspire other countries

    1964年的開始營運對日本國內造成深遠的影響,

  • to develop their own high-speed networks like France's TGV, which began service in

    也同樣改變了其他國家如何看待鐵路運輸。

  • the early 1980's. Over the past 50 years speeds on shangkun's and lines have

    其他國家的高速鐵路, 像是法國1980年代的TGV高速鐵道系統, 便是受到新幹線成功的影響。

  • continued to increase, made possible by new track technologies and successive

    過去50年來,新幹線的速度持續增加,

  • generations of trains. Shinkansen trains on newer lines now regularly hit 198

    有賴於新的軌道技術與新世代列車的問世。

  • miles per hour. While Shinkansen trains are no longer the fastest in the world,

    目前新幹線最高營運速度到達每小時198英里 (約時速317公里)。

  • focusing on speed alone misses the point. No other rail system in the world can

    儘管新幹線已經不是世界上最快的火車,

  • match the Shinkansen for it's incredible efficiency, safety and punctuality. Today,

    一味地追求速度只會忽略其他重點。

  • the Shinkansen moves over 1 million people every single day. During peak

    新幹線難以置信的效率、安全以及準點 是其他鐵道運輸無法比擬的。

  • periods, one departs Tokyo every three minutes. And since 1964, the Shinkansen

    現今的新幹線一天運輸超過一百萬人次。

  • has maintained a pristine safety record, moving over 10 billion people

    在尖峰時段,東京每3分鐘就開出一班列車。

  • without a single passenger casualty. It's punctuality is the envy of the world,

    從1964年至今,新幹線一直保持著良好的安全紀錄, 運輸超過100億人次仍無旅客傷亡事故。

  • with average delays measured in just seconds. And for the visionaries who

    準點率令全世界稱羨,平均延遲時間僅以秒計。

  • forged ahead with getting the first Shinkansen line built, over half a

    半世紀前的先知們的堅持興建了新幹線,

  • century ago, they were ultimately vindicated for creating the world's most

    最終,他們終於證明了當時的遠見,

  • renowned high-speed rail network, and for introducing modern high-speed rail to

    並建成這世界上最知名的高速鐵路系統

  • the world.

    且向世界帶來現代高速鐵路的技術。

  • Japan's Bullet Trains run on their own dedicated tracks. But if a Bullet Train

    [數學題時間]

  • traveling at 137 miles per hour were to approach a much slower train, one

    新幹線列車在自己的軌道上行駛,

  • struggling just to maintain 54 miles per hour, and it takes 7.5 seconds for the

    一台子彈列車以時速137英里接近一台較慢的火車,

  • bullet train to overtake the slower train, well then you should be able to

    慢火車以時速54英里前進,

  • figure out what the length of the bullet train is (in feet). The first viewer to

    子彈列車完全超過慢火車花了7.5秒, 請問:子彈列車的長度是多少?(英尺)

  • post the correct answer in the comments gets a free t-shirt from the Mustard

    第一個答隊並貼在評論區的觀眾

  • store. It's one thing to know basic math concepts and another to have an

    將可以獲得Mustard store的免費T恤

  • intuitive ability to solve actual problems, like this one. Brilliant.org

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  • introductory to advanced. In Algebra 1 there's a whole section called 'Algebra

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In 1964 Japan unveils the Shinkansen Bullet Train, and it has the Japanese

1964年日本新幹線通車營運, 吸引了所有國民的目光。

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為何這部列車受到全世界的羨慕: 新幹線的故事(Why This Train Is The Envy Of The World: The Shinkansen Story)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 28 日
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