Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • In the decade after WWI, over a million people contracted a mysterious neurological

    在一戰後的十年裡,超過一百萬人感染了一種神祕的神經系統疾病。

  • disease called encephalitis lethargica. Sometimes, patients would experience headaches, fever,

    被稱為 "昏睡腦炎 "的疾病。有時,病人會出現頭痛、發燒。

  • vertigo, or trouble sleeping but then make a full recoveryOthers became comatose and

    眩暈,或睡眠困難,但後來完全康復。其他人則變得昏迷不醒,並

  • died. And still others afflicted with the disease slipped into a sleepy, almost comatose

    死亡。還有一些受這種疾病折磨的人陷入了昏睡,幾乎昏迷不醒。

  • state that they never recovered fromThey presented with paralysis of the eye muscles,

    他們從未恢復過的狀態。他們表現為眼部肌肉癱瘓。

  • double vision, and sometimes lost control of their facial muscles, rendering them expressionless.

    複視,有時還失去對面部肌肉的控制,使他們沒有表情。

  • But no two cases were the same, and doctors never figured out what caused the disease

    但沒有兩個病例是相同的,醫生們從來沒有弄清楚是什麼導致了這種疾病。

  • or any good treatment options. The epidemic hit its peak in the 1920s and left up to half

    或任何良好的治療方案。該流行病在20世紀20年代達到頂峰,並留下了多達一半的

  • a million people dead. But a number of patients survived in the sleepy state for decades.

    一百萬人死亡。但是有一些病人在沉睡狀態下存活了幾十年。

  • Then thirty years later in the 1950s, researchers made a breakthrough into the body's production

    然後在30年後的20世紀50年代,研究人員在身體的生產方面取得了突破性進展。

  • of the chemical dopaminesometimes known as the happiness chemical. Dopamine treatment

    的化學物質多巴胺--有時被稱為幸福的化學物質。多巴胺治療

  • was thought to be a miracle cure for Parkinson's disease, and an unconventional and empathetic

    被認為是治療帕金森病的奇蹟,以及一個非傳統的、具有同情心的

  • neurologist named Oliver Sacks wondered if it could also help the forgotten encephalitis

    名為奧利弗-薩克斯的神經學家想知道它是否也能幫助被遺忘的腦炎患者。

  • lethargica patients, bringing them back into the world after decades in their sleepy state.

    昏睡症患者,使他們在幾十年的昏睡狀態後重新回到世界中。

  • You may have heard of Oliver Sacks before, but let me tell you, this dude was coolHe

    你可能以前聽說過奧利弗-薩克斯,但讓我告訴你,這傢伙很冷靜。他

  • rode motorcycles with the Hells Angels and was a competitive weightlifter who at one

    他曾與地獄天使組織一起騎摩托車,並且是一名有競爭力的舉重運動員,曾一度

  • point squatted 600 pounds! But more than anything, he was a misfit in the medical communityand

    穴位深蹲600磅!但更重要的是,他在醫學界是個不合群的人--而且

  • it was his approach as a clinician that set him apart. See, by the 1950s science had matured

    正是他作為一個臨床醫生的方法使他與眾不同。請看,到20世紀50年代,科學已經成熟了

  • to a place that was very modern, analytic -- and distant. In contrast, Oliver was extremely

    到一個非常現代、分析性的地方,而且很遙遠。與此相反,奧利弗是非常

  • empathetic and tried to see the world through his patients' eyesInstead of treating

    他具有同情心,並試圖通過病人的眼睛看世界。與其說是治療

  • the disease -- the approach popular in medicine at this time, Oliver treated the person. In

    這時醫學界流行的方法是,奧利弗對人進行治療。在

  • the words of one observer, his primary diagnostic question wasHow are you?”. In 1966,

    用一位觀察家的話說,他的主要診斷問題是 "你怎麼樣?"。在1966年。

  • he moved to New York and started working at Beth Abraham, a chronic disease hospital.

    他搬到了紐約,開始在貝斯亞伯拉罕(Beth Abraham)一家慢性病醫院工作。

  • That's where he met a group of 80 patients who had been institutionalized with encephalitis

    在那裡,他遇到了一群80名因腦炎而被送入機構的病人。

  • lethargica and they showed little awareness of their surroundings. Their ability to move

    昏睡,他們對周圍的環境表現出很少的意識。他們的移動能力

  • was severely compromised. They were unable to walk or even speak. Some had been admitted

    被嚴重損害。他們無法行走,甚至無法說話。有些人已經被送進醫院

  • in the 1920s at the peak of the epidemic and had been in their sleepy states for up to

    在20世紀20年代流行病的高峰期,他們處於沉睡狀態的時間長達一年。

  • 40 years. Now, around that time, researchers were using dopamine in experimental treatments

    40年了。現在,大約在那個時候,研究人員正在使用多巴胺進行實驗性治療

  • for Parkinson's Disease which presented with many of the same symptoms. So Sacks

    帕金森病的症狀有許多是相同的。是以,薩克斯

  • wondered if their strategies might help with his patients, even though his patients were

    想知道他們的策略是否對他的病人有幫助,儘管他的病人是

  • more severely affected. While we associate dopamine these days as a “happiness chemical”,

    受到更嚴重的影響。雖然我們現在把多巴胺聯想為 "幸福的化學物質"。

  • it has a ton of jobs inside our bodies. In the 1950s, a scientist figured out that dopamine

    它在我們的身體裡有大量的工作。在20世紀50年代,一位科學家發現,多巴胺

  • is what's called a neurotransmitter, a chemical that lets nerve cells communicate with each

    是所謂的神經遞質,一種讓神經細胞相互交流的化學物質。

  • other. That same scientist then experimented with a chemical called DOPA, a chemical precursor

    其他。同一位科學家隨後用一種叫做DOPA的化學物質進行了實驗,這是一種化學前體。

  • to dopamine, and found it alleviated Parkinson's symptoms in animals. A different researcher

    到多巴胺,並發現它能緩解動物的帕金森病症狀。一位不同的研究人員

  • took a look at the brains of deceased Parkinson's patients and found that they were deficient

    對已故帕金森病患者的大腦進行了研究,發現他們缺乏

  • in dopamine. Making the connection, this researcher proposed giving living Parkinson's patients

    在多巴胺中。有了這種聯繫,這位研究人員建議給活著的帕金森病人

  • DOPA as a way to relieve symptoms. From there, scientists found that giving intravenous DOPA

    DOPA作為一種緩解症狀的方法。從那裡,科學家們發現,給予靜脈注射DOPA

  • improved symptoms of Parkinsons. And a form of the drug called L-DOPA proved especially

    改善帕金森症的症狀。而一種名為L-DOPA的藥物被證明是特別的

  • effective. It was later found that L-DOPA (in the presence of certain enzymes) could

    有效。後來發現,L-DOPA(在某些酶的存在下)可以

  • cross the blood brain barrier while DOPA could not, making L-DOPA the best medication to

    L-DOPA可以穿過血腦屏障,而DOPA則不能,這使得L-DOPA成為最佳的藥物。

  • treat Parkinsons at the time. By the late 1960s, there was a lot of excitement around

    當時治療帕金森症。到20世紀60年代末,圍繞著這一問題出現了很多興奮點。

  • L-DOPA in the neurological community. Some of Dr. Sacks's patients actually requested

    L-DOPA在神經病學界的應用。薩克斯醫生的一些病人實際上要求

  • the drug after hearing about it. But Sacks hesitated to use the drug on his patients

    在聽說了這種藥物之後。但是薩克斯對在他的病人身上使用這種藥物猶豫不決。

  • for 2 full years. Part of that was its prohibitively high cost. The other was the unknown: he was

    整整兩年的時間。部分原因是其費用太高,令人望而卻步。另一個原因是未知因素:他是

  • concerned about how his patients would react to the new treatment. Yes, L-DOPA had a good

    他擔心他的病人對這種新的治療方法會有什麼反應。是的,L-DOPA有一個很好的

  • track record in Parkinson's patients, but encephalitis lethargica was a different disease

    在帕金森病患者中的記錄,但昏睡症腦炎是一種不同的疾病。

  • that still wasn't well understood. But following the death of some of his patients in the summer

    這一點仍然沒有得到很好的理解。但在他的一些病人在夏天死亡之後

  • of 1968, Oliver felt compelled to experiment with L-DOPA. So in March of 1969, he began

    1968年,奧利弗感到必須對L-DOPA進行實驗。於是在1969年3月,他開始

  • an experiment on a small group of patients. He studied 6 patients total, 3 were put on

    在一小群病人身上做了一個實驗。他總共研究了6個病人,其中3個被放在了

  • L-DOPA, 3 were given a placebo for a 90 day long observational study. At first, the treatment

    L-DOPA,3人被給予安慰劑,進行為期90天的觀察性研究。起初,治療

  • was a success. The L-DOPA patients wereawakenedfrom their decades-long sleep. Very quickly

    是一種成功。L-DOPA患者從長達幾十年的睡眠中被 "喚醒"。非常迅速地

  • after receiving the medication, some were able to speak and even walk for the first

    在接受藥物治療後,一些人能夠說話,甚至第一次能夠走路。

  • time in decades. After seeing success in the trial, Sacks started treating his other encephalitis

    幾十年來的一次。在看到試驗的成功後,薩克斯開始治療他的其他腦炎

  • lethargica patients with L-DOPA. They improved dramatically at first, but quickly developed

    使用L-DOPA的昏睡症患者。他們起初有顯著的改善,但很快就發展成

  • tolerance to the medication and needed increased dosage to keep their symptoms at bay. To this

    對藥物的耐受性,需要增加劑量來保持他們的症狀。對此

  • day, we still don't know why. One idea is that some of the patients who had the disease

    日,我們仍然不知道原因。一個想法是,一些患病的病人

  • had symptoms that were exacerbated by some of the metabolic byproducts of dopamine. So

    有一些症狀因多巴胺的一些代謝副產品而加劇。所以

  • as patients took L-DOPA, their bodies metabolized it which created this byproduct that caused

    當病人服用L-DOPA時,他們的身體會進行代謝,產生這種副產品,導致

  • other symptomsNobody has researched this hypothesis specifically on encephalitis lethargica

    其他症狀。沒有人專門研究過這一假說,對腦炎昏睡症的研究。

  • patients, but research from other brain disorders points in that direction. Regardless, Oliver

    患者,但來自其他腦部疾病的研究指向了這個方向。不管怎麼說,奧利弗

  • had a drug that he knew would help people, so he was compelled to share his results,

    有一種藥物,他知道會幫助人們,所以他不得不分享他的成果。

  • but his study was more observational than traditionally quantitative, so his work was

    但他的研究更多的是觀察性的,而不是傳統意義上的定量,所以他的工作是

  • rejected by professional journals. Unable to publish in the medical literature, he described

    被專業雜誌拒絕。由於無法在醫學文獻中發表,他描述了

  • his findings in a book, Awakenings, which was released in 1973. And not only did he

    他將自己的發現寫進了《覺醒》一書,該書於1973年發行。而且他不僅

  • document how dopamine was involved in encephalitis lethargica, he gave detailed case histories

    他記錄了多巴胺是如何參與昏睡性腦炎的,並提供了詳細的病例記錄。

  • for each patientIn Awakenings, each patient is described by name, not relegated to a number.

    為每個病人提供的服務。在《覺醒》中,每個病人都有名字描述,而不是被歸為一個數字。

  • And therein lies his legacy. Sacks wasn't the only person experimenting with L-DOPA

    他的遺產就在這裡。薩克斯並不是唯一用L-DOPA進行實驗的人

  • at the time, but his observations were meticulous and described his patients' Parkinson's-like

    當時,他的觀察是細緻的,並描述了他的病人的帕金森症狀。

  • symptoms better than anyone else. He aimed a spotlight on the value of minute observation

    症狀比任何人都好。他將聚光燈對準了細微觀察的價值

  • and description. His lasting impact on medicine is his empathetic and personal approach to

    和描述。他對醫學的持久影響是他的同情心和個人方法,以

  • treatment and his insistence on the individuality of every patient. His work finally caught

    他的治療方法和他對每個病人的個性的堅持。他的工作終於吸引了

  • a more popular audience when Awakenings was adapted into a Hollywood movie starring Robert

    當《覺醒》被改編成好萊塢電影,由羅伯特.羅傑斯主演時,更受觀眾歡迎。

  • de Niro and Robin Williams in 1990. Having read Awakenings, I was struck at how Oliver

    德尼羅和羅賓-威廉斯在1990年。在閱讀了《覺醒》之後,我對奧利弗-德尼羅的作品感到震驚。

  • wrote his patients' case histories in such a vivid and empathetic way. As a reader, I

    他以如此生動和富有同情心的方式來寫他的病人的病歷。作為一個讀者,我

  • couldn't help but to put myself in the patients' shoes. Oliver Sacks turned observations into

    我忍不住要把自己放在病人的位置上。奧利弗-薩克斯把觀察結果變成了

  • humanized stories, giving a face and voice to patients with chronic mental and neurological

    人性化的故事,為慢性精神和神經系統疾病患者提供了一個面孔和聲音。

  • conditions. This approach of treating the person, not the disease would ultimately make

    條件。這種治療人而不是治療疾病的方法最終會使

  • him a key figure in modern neurology , and his work has now inspired generations of younger

    他是現代神經病學的關鍵人物,他的工作現在已經啟發了幾代年輕的神經病學專家。

  • doctors. If you're interested in the story of Dr. Oliver Sacks and the rest of his work,

    醫生。如果你對奧利弗-薩克斯醫生的故事和他的其他工作感興趣。

  • check out Oliver Sacks: His Own Life, now streaming on PBS and available on major platforms!

    請看《奧利弗-薩克斯。他自己的生活,現在在PBS上播放,並可在主要平臺上獲得!

  • And as always, we appreciate when you like the video, and subscribe. Thanks for watching.

    和往常一樣,我們感謝你喜歡這個視頻,並訂閱。謝謝你的觀看。

In the decade after WWI, over a million people contracted a mysterious neurological

在一戰後的十年裡,超過一百萬人感染了一種神祕的神經系統疾病。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 奧利弗 多巴胺 治療 症狀 患者 研究

這種神經系統疾病使人們在40年內無法入睡 (This Neurological Disease Kept People Sleeping for 40 Years)

  • 3 1
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 30 日
影片單字