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  • Most economists argue the pursuit of economic growth is both good and necessary.

    大多數經濟學家認為,追求經濟增長既是好事也是必要的。

  • But is it?

    但它是嗎?

  • In the wake of the coronavirus pandemic, more than 1,100 economists, scholars

    在冠狀病毒大流行之後,1,100多名經濟學家、學者

  • and climate activists from over 60 countries signed an open letter

    和來自60多個國家的氣候活動家簽署了一份公開信

  • calling for an end to a capitalist system which pursues growth at all costs.

    呼籲結束不惜一切代價追求增長的資本主義制度。

  • Instead, they advocated for 'degrowth', a concept that directly challenges

    相反,他們主張 "去增長",這一概念直接挑戰了

  • the long-held view that more is always better.

    長期以來的觀點是,越多越好。

  • Put simply, the objective of degrowth is to ensure that life is at the center of our economic systems.

    簡單地說,退化的目標是確保生命處於我們經濟體系的中心。

  • That means challenging the idea that economic growth is good for everyone

    這意味著挑戰經濟增長對每個人都有好處的想法。

  • and instead focusing directly on making people happier and healthier.

    而直接專注於使人們更快樂和更健康。

  • Ever since the metric of gross domestic product,

    自從有了國內生產總值的衡量標準。

  • or GDP, was first proposed in 1937,

    或GDP,是在1937年首次提出的。

  • policymakers have been striving to increase this measure of a country's economic welfare.

    決策者們一直在努力提高這一衡量一個國家經濟福利的標準。

  • However, advocates of degrowth say GDP shouldn't be considered a proxy for progress,

    然而,主張去增長的人說,國內生產總值不應該被認為是進步的代表。

  • arguing there is an urgent need for us to learn how to

    辯稱我們迫切需要學習如何

  • live better while producing less. So what would that look like?

    在減少生產的同時生活得更好。那麼,那會是什麼樣子呢?

  • Rich countries would be urged to reduce inequality through measures such as job guarantees,

    富國將被敦促通過就業保障等措施減少不平等。

  • a shorter working week and potentially a universal basic income.

    縮短工作周,並有可能實現全民基本收入。

  • It would require high-income countries to dramatically scale down energy and resource use.

    這將要求高收入國家大幅減少能源和資源的使用。

  • Low-income countries, meanwhile, should continue to grow their economies

    同時,低收入國家應繼續增長其經濟

  • in a sustainable way, at least until they reach a level of parity with middle-income nations.

    至少在他們達到與中等收入國家同等的水準之前,要以可持續的方式來實現。

  • One of the core aims of degrowth is to tackle the idea that every sector of the economy

    減肥的核心目標之一是解決經濟中每個部門的想法

  • must grow, all the time, regardless of whether or not we actually need it.

    必須增長,一直如此,不管我們是否真的需要它。

  • Advocates argue that instead of growing sectors such as the arms and automotive industries,

    倡導者認為,與其說是武器和汽車工業等增長部門。

  • more focus should be placed on areas such as public transportation and renewable energy.

    更多的重點應該放在公共交通和可再生能源等領域。

  • But what about the risks associated with a slowing economy?

    但是,與經濟放緩相關的風險呢?

  • Critics of degrowth worry about just that, with some pointing to 2020's sharp economic contraction as one example.

    減肥的批評者擔心的正是這一點,一些人指出2020年的經濟急劇收縮就是一個例子。

  • The spread of Covid last year coincided with the worst economic downturn since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

    去年Covid的傳播恰好與1930年代大蕭條以來最嚴重的經濟衰退相吻合。

  • Strict public health measures and reduced mobility saw the global economy contract by 4.3%.

    嚴格的公共衛生措施和減少的流動性使全球經濟收縮了4.3%。

  • Some described this sharp slowdown asdegrowthism in action,”

    一些人將這種急劇放緩描述為 "行動中的退化主義"。

  • but degrowthers themselves said this was misleading and rejected such criticism.

    但 "墮落者 "自己說這是誤導,並拒絕這種責備。

  • They say degrowth is different because it is a planned contraction that aims to be equitable.

    他們說,退化是不同的,因為它是一種有計劃的收縮,目的是為了公平。

  • By contrast, a recession is an unplanned event that can exacerbate inequality and reduce wellbeing.

    相比之下,經濟衰退是一個沒有計劃的事件,會加劇不平等和減少福利。

  • They even argued the economic crisis was in fact related to our dependence on growth.

    他們甚至認為,經濟危機實際上與我們對增長的依賴有關。

  • Leading proponents of the movement have also stressed that degrowth does not call

    該運動的主要支持者還強調,退化並不要求

  • for a reduction in personal income, noting that rich countries already have

    削減個人收入,並指出富裕國家已經有了

  • more than enough resources to secure good lives for everyone.

    有足夠的資源來確保每個人的美好生活。

  • While degrowth has received renewed attention in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic,

    雖然在冠狀病毒大流行之後,退化得到了新的關注。

  • the idea itself first gained prominence in the early 1970s.

    這個想法本身在20世紀70年代初首次獲得突出地位。

  • The history of the degrowth movement can be traced back to 1972,

    退化運動的歷史可以追溯到1972年。

  • when French philosopher Andre Gorz first coined the term: 'décroissance'.

    法國哲學家安德烈-戈爾茨首次提出了 "文藝復興 "一詞。

  • Translated into English as 'degrowth', Gorz questioned whether the Earth's natural balance

    被翻譯成英語的 "degrowth",Gorz質疑地球的自然平衡是否會被破壞。

  • was compatible with the survival of a capitalist system that pursues relentless economic growth.

    是與追求無情的經濟增長的資本主義制度的生存相適應的。

  • In the same year, a think tank called the Club of Rome published a book entitledLimits to Growth.”

    同年,一個名為羅馬俱樂部的智囊團出版了一本題為 "增長的極限 "的書。

  • In it, researchers from MIT predicted that our seemingly never-ending appetite for industrial growth

    在其中,來自麻省理工學院的研究人員預測,我們對工業增長似乎永無止境的胃口

  • would see civilization collapse sometime in the 21st century.

    將在21世紀的某個時候看到文明的崩潰。

  • This idea was widely criticized at the time, and in 2002, one Danish academic

    這一想法在當時受到了廣泛的責備,2002年,一位丹麥學者

  • even suggested the book should be relegated to thedustbin of history.”

    甚至建議這本書應該被歸入 "歷史的垃圾堆"。

  • Researchers at the University of Melbourne, however, argued that

    然而,墨爾本大學的研究人員認為

  • more than 40 years on, the book's forecasts appear accurate.

    40多年過去了,該書的預測似乎很準確。

  • And, if we continue to track in line with its projections,

    而且,如果我們繼續按照其預測進行跟蹤。

  • we should expect to see the early stages of global collapse to start appearing soon.

    我們應該期待看到全球崩潰的早期階段很快開始出現。

  • In the decades since these discussions were first published,

    在這些討論首次發表後的幾十年裡。

  • increasing alarm over the scale and speed of the climate crisis has sharpened the focus

    對氣候危機的規模和速度的日益震驚使人們更加關注

  • on ideas that tackle rampant consumerism in high income countries.

    關於解決高收入國家猖獗的消費主義的想法。

  • So much so, that in September 2019, Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg

    以至於在2019年9月,瑞典氣候活動家Greta Thunberg

  • delivered an emotional anti-growth speech at the UN Climate Summit in New York.

    在紐約舉行的聯合國氣候峰會上發表了激動人心的反增長演講。

  • We are in the beginning of a mass extinction and all you can talk about is money

    我們正處於大規模滅絕的初期,而你只能談論錢。

  • and fairytales of eternal economic growth. How dare you.

    和永恆的經濟增長的童話故事。你怎麼敢。

  • Despite the ongoing pandemic, a recent global survey found that

    儘管大流行病持續不斷,最近的一項全球調查發現,

  • most people perceive climate change to be the biggest threat to their country.

    大多數人認為氣候變化是對他們國家的最大威脅。

  • The United Nations has recognized the environmental emergency as thedefining issue of our time,”

    聯合國已經承認環境緊急情況是 "我們時代的決定性問題"。

  • warning that in order to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius,

    警告說,為了將全球變暖控制在1.5攝氏度以下。

  • global emissions must be cut to zero by 2050.

    全球排放量必須在2050年前削減到零。

  • That's a huge undertaking and one that will require far-reaching

    這是一項巨大的事業,需要有深遠的影響。

  • and unprecedented changes across all aspects of society.

    和社會各方面前所未有的變化。

  • With worldwide mobility brought to a standstill in 2020, the coronavirus crisis led to

    隨著2020年世界範圍內的流動性陷入停滯,冠狀病毒危機導致了

  • the largest ever decline of global emissions on record. To some, it elevated hopes that carbon emissions

    這是有史以來最大的全球排放下降記錄。對一些人來說,這提升了人們對碳排放的希望。

  • had peaked and illustrated the potential for a long-term low-carbon recovery.

    這也說明了長期低碳復甦的潛力。

  • Nonetheless, pollution at the end of 2020 rebounded to pre-lockdown levels

    儘管如此,2020年底的汙染還是回升到了封鎖前的水準

  • as economies gradually opened up, prompting the International Energy Agency

    隨著經濟的逐步開放,促使國際能源機構

  • to stress that this should serve as a “stark warningto world leaders.

    強調這應該成為對世界領導人的一個 "嚴厲警告"。

  • The U.S. and European Union have crafted policies in recent years

    美國和歐盟近年來精心制定了政策

  • to cut carbon emissions and invest in renewable energy,

    以減少碳排放並投資於可再生能源。

  • focusing ongreen growthinstead of degrowth, much to the dismay of some in the degrowth movement.

    著重於 "綠色增長 "而不是退化,這讓退化運動中的一些人很不高興。

  • While degrowth has yet to go mainstream, there have been a few green shoots of progress in recent years.

    雖然退化還沒有成為主流,但近年來已經有了一些進展的綠芽。

  • Scotland, Iceland and New Zealand have all pledged to prioritize wellbeing rather than solely focusing on economic growth.

    蘇格蘭、冰島和紐西蘭都已承諾優先考慮福祉,而不是僅僅關注經濟增長。

  • Perhaps it won't be too long before others are tempted to follow suit.

    也許過不了多久,其他人也會受到誘惑而效仿。

  • Thanks for watching. Do you feel economic growth is essential to your future?

    謝謝觀看。你覺得經濟增長對你的未來至關重要嗎?

  • Do let us know in the comments section and don't forget to subscribe.

    請在評論區告訴我們,別忘了訂閱。

  • See you next time.

    下一次見。

Most economists argue the pursuit of economic growth is both good and necessary.

大多數經濟學家認為,追求經濟增長既是好事也是必要的。

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B1 中級 中文 增長 經濟 收入 減少 氣候 國家

去增長。是時候用更少的錢過更好的生活了嗎?| CNBC解讀 (Degrowth: Is it time to live better with less? | CNBC Explains)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 20 日
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