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  • This video was made possible by Skillshare, home to over twenty thousand classes that'll

    本視頻由Skillshare,一個提供超過兩萬個

  • teach you just about anything.

    課程可選的網站贊助。

  • In the fall of 1959, an enormous Soviet aircraft races across the Atlantic.

    1959年的冬天,有一台龐然大物在大西洋的上空掠過。

  • This plane is unlike anything in the west.

    這飛機跟西方國家的設計完全不一樣。

  • It's the largest airliner the world has ever seen.

    這也是那時候世上最大的客機。

  • And it's driven by four of the most powerful turboprop engines ever built.They can push

    由四個史上最強勁的渦槳發動機驅動,這些發動機

  • the plane to nearly 900 km/h, which is faster than some jets.

    能讓飛機以接近900公里/小時的速度飛行,甚至比某部分噴射機還要快。

  • This Soviet airliner is about to make a big impression, because it's headed straight

    這台蘇聯的民航機將會讓人眼前一亮,因為它正朝著

  • for United States.

    美利堅合眾國方向飛行。

  • In the mid-1950's, the Soviet Union got a new leader, Nikita Khrushchev, and he's

    1950年代中期,蘇聯換了新的領導人,尼基塔·赫魯曉夫,他的風格

  • unlike his predecessors.

    不同於他的前任者們。

  • For one, he's more open to engaging with the West.

    尤其是,他對西方更開放。

  • [Khrushchev] You're a lawyer of Capitalism, I'm a lawyer for Communism. Let's kiss.

    【赫魯曉夫】你是資本主義的律師而我是共產主義的律師,來接吻吧。

  • [Nixon] All that I can say, from the way you talk, and the way you dominate the conversation

    【尼克松】我只能說,以你現在的口吻,還有你現在主導這次對話的的行徑

  • you would have made a good lawyer yourself.

    你自己就是一個很好的律師【在場人士的笑聲】。

  • Nearly everyone agrees, Khrushchev is a showman, ready to jump at any opportunity to prove

    每個人都同意這一點:他是個“藝人”,準備隨時隨地

  • Soviet superiority.

    秀蘇聯的肌肉。

  • And in 1955, the new leader gets a chance to make an impression.

    也在1955年,新領導人有機會可以炫耀了。

  • Meeting in Geneva, Switzerland for a Cold War summit are the most powerful western nations,

    在瑞士日內瓦舉行冷戰峰會,與會者有最強的西方國家

  • and the Soviet Union.

    以及蘇聯。

  • As world leaders descend onto Geneva Airport, crowds are watching and cameras are rolling.

    各國的領導人在日內瓦機場降落的時候,人們無不在看著他們的到來,而攝影機一直在錄影。

  • U.S. President Eisenhower lands in a four engined Super Constellation.

    美國總統艾森豪威爾搭乘一台四發的超級星座客機前來。

  • A large, state-of-the-art American airliner.

    一台龐大且前衛的美國客機。

  • And Khrushchev lands in this.

    而赫魯曉夫在這台飛機上。

  • A plane half the size of Eisenhower's.

    比艾森豪威爾的小整整一半。

  • And he's mortified by the optics because the Soviet Union and America are supposed

    而他也因為鏡頭拍到而感到羞恥,因為蘇美兩國

  • to stand toe-to-toe.

    應該是實力對等的。

  • But small short-range airliners like the IL-14 are really the only type the Soviet Union

    可那時候IL-14這種在50年代初期生產的短途客機

  • produces in the early 1950's.

    就是那時候蘇聯僅有的客機。

  • And that means that flying across the country's vast territory can take over 24 hours, with

    也意味著飛越蘇聯遼闊的國土可以用超過24小時的飛行時間

  • multiple stops for refueling, making for a grueling journey.

    而且還有中停補給,讓整趟旅程讓人感覺煩躁。

  • But, there is a Soviet plane available that can already fly these distances direct and

    事實上,那時候已經有蘇製的飛機,可以直達前者不能單次飛行到達的地點

  • in half the time.

    而且時間只需要前者的一半。

  • It's just not an airliner.

    只是...那不是客機。

  • It's a plane meant to be loaded with bombs, not luggage.

    是一架裝載炸彈而不是行李的飛機。

  • But converting this intercontinental bomber into a civil transport will be fastest way

    而把這台洲際戰略轟炸機改裝成民航機也是對於蘇聯來說

  • get the Soviet Union a new long range airliner.

    最快可以拿出新的客機的方案。

  • Because the country desperately needs one, and Khrushchev's plans for world visits are

    也由於蘇聯急切需要一種如此的飛機,再加上赫魯曉夫的出訪行程

  • expanding by the day

    日趨繁重

  • Just weeks after the Geneva Summit, the Tupolev Design Bureau is given a directive to convert

    就在日內瓦會議不到幾個禮拜之後,圖波列夫設計局就接到命令要把

  • the TU-95 bomber into a VIP transport.

    Tu-95轟炸機改裝成專機。

  • Engineers will remove bombing and protective equipment and shoehorn two small passenger

    工程師就把炸彈艙,防護設備拆掉,再把兩個...

  • compartments into its narrow fuselage.

    客艙塞進去那窄長的機身裡面。

  • Khrushchev would access his VIP compartment via a ramp at rear.

    赫魯曉夫會待在後半部要經由內建登機梯登上的客艙裡面。

  • Lucky, this frankliner wasn't the only plane in the works.

    幸好的是,這怪胎不是唯一的方案。

  • Because a second parallel project aimed to turn the bomber into a proper airliner.

    因為同一時間有另一個把這台轟炸機變成合適的客機的平行方案。

  • And to do it, engineers would keep the plane's powerful engines and swept wings,

    如要這要做,工程師會繼續保留那強大的渦槳發動機以及後掠翼,

  • but they'd mount them lower to accommodate a wider fully pressurized fuselage.

    不過他們會把機翼挪到機身下面以配合更寬的加壓機艙。

  • The airliner would also receive new stabilizers, larger flaps and an entirely new nose gear.

    這台客機會有新設計的尾翼,更大的襟翼以及全新的前起落架。

  • And the first prototype was ready in just a little over 2 years.

    第一台原型機就在2年多一點(注:也就是1957年)之後翱翔天際了。

  • Turns out, starting with a TU-95 strategic bomber, made for a pretty remarkable airliner.

    實踐證明,從Tu-95戰略轟炸機起步,改裝出來的客機的確是挺出色的。

  • The TU-114 holds the distinction of being the fastest propeller driven airliner ever.

    Tu-114一直保持著空中最快的螺旋槳客機的記錄。

  • It could reach an incredible 870 km/h.These jet-like speeds puzzled western observers.

    這台飛機能飆到不可思議的870公里/小時速度,讓西方對於這台能跑出噴射機速度的飛機感到疑惑。

  • The 114's turboprop engines are the most powerful ever to enter service, and they drove

    而它的渦槳發動機也是史上最大馬力(注:11000千瓦)的,這個發動機

  • the plane's enormous contra-rotating propellers so fast, their tips could reach supersonic.

    驅動飛機那龐大的同軸反轉螺旋槳,速度快得螺旋槳尖端以超音速劃過空氣。

  • Also jet-like was the airliner's 35 degree wing sweep and a service ceiling

    而它猶如噴射機的35°後掠翼讓它能飛到

  • of nearly 40,000 feet.

    接近40000英呎(注:約12100公尺)的高空。

  • And in 1958, this was also the largest airliner, with seating for up to 224 passengers.

    在於1958年來說,它還是最大的客機,載客量可達224人。

  • Not until the Boeing 747 would larger plane take to the skies.

    直到波音747服役之前都無人能及。

  • But while the 114 was still undergoing testing, Khrushchev got an invitation to visit to the

    但是那時候114(注:Tu-114,下文提到的114皆為Tu-114)還在測試,赫魯曉夫就受到了

  • United States.

    美國的邀請。

  • And it would be the first ever by a Soviet Head of State.

    這次也會是蘇聯國家元首首次訪美。

  • The Tu-116 converted bomber was ready to make the trip.

    從轟炸機改裝而成的Tu-116可以飛這一趟了。

  • But touching down in the United States In what was quite obviously still

    不過在美國用一台長得還是很像轟炸機的“客機”降落

  • a bomber was one thing.

    是另一回事。

  • Khrushchev would also have to crawl out the rear-end on a ramp.

    赫魯曉夫還要從後方的登機梯下機。

  • So he demanded taking the 114.

    所以他要求使用114。

  • But the airliner wasn't ready.

    不過飛機還沒準備好。

  • Not only was the 144 still undergoing testing, there were serious flaws like hairline cracks

    不只114還在測試當中,而且還發現了例如頭髮絲大小裂縫的嚴重問題

  • which had formed around the engines.

    而這些問題發生在發動機周邊。

  • Still, Khrushchev was dead-set on making a grand entrance.

    雖然如此,赫魯曉夫還是欽定了要做一次華麗的登場。

  • On September 15, 1959, Khrushchev's 114 took off from Moscow to begin it's nearly

    1959年9月15日,赫魯曉夫的114從莫斯科起飛,開展了前往美國將近

  • 8,000 km journey to the United States.

    8000公里的旅程。

  • Most of the trip would take the airliner over the frigid North Atlantic.

    旅程的大部分時間都會在冰冷的北大西洋上空渡過。

  • So precarious was the situation, engineers even tested a mockup of the airliner in a

    所以蘇聯做好了預防措施,工程師們甚至還把模型飛機扔進去

  • swimming pool just to see how it might float in the Atlantic.

    游泳池裡面,想研究一下它會在大西洋怎麼浮起來。

  • Along the way, nearly every available Soviet Navy vessel was put on high alert for any

    沿途則是全蘇聯海軍能出動的艦艇在高度戒備狀態

  • sign of distress.

    防止任何災難性事件發生。

  • And onboard, a team of engineers holed up inside the 114's lower deck used special

    機上也有一隊工程師團隊在下層機艙

  • monitoring equipment to spot any sign of trouble

    用檢測儀器盯著飛機的任何情況

  • But despite having to battle 160 km/h head winds over the Atlantic, the 114 performed

    雖然還得跟160公里/小時的迎頭風搏鬥,114

  • admirably.

    很可敬的完成了它的任務。

  • [Reporter] An interesting and historic arrival and Andrews Airfield near Washington.

    【記者】華盛頓特區附近的安德魯空軍基地來了一位又有趣又具歷史性的客人。

  • The huge TU-114 airliner bringing Mr. Khrushchev on his first visit to the United States.

    這台巨大的Tu-114客機載著赫魯曉夫首次來到美國出訪。

  • President Eisenhower was there to meet the Soviet Premier.

    總統艾森豪威爾在場迎接蘇聯總理。

  • The last time they met was in Geneva, four years ago.

    上次他們碰面已經是四年前在日內瓦那次了。

  • Khrushchev got his grand entrance, and the enormous airliner grabbed headlines around

    赫魯曉夫得到了他想要的那種盛大的歡迎儀式,而這台巨大的客機也上了

  • the world.

    世界各地的頭條新聞。

  • By 1961 the 114's development was complete and the plane entered service with Aeroflot.

    在1961年,114的發展完畢並進入蘇聯民航服役。

  • Early versions were equipped with some pretty opulent and rather un-Soviet features.

    早期型配備著一些很奢華的設備,非常不符合當時的蘇式風格。

  • Divided into three-classes ranging from economy, to deluxe, there were large tables, private

    三級客艙配置,從經濟艙到頭等艙,又有桌子

  • sleeping cabins and a dining lounge.

    跟私人的睡眠客艙以及餐廳。

  • Early 144's even had a full size kitchen in the lower deck with a dedicated chief.

    早期的114的下層機艙甚至配備全尺寸廚房,更有專職的廚師效勞。

  • The 114's impressive range opened up Moscow to far flung destinations like Havana, Montreal

    114那讓人信服的航程也讓俄國開辦了從莫斯科起飛的長途航班,例如飛往哈瓦那,蒙特利爾

  • and Tokyo.

    跟東京的航班。

  • But while the plane's maximum speed was comparable to modern jet airliners, the 144's

    雖然說它可以飛出現代噴射客機的速度,但是這飛機

  • cruising speed was usually more modest to save fuel and increase range.

    的巡航速度通常都是更慢的,以節省燃料,增加航程。

  • And then there was the noise.

    而且還有那種噪音。

  • This was one of loudest planes ever produced.

    這是全世界最吵雜的飛機之一。

  • Its four enormous turboprops would have made jet engines sound like a symphony.

    那四個斗大的渦槳發動機讓這些噴射引擎聽著跟交響樂似的。

  • And the vibration could cause dinnerware to migrate right off the end of tables.

    而發動機的震動也會讓餐具震得從桌子邊掉下去。

  • But the 114 stood out for it's reliability and relative efficiency.

    然而114的可靠性跟相對來說的效率讓它很突出。

  • And it would go on to carry over six million passengers without a single design-related

    而這台飛機自服役以來已經搭載過超過600萬的乘客,而沒出過設計缺陷導致的事故

  • accident, making it quite possibly the safest Soviet airliner ever built.

    也讓它很大可能的成為蘇製最安全的客機。

  • But by the mid-1960's, airports in the west were filled with long range jets, not props.

    不過到了1960年代中期,西方機場全是長距離噴射機,而不是螺旋槳機。

  • And the Soviet Union's only long range airliner looked dated in comparison.

    而那時候蘇聯唯一的長程客機看上去就過時了。

  • In 1967, a new long range jet-powered soviet airliner entered service.

    1967年,新造的蘇製噴射客機服役(注:IL-62)。

  • And that meant that the 114 was quickly removed from most international routes and was kept

    也意味著114很快的從國際線抽走了,取而代之它

  • flying mainly within Soviet borders.

    通常都是飛蘇聯的國內線。

  • In total, 32 of these speedy turboprops were built, and they'd serve with Aeroflot for

    前前後後總共32台這樣快的渦漿飛機被製造了出來,而它們都在蘇聯民航服役了

  • 16 years, until they were finally retired from civilian service in 1977.

    一共16年,直到它們在1977年退出民用服務。

  • 3D modelling is a powerful tool.

    【廣告時間】3D建模是一樣很強大的工具

  • Because with it, you can create just about anything.

    因為你可以靠它創造出任何東西

  • And you've probably noticed I use it in all my videos.

    而你應該也發現了我經常在視頻裡面用上3D建模

  • The modeling software I use is SketchUp, but there are plenty of even better tools out there.

    我用的是SketchUp,不過市面上還是有很多更好的工具

  • And the best place to start learning 3D modeling is SkillShare.

    而最佳的學習起步點就是SkillShare

  • Because they've got amazing classes that'll get you up to speed in no time.

    因為他們的課程很好,你會很快的跟上進度

  • Like Olivar Villar's excellent introductory course on Blender.

    例如Olivar Villar那優秀的Blender入門教程

  • I'm working through his class to see if Blender can help me take my modelling to the

    我現在就在觀看他的視頻去把我的建模技術

  • next level, because it's got some pretty powerful features.

    提升到另一個層次,因為Blender有些很強大的功能

  • And that's what I really love about SkillShare.

    而這也是我那麼喜歡SkillShare的原因

  • With over 23 thousand classes at your fingertips, covering just about anything, you can jump

    有著超過2.3萬個課程任君選擇,課程涵蓋各式各樣的項目,你可以直接

  • right in and learn whatever is you want to learn, whether it's introductory or something

    跳進去裡面學你想學的東西,無論是入門課程

  • more advanced.

    還是更高深的課程

  • A premium subscription to Skillshare, is less than $10 a month.

    高級會員每個月訂閱費低於10元美金

  • And if you're one of the first 500 people to sign-up using the link in the description

    如果你是前500個按下方鍵接註冊的其中一員

  • below you get 2 months for absolutely free

    你就會得到兩個月的免費課程

This video was made possible by Skillshare, home to over twenty thousand classes that'll

本視頻由Skillshare,一個提供超過兩萬個

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为什么苏联人将轰炸机变成航空公司(Why The Soviets Turned A Bomber Into An Airliner: The TU-114 Story)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 26 日
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