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  • Every year, the world generates more than 2 billion tonnes of trash.

    每年,世界上產生的垃圾超過20億噸。

  • That's enough to fill over 800,000 Olympic-sized swimming pools.

    這足以填滿80多萬個奧林匹克大小的游泳池。

  • About a third of the world's waste is being openly dumped or burned.

    世界上約有三分之一的廢物被公開傾倒或焚燒。

  • This is a challenge we've seen over and over, where users are unable to pay for use

    這是我們一次又一次看到的挑戰,用戶無法支付使用費。

  • where users are unable to pay for use of the system, where there's an affordability gap.

    在用戶無法支付使用該系統的費用時,存在負擔能力差距。

  • And by the year 2050, the amount of rubbish generated annually is expected to increase

    而到2050年,每年產生的垃圾量預計將增加

  • to 3.4 billion tonnes.

    至34億噸。

  • As the rubbish piles up, no number of landfills and recycling programs

    隨著垃圾的堆積,沒有任何數量的垃圾填埋場和回收計劃

  • can keep pace with this growing problem.

    能跟上這個日益嚴重的問題的步伐。

  • So what's the solution?

    那麼解決方案是什麼呢?

  • The waste management process comprises the collection, treatment and disposal of waste.

    廢物管理過程包括廢物的收集、處理和處置。

  • Solid waste can come from several sources, mainly from residential and commercial properties,

    固體廢物可能來自幾個方面,主要來自住宅和商業地產。

  • and industrial facilities, such as medical, electronic and construction waste.

    和工業設施,如醫療、電子和建築垃圾。

  • With COVID, overall we've seen medical waste increase about 40%.

    有了COVID,總體上我們看到醫療廢物增加了約40%。

  • It's often the poor that are the most affected by lack of waste management services,

    由於缺乏廢物管理服務,受影響最大的往往是窮人。

  • whether it's because they're not receiving waste management services due to

    是否因為他們沒有得到廢物管理服務,因為

  • where they're living or waste is being dumped by the communities.

    他們所居住的地方或廢物被社區傾倒。

  • Even as medical waste piles up, it's a tiny fraction of municipal solid waste.

    即使醫療廢物堆積如山,它也只是城市固體廢物的一小部分。

  • Of the 2 billion tonnes of waste generated globally, 12% is plastic waste,

    在全球產生的20億噸廢物中,12%是塑膠廢物。

  • but it's dwarfed by food and organic matter, and paper & cardboard scraps.

    但它與食物和有機物以及紙和紙板的殘渣相比相形見絀。

  • Once all that trash is collected, there are 3 main ways it is treated and disposed of:

    一旦所有的垃圾被收集起來,有3種主要的方式來處理和處置它們。

  • by burning the trash in an incinerator, using a landfill

    通過在焚燒爐中燃燒垃圾,使用垃圾填埋場

  • or dumping it openly without any processing whatsoever.

    或不加任何處理地公開傾倒。

  • While 33% of global waste end up directly at open dumps,

    而全球33%的垃圾直接在露天垃圾場結束。

  • governments are increasingly recognizing that these sites are bad for the environment

    政府越來越認識到,這些場地對環境有害。

  • and can be vectors for diseases.

    並且可以成為疾病的載體。

  • Instead, they are opting for more sustainable ways to manage their waste, such as incinerators

    相反,他們正在選擇更可持續的方式來管理他們的廢物,如焚燒爐

  • and recycling programs.

    和回收計劃。

  • Nowhere is this more pronounced than in densely populated Singapore,

    這一點在人口稠密的新加坡最為明顯。

  • which has nearly 8,000 people per km²,

    每平方公里有近8,000人。

  • more than 17 times that of India and 200 times that of the U.S.

    是印度的17倍以上,是美國的200倍以上。

  • Between 1970 and 2016, the amount of solid waste disposed in Singapore increased about

    1970年至2016年間,新加坡處置的固體廢物數量增加了約

  • 7-fold as its population and economy grew.

    隨著其人口和經濟的增長,增長了7倍。

  • Of the 7 million tonnes of waste generated in the country in 2019,

    在2019年全國產生的700萬噸垃圾中。

  • more than half were recycled.

    一半以上被回收利用。

  • The journey of a single piece of trash brings us to Tuas South Incineration Plant,

    一件垃圾的旅程把我們帶到了大士南區焚燒廠。

  • the largest waste incineration facility in Singapore to date.

    這是迄今為止新加坡最大的垃圾焚燒設施。

  • Kan Kok Wah is the general manager of the plant,

    簡國華是該廠的總經理。

  • one of four such facilities in the country which can convert waste into energy.

    這是全國四個此類設施之一,可以將廢物轉化為能源。

  • Waste is collected from industrial, commercial premises and household premises.

    廢物從工業、商業場所和家庭場所收集。

  • An average of about 600 trucks are coming to Tuas South Incineration Plant.

    平均約有600輛卡車來到大士南區焚燒廠。

  • They will discharge the waste into the bunker.

    他們將把廢物排入沙坑。

  • Cranes will then grab and feed the waste into the incinerator.

    然後,起重機將抓取並將廢物送入焚燒爐。

  • The temperature in the furnace is about 850 – 1,000 degrees.

    爐子裡的溫度約為850 - 1,000度。

  • You will achieve a 90% reduction in terms of volume.

    在數量上,你將實現90%的減少。

  • This will then help to conserve the space required for landfill.

    然後,這將有助於節省填埋所需的空間。

  • Singapore is a very small country.

    新加坡是一個非常小的國家。

  • It's land-scarce.

    它是土地稀缺的。

  • So the need to conserve land is very critical for Singapore.

    是以,保護土地的需要對新加坡來說是非常關鍵的。

  • Along the way, we have magnetic separator.

    一路走來,我們有磁選機。

  • Ferrous and non-ferrous metal will be recovered from the ash.

    鐵和非鐵金屬將從灰燼中回收。

  • Ash will then be transported from the ash pit to another facility.

    然後,灰燼將從灰坑運輸到另一個設施。

  • Pollutants produced during incineration are treated before being released into the atmosphere,

    焚燒過程中產生的汙染物在釋放到大氣中之前會被處理。

  • ensuring clean air is being discharged.

    確保清潔空氣的排放。

  • Water will be converted into steam from the energy recovered from the combustion of waste.

    水將從廢物燃燒回收的能量中轉化為蒸汽。

  • This water will be then converted into high temperature, high pressure steam

    然後這些水將被轉化為高溫、高壓的蒸汽

  • to run turbine generators.

    來運行渦輪機發電機。

  • This is to produce electricity power.

    這是為了生產電功率。

  • 20% is being consumed internally, with the rest being exported to the national grid.

    20%被內部消費,其餘的被出口到國家電網。

  • The total power generated by the four waste-to-energy incineration plants in Singapore,

    新加坡四個垃圾焚燒廠的總髮電量。

  • including Tuas South,

    包括大士南區。

  • contributes about 2–3% to the national electricity demand in the country.

    對全國電力需求的貢獻約為2-3%。

  • An upcoming waste-to-energy plant built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

    三菱重工即將建造的一座垃圾發電站

  • and water treatment company Hyflux will be able to incinerate

    和水處理公司Hyflux將能夠焚燒

  • 3,600 tonnes of waste per day while generating electricity to be self-sufficient

    每天處理3,600噸垃圾,同時發電,實現自給自足

  • and providing excess power to the national grid.

    並向國家電網提供多餘的電力。

  • How much waste is collected and managed in TSIP?

    TSIP收集和管理的廢物有多少?

  • In 2019, about 1.08 million tonnes of waste is collected.

    2019年,約有108萬噸的垃圾被收集。

  • That's equivalent to about 3,000 tonnes of waste daily.

    這相當於每天約3000噸的廢物。

  • After the incineration process, my journey takes me on a ferry to the country's only

    焚燒過程結束後,我乘坐渡輪前往該國唯一的

  • landfill located along the Singapore Strait, one of the busiest waterways in the world.

    位於世界上最繁忙的水路之一的新加坡海峽沿岸的垃圾填埋場。

  • Semakau Landfill is an off-shore landfill enclosed by a 4.3-mile perimeter rock embankment,

    塞馬考垃圾填埋場是一個離岸的垃圾填埋場,由一個4.3英里長的周邊岩石堤壩圍住。

  • which creates a sea space to fill with incinerated rubbish.

    這創造了一個海洋空間,用焚燒的垃圾來填充。

  • In operation since 1999 and costing nearly half a billion dollars,

    自1999年開始運作,耗資近5億美元。

  • the island is more than just a landfill.

    該島不僅僅是一個垃圾填埋場。

  • Actually we are made up of two big islands called Pulau Semakau and Pulau Sakeng and

    事實上,我們是由兩個大的島嶼組成的,分別叫塞馬考島和薩肯島,以及

  • these two are joined together to what we see here.

    這兩者結合在一起,就是我們在這裡看到的情況。

  • 350 hectares of Pulau Semakau Landfill.

    350公頃的Pulau Semakau垃圾填埋場。

  • A barge ferries more than 2,000 tonnes of waste between mainland Singapore

    一艘駁船在新加坡大陸之間渡過了2000多噸的垃圾

  • and Semakau Landfill daily, says Desmond Lee, general manager of the landfill.

    和Semakau垃圾填埋場的總經理Desmond Lee說。

  • We have big equipment such as the dump truck, excavators, etc.

    我們有大型設備,如翻斗車、挖掘機等。

  • These are equipment that we use daily, and you can hear-

  • What's going on there?

    那裡發生了什麼事?

  • This barge actually comes from the Tuas Marine Transfer Station

    這艘駁船實際上來自大士海事轉運站

  • from Tuas, travels 33 kilometres journey all the way here.

    從大士鎮出發,一路走了33公里的路程來到這裡。

  • Tell me about how the ash is going to get transferred out.

    告訴我灰燼如何被轉移出去。

  • There is what is called the long-arm excavator.

    有一種被稱為長臂挖掘機的東西。

  • This excavator will grab the ash and as well as non-incinerable waste,

    這臺挖掘機將抓取灰燼以及不可焚燒的廢物。

  • and drop into what we call the dump truck.

    並落入我們所說的翻斗車。

  • The trucks will then unload the ash into specific cells within the lagoon.

    然後,卡車將把灰燼卸到瀉湖內的特定單元。

  • To prevent leaks and contamination of the sea water outside the rock bunds,

    為了防止岩石堤壩外的海水洩漏和汙染。

  • the perimeter is lined with impermeable membrane and a layer of marine clay.

    周邊鋪設防滲膜和海洋粘土層。

  • As the water level within the lagoon increases with rainfall and the dumping of the ash,

    由於瀉湖內的水位隨著降雨和灰燼的傾倒而增加。

  • the overflow is discharged into the open sea

    溢出物被排入公海

  • after being treated at a wastewater treatment plant.

    在廢水處理廠處理之後。

  • If you travel around Semakau, you'll see there's a lot of mangroves around,

    如果你在塞馬考周圍旅行,你會看到周圍有很多紅樹林。

  • and there are also beautiful corals.

    而且還有美麗的珊瑚。

  • This is a testimony to the absence of adverse impact from our operational landfill.

    這證明了我們營運的垃圾填埋場沒有產生不利影響。

  • We also want to ensure the marine life and nature in this area continue to strive.

    我們還希望確保這一地區的海洋生物和自然界繼續努力。

  • How filled is Semakau Landfill right now?

    塞馬考垃圾填埋場現在有多滿?

  • Based on the current waste generation, Semakau Landfill will be completely filled by 2035.

    根據目前的垃圾產生量,Semakau垃圾填埋場將在2035年完全填滿。

  • However, there are current plans to work together with the different government agencies, businesses

    然而,目前有計劃與不同的政府機構、企業一起合作

  • as well as communities to look into how we can extend the life of Semakau Landfill.

    以及社區,研究我們如何能夠延長塞馬考垃圾填埋場的壽命。

  • What lessons can we learn from Singapore's other previous landfills?

    我們可以從新加坡以前的其他垃圾填埋場學到什麼教訓?

  • One key lesson that we learned is that it takes a long time to remediate the landfill.

    我們學到的一個關鍵教訓是,修復垃圾場需要很長的時間。

  • And then there's also resources needed to commit to them

    然後還需要有資源來投入其中

  • before the land can be remediated for other uses.

    在土地可以被補救用於其他用途之前。

  • The other strategy we are also taking is looking at the possibilities

    我們還採取的另一項戰略是研究各種可能性

  • of recycling the incineration bottom ash,

    焚燒底灰的回收。

  • which is now known as NEWSand,

    它現在被稱為 "NEWSAND"。

  • and could be used for non-structural concrete, for example.

    並可用於非結構性混凝土,例如。

  • To date, NEWSand has been used to create footpaths and benches,

    迄今為止,NEWSAND已被用於創建人行道和長椅。

  • while tests are ongoing for its application in road construction projects.

    而在道路建設項目中的應用測試正在進行。

  • Landfills are a short-term solution to a long-term problem.

    填埋場是一個長期問題的短期解決方案。

  • In land-scarce Singapore, which is slightly smaller than New York City,

    在土地稀缺的新加坡,它比紐約市略小。

  • space is a luxury,

    空間是一種奢侈。

  • and it's a matter of time before Semakau landfill is full.

    而塞馬考垃圾填埋場被填滿只是時間問題。

  • Singapore aims to reduce the waste going into Semakau Landfill by 30% by 2030

    新加坡的目標是到2030年將進入實馬高垃圾填埋場的垃圾減少30%。

  • as part of its Zero Waste Masterplan.

    作為其零廢物總體規劃的一部分。

  • The country also intends to develop new waste management facilities,

    該國還打算開發新的廢物管理設施。

  • to meet the treatment needs of wastewater, sludge and even food waste,

    以滿足廢水、汙泥、甚至食品廢物的處理需求。

  • ultimately improving the recycling rate in Singapore.

    最終提高新加坡的回收率。

  • Despite the high rates of recycling among developed nations, high-income countries,

    儘管發達國家的回收率很高,但高收入國家。

  • which account for 16% of the world's population, generate 34% of global waste.

    佔世界人口的16%,產生了全球34%的廢物。

  • Conversely, about 5% of the world's waste come from low-income countries,

    相反,世界上大約5%的廢物來自低收入國家。

  • even though they make up 9% of the world's population.

    儘管他們佔世界人口的9%。

  • Notably, the U.S., Canada and Bermuda, all high-income nations in North America,

    值得注意的是,美國、加拿大和百慕大,都是北美洲的高收入國家。

  • generate one of the highest average amount of waste per capita.

    產生的人均廢物量最高的國家之一。

  • However, the trend is expected to reverse in the next few decades as low-income countries

    然而,隨著低收入國家的發展,這一趨勢預計將在未來幾十年內逆轉。

  • experience economic growth and a population boom.

    經歷了經濟增長和人口激增。

  • For over two decades, China was the dumping ground for nearly half of the world's scrap,

    20多年來,中國是世界上近一半廢品的傾銷地。

  • with much of it originating from developed countries such as the U.S., U.K. and Australia.

    其中大部分來自發達國家,如美國、英國和澳洲。

  • All that changed in 2018 when China imposed a blanket ban on 24 types of imported waste,

    這一切在2018年發生了變化,中國對24種進口廢物實施了全面禁令。

  • citing the need to protect its environment and public health.

    以保護環境和公眾健康的需要為由。

  • The magnitude of the problem was laid bare when other countries in Southeast Asia also

    問題的嚴重性在東南亞其他國家也出現時暴露無遺。

  • started rejecting plastic waste from the rich, industrialized countries.

    開始拒絕來自富裕的工業化國家的塑膠垃圾。

  • In 2019, the Philippines sent back containers of waste to Canada and South Korea,

    2019年,菲律賓向加拿大和韓國送回了貨櫃的廢物。

  • while waste from Spain and Australia that were sent to Malaysia were similarly rejected.

    而從西班牙和澳洲運往馬來西亞的廢物也同樣被拒絕。

  • Waste management is very expensive.

    廢物管理是非常昂貴的。

  • And it should not be looked at as being an economic activity to generate revenue,

    而且不應該把它看成是一種創造收入的經濟活動。

  • but as a public service that requires financing.

    但作為一項公共服務,需要融資。

  • Not just financing that is affordable for the population and for the country as such,

    不僅僅是民眾和國家能夠負擔得起的融資,也是如此。

  • but also in terms of legislative environment and regulation, and monitoring and enforcement.

    但在立法環境和監管以及監測和執行方面也是如此。

  • All of these pieces of the puzzle should be in place,

    所有這些拼圖的碎片都應該到位。

  • because at the end of the day as we have seen many times

    因為在一天結束的時候,正如我們多次看到的那樣

  • there is always an easy way out, and that is to pollute the environment.

    總是有一條簡單的出路,那就是汙染環境。

  • It takes years and concerted effort to switch the way we as a society behave

    要想改變我們這個社會的行為方式,需要多年的協同努力。

  • so that we increase the recyclability of our waste.

    這樣,我們就能提高廢物的可回收性。

  • More companies are also applying environmental, social and corporate governance standards

    更多的公司也在應用環境、社會和公司治理標準

  • to their operations.

    對其業務的影響。

  • While this is the latest trend in town, it remains to be seen if businesses can be both

    雖然這是鎮上的最新趨勢,但企業是否能同時做到這一點還有待觀察。

  • ethical and profitable, benefitting stakeholders, society and the planet.

    符合道德和盈利,使利益相關者、社會和地球受益。

  • Citizens are key to changing the waste management system moving forward.

    公民是改變廢物管理制度前進的關鍵。

  • So, whether it's the day-to-day behaviour of reducing waste, being willing to be educated

    是以,無論是減少廢物的日常行為,還是願意接受教育

  • and participate in recycling and recovery, being willing to pay for the services so that

    並參與循環和回收,願意為這些服務付費,以便

  • the city can offer more management of waste in a proper way.

    城市可以以適當的方式提供更多的廢物管理。

  • Each person generates nearly 2 pounds of trash daily,

    每個人每天都會產生近2磅的垃圾。

  • so changing the throwaway culture will have a direct impact

    是以,改變丟棄文化將產生直接影響

  • on how the world looks like for future generations.

    對後代來說,世界是什麼樣子的。

  • The journey to reduce, reuse and recycle then, begins with us.

    那麼,減少、再利用和再循環的旅程,就從我們開始。

Every year, the world generates more than 2 billion tonnes of trash.

每年,世界上產生的垃圾超過20億噸。

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如何解決我們的大垃圾問題 | CNBC報道 (How to solve our big trash problem | CNBC Reports)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 26 日
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