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  • It was called "dazzle camouflage", and the irregular

  • shapes were paired with bright colors, like this blue.

  • So when artists painted scenes like this or this, they weren't just playing with paint.

  • They were showing the final defense that hundreds upon hundreds of ships used...against torpedoes.

  • British artist Norman Wilkinson painted scenes like these and specialized in nautical pictures.

  • He ran the Royal Navy's camoufleur program.

  • Yes - “camoufleur.”

  • One who...camouflages.

  • Previous camoufleurs had tried shades of grey or blue, but Wilkinson suggested dazzle:

  • unpredictable patterns, with a range of colors.

  • There were some really bright ones.

  • Hiding a ship was hard.

  • The ocean and sky were constantly changing colors, and that made it hard to pick a single

  • shade of paint that could help a ship slip by unnoticed.

  • But it was possible to hide what the ship was doing.

  • The U-Boat submarine and torpedoes were the big new threat in World War I.

  • But the u-boat had limitations.

  • To shoot a torpedo, you needed to know the angle, distance, and speed of the ship you

  • were shooting at.

  • The ship was moving and so was the submarine.

  • Now imagine a ship through a periscope from a thousand meters away.

  • When you...dazzled...a ship, you made it hard for u-boats to know where to aim.

  • Here is a normal boat and a dazzled boat.

  • On the normal boat, you can see the bow and stern, and you can gauge key attributes to

  • guess at the speed.

  • It's a lot harder on the dazzled boat.

  • Lines like these were false waves, so it was hard to guess which direction was the bow,

  • or front of the boat, and where it was going.

  • The colors made it hard to tell how quickly the boat was moving from one point in the

  • view to another, or to use a rangefinder to guesstimate its distance.

  • Everything looked...sort of wrong under dazzle patterns, which made a ship's course tough

  • to assess.

  • Is it going this way?

  • Or is it going this way?

  • A few degrees could be the difference between life or death.

  • You could see it, but you couldn't guess direction or speed to guide your torpedo.

  • Dazzle patterns were always different and kept top secret.

  • The starboard and port sides were designed to be unpredictable.

  • Modelers even tested visibility using tiny boats and simulated periscopes, just to see

  • what was most confusing.

  • This is warfare at its cutest.

  • Even experts were fooled by the direction of the ship.

  • Out in the ocean, tricking a torpedo saved lives.

  • Dazzle camo inspired people from all disciplines as it traveled worldwide.

  • One zoologist claimed to have invented it, inspired by zebras,

  • British artists with cubist-inspired backgrounds became camoufleurs,

  • and photo-scientists in America made their own models too, like in this 1919 MIT thesis.

  • Even the sister ship to the Titanic became...dazzling,

  • when it was turned into a troopship.

  • At the end of World War I, periscopes and weaponry improved, as well as strategies to

  • deter u-boats.

  • On the other end, dazzle paint was hard to maintain.

  • Radar furthered the decline of dazzle's utility, though the camo was used in World

  • War II on ships and even on planes.

  • Dazzle inspired fashion trends at the time and the artists who painted it on ships.

  • Norman Wilkinson made this painting of the dazzled ships he helped make mainstream.

  • The u-boat's rise and particular weaknesses opened a unique window in history, like a

  • camouflage loophole.

  • For a brief period, it made sense to stand out.

  • Paint fades.

  • But even today, dazzle lives up to its name.

  • So if you look at these dazzle ships and think about cubism, you aren't wrong to make the

  • connection, and you aren't the only one.

  • Pablo Picasso tried to take crediteh, he might have had a point.

It was called "dazzle camouflage", and the irregular

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为什么战舰在第一次世界大战中使用这种迷彩(Why ships used this camouflage in World War I)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 26 日
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