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  • [On my worst days, I make $60.]

    [狀況最差的時候,我一天可以賺到 60 美元。]

  • [A doctor makes about $40 per month.]

    [一名醫生一個月才賺 40 美元。]

  • Did you catch that? This guy makes more in one day than a doctor makes in a month.

    你有聽到嗎?這位仁兄一天就可以賺到超過一名醫生一個月能賺到的錢。

  • And he's a taxi driver.

    而他是名計程車司機。

  • Well, he's actually a trained engineer, but engineers make even less than doctors.

    而實際上他是個受過訓練的工程師,但工程師能賺到的錢甚至比醫生還更少。

  • [So I like being a taxi driver. Not an engineer]

    [我比較喜歡當計程車司機,而不是工程師。]

  • Welcome to the Cuban economy.

    歡迎來到古巴的經濟。

  • Right after the socialist revolution in 1959, Fidel Castro's government seized almost all private businesses and land.

    在 1959 年社會主義革命之後,費德爾·卡斯楚政府便沒收了幾乎所有的私人公司與土地。

  • You won't have to worry about next year. The state will do your planning from now on!

    你不必為明年擔心了,因為國家從現在開始都幫你計畫好了!

  • Every restaurant, factory, hospital and home was property of the government.

    每一間餐廳、工廠、醫院與住家都是政府的財產。

  • The State set prices for everything and decided how much people got paid.

    國家為每一件商品標價,並且決定了人們能賺到多少錢。

  • The private sector disappeared overnight.

    私營部門一夕之間就消失殆盡。

  • The world these men live in desperately needs economic reforms.

    這些人所身處的世界亟需經濟改革。

  • You can see the result of this if you go looking for food in Havana today.

    在今日的哈瓦那街頭上尋找食物時你便能看到這麼做的後果。

  • When I showed up, I was pretty excited to see what street food was on offer.

    我到那邊的時候,對能吃到什麼街頭小吃感到相當興奮。

  • But all I could find was this. Just this. Ham sandwiches. Everywhere.

    但我唯一能找到的就是這個。就只有這個。火腿三明治。到處都一樣。

  • Here is a typical scene in a Cuban eatery: too many employees in an empty establishment with empty shelves.

    以下是古巴小吃店的典型景象:過多的雇員在一個空空的商店裡,架上什麼都沒有。

  • They're just waiting for food deliveries from the government, and putting in their eight hours so they can go home.

    他們就只是等著食物從政府那邊送過來,然後虛度過八小時的輪班之後回家。

  • They get paid the same whether they sell one plate of food, or fifty.

    不論他們賣出一份食物或是五十盤食物,拿到的薪水都一樣多。

  • This model just doesn't work.

    這個模式根本行不通。

  • Cuba survived for many years with subsidies from the Soviet Union.

    古巴在蘇聯的支援下苟延殘喘了好幾年。

  • [Long live communism!]

    [共產主義萬歲!]

  • But since its collapse, the economy‘s been getting worse every year.

    但在蘇聯解體後,他們的經濟便開始每況愈下。

  • This lady is showing me her government ration cards that she's kept for decades.

    這位女士正向我展示他在數十年以來收集起來的政府配糧卡。

  • Cubans use these cards to go to the storage houses to get their monthly rations.

    古巴人會拿著這些卡片,前往儲藏倉庫領取每個月的配糧。

  • [Today, we get less cooking oil, less grains, less sugar. We don't even get soap or detergent anymore. Everyday we get less and less.]

    [現在我們拿到的食用油、穀物和糖都更少了。我們甚至再也沒拿到過肥皂或是清潔劑了。每天我們拿的量都越來越少。]

  • [Have they improved in any aspect at all?]

    [那他們有在任何層面上的改進嗎?]

  • The government realized this was becoming a problem in the 90s, and started giving out private licenses, fueling a small but growing private sector.

    政府在 1990 年代意識到了問題的嚴重性,於是開始發放私營執照並發展出了一個微小但持續成長的私營部門。

  • I stumbled upon a private restaurant in Havana, and it was a totally different experience than the public ones.

    我在哈瓦那偶然走進了一間私營餐廳,而整個體驗與公家餐廳完全不同。

  • There was actually movement, and good service.

    員工們移動快速且提供了優質服務。

  • The owners had to sell good food if they wanted to stay in business.

    店主如果想要經營得當,就必須賣出優質的食物。

  • Which brings me back to the taxi driver and the doctor.

    而這讓我回想到了計程車司機與醫生的情況。

  • The reason why taxi drivers make so much more than doctors is because they have private licenses.

    計程車司機之所以比醫生賺得錢多那麼多的原因,在於他們擁有私營執照。

  • Their salaries are not set by the state, and they can charge tourists high prices.

    他們的薪水不是由國家決定的,因此他們可以對遊客索取更高的價格。

  • I paid $25 to get from the airport into Havana.

    從機場坐車到哈瓦那花了我 25 美元。

  • And in that 30 minutes, this driver made more than the average monthly salary of a Cuban, which is $20.

    而在這短短的 30 分鐘,這位司機便賺到了比一名古巴人每個月平均能賺到的 20 美元還多的錢。

  • [I put in eight hours as a licensed nurse, and daily, I don't even bring in $2.]

    [作為一名合格護理師,我每天排班八小時之後卻才賺不到 2 美元。]

  • One of the problems with this is that you get highly trained workers leaving their trade to go do mediocre work in the private sector.

    這套系統的問題之一是勞工們雖然受過高度技能訓練,卻為了餬口而跑到了私營部門做普通的工作。

  • This guy is an engineer, but he's cooking in a private restaurant.

    這位仁兄是名工程師,但現在在一間私營餐廳裡當廚師。

  • These guys are accountants by trade, but are making a killing driving around tourists on taxi bikes.

    這些男子原本的職業是會計師,但是現在正藉由計程機車的生意大賺一筆。

  • This woman is a nurse, but she hasn't worked in a hospital in years.

    這名女子是個護理師,但他已經有數年沒進過醫院了。

  • This guy is an electrical engineer, but he opened up a barber shop in his house and makes ten times more than he would in his field of study.

    這個人是電子工程師,但在自己家裡開了間理髮廳,賺到的錢比他待在原本的領域時還要多超過十倍。

  • Imagine trying to live on the Cuban average salary of $20 per month.

    試著想像看看一般的古巴人每個月要怎麼用平均 20 美元的收入過活。

  • When you ask them how they do it, they all have the same response.

    當你問他們是怎麼做到的,他們全都有著同樣的答案。

  • [We all have to do something on top of our official job.]

    [我們得在本職以外做點別的副業。]

  • [If you don't, you won't eat.]

    [不這麼做的話根本連飯都吃不上。]

  • Just beneath the surface in Cuba is a bustling informal market where Cubans make an additional income on top of their official salary, just to survive.

    潛藏在古巴經濟表面下的是一個活躍的非正規市場,而僅僅是為了生存下去,古巴人們除了自己的正式薪水還得兼做其他副業。

  • [We survive thanks to this dark marketthis underground market.]

    [我們都是因為這個黑市-這個地下市場才得以存活下去的。]

  • [When I leave my house and cross the street to buy a newspaper, I'm committing the first crime of the day.]

    [當我離開家門,跨過馬路去買一份報紙的時候,我就已經犯下一天當中的第一個罪了。]

  • [Because that old man is selling me the paper illegally.]

    [因為賣報的老人家其實是以非法的方式在賣我報紙的。]

  • [The official vendor keeps the papers and sells them to the old man.]

    [官方的小販會把報紙保留起來,然後把它們賣給那位老人家。]

  • We tend to associate black markets with dangerous activities.

    我們時常會把黑市與危險的活動做連結。

  • But in Cuba, people sell illegal popsicles, or newspapersnot to get rich, but just to survive.

    但在古巴,人們違法販賣冰棒或報紙,但他們不是為了變得富有,而是只是想活下去而已。

  • But things are slowly changing.

    但事態正在慢慢地轉變。

  • Since Fidel's brother Raul took over in 2008, the number of private licenses has increased significantly every year, and 20% of the economy is now private.

    自從費德爾的兄弟拉烏在 2008 年執掌政權後,私營執照的數量每年都在顯著上升,而現在全國有 20% 的經濟活動是私營的。

  • But still, most Cubans are jaded by the decades they have had to use illegal creativity just to survive.

    儘管如此,大多數的古巴人仍對過去數十年來他們得靠著經營非法活動來過活感到厭煩。

  • [We live in a country with only one party.]

    [我們住在一個一黨專政的國家中。]

  • [What could possibly happen? Could there really be change?]

    [還能怎麼樣呢?真的會有改變來臨的一天嗎?]

[On my worst days, I make $60.]

[狀況最差的時候,我一天可以賺到 60 美元。]

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 Vox 賺到 醫生 美元 計程車 司機

為什麼在古巴開計程車收入比醫生多 30 倍?(Why Cuban cab drivers earn more than doctors)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2022 年 02 月 08 日
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