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  • In August of 1945, as the world celebrates the end of the Second World War, out in the

    《NEBULA原創》

  • pacific the Americans make a puzzling discovery.

    在1945年8月 正當世界慶祝著第二次世界大戰結束時

  • The US Navy has intercepted a Japanese submarine and it's unlike anything

    美國在太平洋地區發現了令人費解的事情

  • they've seen before.

    美國海軍已經攔截了一艘日本潛艇 這與他們所見過的潛艇完全不同

  • Its scale is baffling.

    它的大小令人感到困惑。

  • But not only is it the world's largest submarine, it's an entirely new kind of weapon.

    它不僅是世界上最大的潛艇

  • A submarine that can launch torpedo dive bombers.

    而且還是一種全新的武器

  • The American's have just stumbled across Japan's secret underwater aircraft carriers,

    一艘可以起降魚雷轟炸機的潛艇

  • and soon they'll uncover a sinister plan that could've changed the

    美國人才偶然發現日本的機密航空潛艦

  • course of the war.

    接著就揭開了個可能改變戰爭走向的陰險計畫

  • Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 is an event that

    伊400型 航空潛艦

  • galvanizes a nation.

    夏威夷, 珍珠港 1941年12月7日

  • Pulling a reluctant America into the Second World War.

    在1941年12月,日本對珍珠港的偷襲

  • The unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday...”

    是件轟動了整個國家的事件。

  • A day after the devastating attack, the United States declares war on Japan.

    將不甘願的美國拉進第二次世界大戰

  • And the nation quickly mobilizes, firing up its enormous industrial might to crank out

    “日本在周日無端和無恥的攻擊……”

  • ships, tanks and aircraft at a rate that'll soon bury Japan's military.

    在毀滅性的攻擊發生的隔天 美利堅合眾國對日本宣戰

  • For the Americans, Pearl Harbor was a senseless and cowardly provocation.

    接著國家迅速開始動員

  • But for the Japanese, the attack was something entirely different.

    啟動了它龐大的工業力量 來生產船艦、坦克、和飛機

  • A calculated gamble and a long shot attempt at actually trying to avoid a full-scale war

    並以一個不用多久就能淹沒日本軍隊的產能運作。

  • with the United States.

    對於美國人來說 珍珠港的襲擊是懦夫毫無意義的挑釁

  • Because as the Empire of Japan continued its ruthless conquest in Asia, the Japanese were

    但是對於日本人來說 這場襲擊是完全不同的

  • convinced that it was only a matter of time before the U.S. intervened.

    這是個經過精心計算的賭博

  • And the architect behind the Pearl Harbor attack, Japanese Admiral Yamamoto was aiming

    試圖避免與美國進入全面戰爭的長遠計畫

  • to knock out much of the U.S Pacific fleet in one decisive blow.

    因為隨著日本帝國持續無情擴大在亞洲的征服

  • As a way to keep the United States out of the Pacific for at least another six months

    日本人相信美國會干預只是時間問題

  • and perhaps even forcing the Americans into negotiating a truce.

    還有珍珠港襲擊背後的計畫者

  • But Imperial Japan grossly underestimated America's resolve.

    日本的山本五十六海軍大將

  • And in the aftermath, Yamamoto knew America's military might would soon overwhelm Japan's.

    打算一口氣消滅美國太平洋艦隊的大多數戰力

  • Now faced with a war he cannot win, Yamamoto devises another strategy.

    透過這種方式令美國放棄太平洋海域至少六個月

  • To make America reconsider a drawn out war in the Pacific, He'll bring the war directly

    也許甚至能強迫美國人進入停戰談判

  • to America's Cities.

    但是日本帝國嚴重低估了美國的決心

  • But with the United States now on guard for Japanese forces, Yamamato will need a truly

    在這之後,山本知道美國的軍事力量 很快就能壓垮日本

  • stealthy weapon to reach the United States.

    面對一場他無法戰勝的戰爭, 山本想了另一種策略

  • A weapon the Americans would never suspect.

    讓美國重新考慮取消在太平洋上的戰爭

  • The concept of launching aircraft from a submarine originated before the Second World War.

    他將直接把戰爭帶往美國各城市

  • But these earlier attempts were experimental trials usually involving a single lightweight

    但是隨著現在美國警惕著日軍

  • reconnaissance plane.

    山本需要個真正能隱形到達美國的武器

  • What Yamamoto had in mind was far more ambitious.

    一個美國人永遠猜不到的武器

  • A fleet of submarines that could carry multiple attack aircraft and strike fear into the enemy

    從潛艇發射飛機的概念 起源於第二次世界大戰之前。

  • by launching surprise attacks on cities, only to submerge and disappear again

    但是這些較早的嘗試是實驗性的 通常只搭載一架輕量的試驗偵察機

  • In March of 1942, Japanese engineers were handed the enormous task of designing Yamamoto's

    山本的想法遠遠比這更有野心

  • secret weapon.

    一支可以攜帶多架攻擊機的潛艇艦隊

  • To start, Yamamoto's aircraft carrying subs would need to be capable of launching full-size

    對城市發動突襲並向敵人散布恐懼

  • torpedo dive-bombers.

    之後再度下潛消失

  • And engineers would have to design a catapult launching system.

    1942年3月,日本工程師 承接了設計山本秘密武器的巨大任務

  • And a mechanism to recover the aircraft and bring them back onboard.

    首先,山本的載機潛水艇 需要能夠發射全尺寸的魚雷轟炸機

  • But making the bombers fit inside a submarine would be an even bigger challenge.

    工程師必須設計個彈射器發射系統

  • With a typical World War Two-era dive bomber having a wingspan of about 12 meters, engineers

    還有一種回收飛機的裝置

  • would also need to design an entirely new dive bomber.

    並將它們回收到船上

  • One that could be folded up to fit inside the sub's hanger.

    但要將轟炸機放進一艘潛艇

  • The submarines would also need to be able to reach any part of America's coastline,

    將會是個更大的挑戰。

  • thousands of kilometers away.

    在二次世界大戰時期的俯衝轟炸機翼展約12公尺

  • And then return all the way back to Japan without refueling or resupplying.

    為此,工程師還需要設計一架全新的轟炸機。

  • And it meant carrying nearly two million liters of diesel fuel and enough supplies to support

    一架可以摺疊並放進潛艇機庫的轟炸機

  • a crew out at sea for months.

    潛艇還需要能夠到達美國海岸線的任何地方

  • Japan's secret underwater aircraft carriers would be designated as the I-400.

    或幾千公里之外, 然後無需加油或補給一路回到日本

  • And they'd be enormous.

    這意味著要攜帶近200萬公升的柴油

  • Nearly twice the length of a typical German U-boat.

    和足夠的補給來讓船員在海上支撐好幾個月

  • To support the weight of the hanger and to keep the sub stable during carrier operations,

    日本的機密水下航空母艦將被命名為伊400

  • engineers innovated a double hull design.

    而且它們將是巨大無比的 長度幾乎是典型德國U型潛艇的兩倍大

  • Essentially two hulls stuck together.

    為了能夠支撐機庫的重量及潛艇航行時的穩定性

  • It gave the mammoth I-400 nearly three times the displacement of even the largest

    工程師創新設計了雙船體結構

  • American submarine.

    基本上,就是將兩個船體黏在一起

  • And the I-400 was still a formidable submarine in the conventional sense.

    它讓龐大的伊400和美國最大潛艇 排水量相比下有將近三倍之大

  • Armed with eight forward mounted torpedo tubes and a massive deck gun.

    伊400在傳統設計來說仍是一艘厲害的潛艇

  • And to fend off enemy aircraft, three triple-mounted anti-aircraft guns and a fourth single mounted

    配備了八個前置魚雷發射管

  • gun on the sail.

    和一門巨大的14cm甲板砲

  • But of course the i400's primary weapons were its three torpedo dive bombers.

    為了抵​​禦敵機

  • The element of surprise was an underwater aircraft carrier's greatest advantage.

    還有三聯裝高射砲三座及單裝砲一挺

  • And as the I-400 silently approached its target, its crew would already begin preparing the

    當然,伊400的主要武器是三架魚雷轟炸機

  • aircraft.

    奇襲的特性是水下航空母艦的最大優勢

  • Mechanics would start by running heated oil through the aircraft's engines so they would

    當伊400默默地接近其目標時

  • be warmed up and ready to launch.

    它的船員早就開始整備飛機

  • The mammoth submarine would surface a few hundred kilometers from its target and the

    技師會將加熱過的油注進飛機的引擎

  • race would be on to get three bombers airborne.

    讓它們暖機並準備發射。

  • Each aircraft would be rolled out from the hangar onto the deck.

    這艘巨大的潛水艇約距離目標約幾百公里時浮出水面

  • Crews would then start the engine, unfold the wings and tail, lock floats into place,

    三架轟炸機將如競賽般的升空

  • and load armament.

    每架飛機將從機庫移至甲板上

  • One by one, the three aircraft would be launched using a compressed air catapult.

    接著,機組人員會啟動引擎、展開機翼和尾翼, 將浮桶鎖定到位和裝載武器

  • The whole process would take thirty minutes.

    三架飛機將使用壓縮空氣彈射器依序發射

  • After which the I-400 would dive back to safety and silently wait for the bombers to return

    整個過程將花費三十分鐘

  • from their mission.

    在那之後,伊400將會下潛回安全區

  • The torpedo dive bombers were cutting edge.

    並安靜地等待轟炸機完成任務返回

  • They were designed specifically for the I-400 and could carry the largest bomb or torpedo

    這種魚雷轟炸機在當時非常先進(註:晴嵐攻擊機)

  • in Japan's naval arsenal.

    它們是專門為伊400設計的

  • Equipped with floats, the aircraft would land alongside the submarine to be hoisted back

    可以攜帶日本軍隊最大的炸彈或魚雷

  • aboard using a collapsible hydraulic crane.

    裝備浮桶的飛機會降落在潛艇旁

  • The aircraft could also be launched without floats for greater range and performance,

    等待被可折疊的液壓起重機回收至船上

  • but forcing pilots to ditch into the ocean after their mission.

    該飛機也可以在沒有浮桶的狀況下彈射, 以獲得更遠的航程和更好的性能

  • The I-400 was a brilliant design, merging the stealth of a submarine with the offensive

    但這會卻迫使飛行員在完成任務後墜入大海

  • strike capability of an aircraft carrier.

    伊400是個出色的設計

  • But Japan's new super weapon would make no difference in the War.

    結合了潛艇的隱身特性 及航空母艦的進攻打擊能力

  • On August 15, 1945, after nearly four years of brutal conflict and with American forces

    但是日本的新超級武器將不會對戰爭帶來任何改變

  • closing in and the bombing of Japanese cities, Japan finally surrendered.

    於1945年8月15日 在與美軍發起慘烈的衝突將近四年後

  • The Americans first intercepted an I-400 off the coast of Japan two weeks after the surrender.

    因步步逼近的美軍 及受到轟炸的日本都市

  • And at first they weren't exactly sure what it actually was.

    日本最終投降了

  • The Japanese crew had thrown all of the attack aircraft overboard.

    首先美國人在日本投降兩週後

  • And at first the Americans believed the I-400 was designed to carry cargo.

    在日本海岸攔截了一艘伊400型潛艇

  • But they'd soon unravel the submarine's true purpose and why Japan never used them

    一開始,他們太不確定它是什麼東西

  • in the War.

    日本船員已將所有的攻擊機丟下潛艇

  • To start, many in Japan's Navy considered Yamamoto's underwater aircraft carriers

    最初,美國人相信伊400是被設計用來運載貨物的

  • to be a farce.

    但很快,他們就會揭開潛艇的真正用途

  • And the slow process of launching aircraft in the middle of a combat zone too dangerous

    以及日本為何從未在戰爭中使用過它們

  • for submarine crews.

    首先,許多日本海軍的人認為 山本的水下航空母艦是一場鬧劇

  • But resistance to the concept would soon be the least of Yamamoto's concerns.

    以及太過於緩慢的飛機發射過程

  • Because it took nearly a year to design such an unconventional weapon.

    還有在交戰區中對於潛艇人員過於危險

  • Construction of the first I-400s only began at the start of 1943.

    但這些對於構想的反對聲浪 對於山本來說並不是他的主要擔憂

  • By then, the Japanese were already losing the War.

    因為設計個這樣的非常規武器花了將近一年的時間

  • After a crushing defeat in June of 1942, the Americans were pushing the Japanese back across

    第一批伊400在1943年初才開始建造

  • the pacific.

    在那時,日本在戰爭已處於劣勢

  • And Japan was running critically short on fuel and raw materials.

    在1942年6月中途島海戰慘敗後

  • Delaying I-400 construction even further.

    美國人把日本人推回太平洋的另一端

  • And Yamamato himself would never live to see any of his submarines completed.

    並且,日本在那時嚴重缺乏原油和原物料

  • In 1943, while on an inspection tour through the South Pacific, Yamamoto's plane was

    更加延後了伊400的建造

  • downed by American forces.

    而且山本本人無法活著看到 他的任何潛艇完工

  • What started as a plan to build a fleet of eighteen underwater aircraft carriers was

    在1943年,在南太平洋巡視時

  • eventually whittled down to just five.

    山本所乘坐的飛機被美軍擊落

  • And only three were ever completed.

    建立一支18艘水下航母艦隊的計畫

  • The first entering service in 1945.

    最終縮編到只有5艘

  • So late in the War that Japan's military had already all but collapsed.

    然而只有3艘完工

  • Launching sneak attacks on American cities with a handful of dive bombers would've

    第一艘在1945年首次服役

  • been pointless.

    但處於戰爭後末期 日本軍隊早已經崩潰了

  • Even a more strategic mission to bomb the Panama Canal was abandoned after Japanese

    用幾架轟炸機向美國城市發起偷襲

  • command felt that it too would've made little difference so late in the War.

    幾乎毫無意義

  • The only mission the I-400's would ever set out on was a last ditch effort to bomb

    甚至更具戰略意義的巴拿馬運河轟炸任務

  • American forces as they amassed off a tiny pacific atoll.

    也因日本指揮官認為這任務在戰爭末期

  • But as the first I-400s traveled to their targets, Japan surrendered, finally ending

    能造成影響微乎其微而被取消

  • the Second World War.

    伊400的第一次且是最後一次的任務

  • Aircraft carrier submarines had always been a gamble.

    是轟炸一個聚集在 太平洋環礁上的美軍部隊

  • A way to change odds so stacked against Japan, that only through sheer ingenuity could the

    但是當第一批伊400前往他們的目標時

  • tables be turned.

    日本就投降了

  • And had the sub arrived at the start of the war it might've made a difference.

    終於結束了第二次世界大戰

  • But Japan's secret weapon wasn't without compromise.

    航空潛艦一直以來都是場賭博

  • The process of launching three aircraft was supposed to take 30 minutes.

    一種改變對日本的賠率的方法

  • But rarely could it be accomplished in less than 45.

    只有通過獨創性才能將盤局翻轉

  • A dangerous amount of time for such a large submarine to be surfaced.

    如果讓這些潛艇在戰爭開始時出現 這可能會讓大局有所不同

  • And the I-400's bombers, while sophisticated in their design were rushed into service and

    但是日本的秘密武器 並非沒有碰到不順利的狀況

  • built from lower grade materials due to shortages.

    發射三架飛機的作業 原本只該花上30分鐘

  • They were notoriously unreliable.

    但實際上很少能在45分鐘內完成

  • Rarely could all three get airborne without some mechanical problem.

    如此巨大的潛艇 在那麼長的時間下浮出水面相當危險

  • And the enormous I-400's depth time, critical for getting out of danger, was nearly double

    加上伊400的轟炸機 設計複雜又被倉促的投入使用

  • that of American submarines.

    且基於原物料短缺而使用次等原料

  • Even submerged, it was still vulnerable.

    他們有著臭名昭著的妥善率

  • With a hull that was riveted, not welded, it likely would have stood up poorly against

    要三架飛機都不發生機械問題並升空非常少見

  • depth-charges.

    而且巨大的伊400緊急下潛 所需的時間得花費近美國潛艇的一倍

  • Still, the Americans considered the I-400 to be a dangerous weapon.

    即使下潛時,它仍然是非常脆弱的。

  • Especially in the wrong hands.

    用鉚釘連接而不是焊接的船體

  • And In 1946, with the Soviets demanding to inspect the subs for themselves, the American's

    讓它可能無法有效的對抗深水炸彈

  • scuttled the I-400s off the coast of Hawaii and Japan.

    儘管如此,美國人認為伊400還是個危險的武器

  • Keeping their exact wreckage locations secret, and closing the chapter on an ambitious new

    特別是在落在錯的人手裡

  • kind of weapon, that in a different set of circumstances, might've changed the course

    在1946年,蘇聯要求自行檢查潛艇

  • of the war.

    於是,美國人在夏威夷及日本海岸附近鑿沉了伊400

  • This video originally appeared on Nebula.

    並對殘骸的確切位置保密

  • A streaming site that I helped create.

    闔上了一個雄心勃勃武器的章節

  • Nebula is where you can watch Mustard videos before they're on YouTube.

    在某些狀況下可能可以改變整個戰爭的局面

  • Without any annoying advertisements or sponsor messages.

    該影片最初出現在NEBULA上

  • It's also home to a growing number of Nebula Originals like Real Engineering's ongoing

    一個由我協助成立的影音串流平台

  • series on the Logistics of D-Day, long-form documentaries by Wendover Productions, and

    NEBULA讓您可以提前觀看Mustard的影片, 在他們上傳YouTube之前

  • experimental content by your favorite creators.

    沒有任何煩人的廣告或贊助商的片段

  • Right now you get Nebula for free, when you sign up for CuriosityStream.

    還有越來越多的NEBULA的原創作品, 像是Real Engineering的物流D-Day系列影集

  • With CuriosityStream you get to enjoy thousands of high quality documentaries by some of the

    Wendover Productions加長版的紀錄片, 以及您最喜歡的創作者提供的實驗性內容

  • best film makers in the world.

    現在,當您註冊CuriosityStream。 可以免費使用NEBULA

  • From history to science to nature, CuriosityStream's ever expanding catalog will let you take a

    藉助CuriosityStream您可以盡情享受上千個

  • deeper dive into fascinating topics.

    由世界上最好的電影人製作的高品質紀錄片

  • Get unlimited access to both CuriosityStream and support your favorite creators on Nebula,

    從歷史到科學再到自然, CuriosityStream不斷擴大的目錄

  • all for just $2.99 a month by going to curiositystream.com/mustard and using the promo 'mustard' when you

    將使您能夠更深入地研究有趣的主題

  • sign up.

    無限期訪問CuriosityStream跟NEBULA 並在NEBULA上支持您最喜歡的創作者

In August of 1945, as the world celebrates the end of the Second World War, out in the

《NEBULA原創》

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 潛艇 日本 轟炸機 飛機 美國 武器

水下航空母舰日本帝国的秘密武器(Underwater Aircraft Carriers: Imperial Japan’s Secret Weapon)

  • 9 1
    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 26 日
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