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  • Beau Lotto: So, this game is very simple.

    Beau Lotto: 好的 這個遊戲非常簡單

  • All you have to do is read what you see. Right?


  • So, I'm going to count to you, so we don't all do it together.

    我會倒數 大家在一起唸出來就可以了

  • Okay, one, two, three. Audience: Can you read this?

    好 一 二 三 觀眾: Can you read this?

  • BL: Amazing. What about this one? One, two, three. Audience: You are not reading this.

    非常好。 那這一句呢? 一 二 三 觀眾: You are not reading this.

  • BL: All right. One, two, three. (Laughter)

    接下來 一 二 三 (笑聲)

  • If you were Portuguese, right? How about this one? One, two, three.

    如果你是個葡萄牙人 對吧? 那這句呢? 一 二 三

  • Audience: What are you reading?

    觀眾: What are you reading?

  • BL: What are you reading? There are no words there.

    BL: 你們說What are you reading? 可是句子不是這樣寫的阿

  • I said, read what you're seeing. Right?

    我說的是 把你們所看到的唸出來 對吧?

  • It literally says, "Wat ar ou rea in?" (Laughter) Right?

    如果照字面上來說應該是要念說"Wat ar ou rea in?" 吧 (笑聲) 對吧?

  • That's what you should have said. Right? Why is this?

    這才是你們剛剛應該說的吧? 對吧? 你們為什麼都會這樣讀呢?

  • It's because perception is grounded in our experience.


  • Right? The brain takes meaningless information

    對吧? 我們的大腦會把沒有意義的資訊

  • and makes meaning out of it, which means we never see

    自動轉換成有意義的東西 也就是說 我們從來不去看

  • what's there, we never see information,


  • we only ever see what was useful to see in the past.


  • All right? Which means, when it comes to perception,

    也就是說 當我們講到感官這件事

  • we're all like this frog.


  • (Laughter)


  • Right? It's getting information. It's generating behavior

    對吧? 它在讀取訊息 然後應用在它的行為上

  • that's useful. (Laughter)

    這就管用了吧 (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)


  • (Video) Man: Ow! Ow! (Laughter) (Applause)

    (影片) 男: 喔!喔! (笑聲) (掌聲)

  • BL: And sometimes, when things don't go our way,

    BL: 有的時候 當事情不順心的時候

  • we get a little bit annoyed, right?

    感覺有點燜 對吧?

  • But we're talking about perception here, right?


  • And perception underpins everything we think, we know,

    感官決定了一切我們所想的事 知道的事

  • we believe, our hopes, our dreams, the clothes we wear,

    相信的事 希望 夢想 我們所穿的衣服

  • falling in love, everything begins with perception.

    談戀愛 每一件事都是從感官開始的

  • Now if perception is grounded in our history, it means

    如果感官是從以前的事開始建立的 那就表示

  • we're only ever responding according to what we've done before.


  • But actually, it's a tremendous problem,

    但是事實上 這是一個非常大的問題

  • because how can we ever see differently?

    因為 我們沒辦法用不同角度去看事情了

  • Now, I want to tell you a story about seeing differently,

    現在 我要跟你們分享一個能轉換角度看事情的故事

  • and all new perceptions begin in the same way.


  • They begin with a question.


  • The problem with questions is they create uncertainty.


  • Now, uncertainty is a very bad thing. It's evolutionarily


  • a bad thing. If you're not sure that's a predator, it's too late.

    一個會改變的壞東西 就像是 你不確定那是隻肉食動物 已經為時已晚了

  • Okay? (Laughter)

    對吧? (笑聲)

  • Even seasickness is a consequence of uncertainty.

    就連身體上的不舒服 也是由一連串的不確定所組成的

  • Right? If you go down below on a boat, your inner ears

    對吧? 如果你上了一艘船 你的內耳所感覺到的

  • are you telling you you're moving. Your eyes, because

    告訴你你的人正在移動 然後你的眼睛所看到的

  • it's moving in register with the boat, say I'm standing still.


  • Your brain cannot deal with the uncertainty of that information, and it gets ill.

    當你的大腦無法處理這些不確定感的時候 暈船的情況就發生了

  • The question "why?" is one of the most dangerous things you can do,

    "為什麼" 這個問句 是你所能做到最危險的一件事

  • because it takes you into uncertainty.


  • And yet, the irony is, the only way we can ever

    但是 諷刺的是 踏出我們的舒服圈

  • do anything new is to step into that space.


  • So how can we ever do anything new? Well fortunately,

    所以我們到底要怎麼創新? 還好 很幸運的

  • evolution has given us an answer, right?

    演化的過程已經給了我們答案 對吧?

  • And it enables us to address even the most difficult


  • of questions. The best questions are the ones that create the most uncertainty.


  • They're the ones that question the things we think to be true already. Right?

    讓我們懷疑我們長久以來所相信的真相 對吧?

  • It's easy to ask questions about how did life begin,

    問出像是 "生命是如何開始的?" 這種問句很簡單

  • or what extends beyond the universe, but to question what you think to be true already

    或者是 "宇宙的外面到底有什麼?" 但是真正去懷疑你所相信的事

  • is really stepping into that space.


  • So what is evolution's answer to the problem of uncertainty?

    那麼 進化給不確定感的答案是什麼呢?

  • It's play.

    那就是 玩樂

  • Now play is not simply a process. Experts in play will tell you

    玩樂可不是一個簡單的過程 玩樂的專家可以告訴你為什麼

  • that actually it's a way of being.


  • Play is one of the only human endeavors where uncertainty


  • is actually celebrated. Uncertainty is what makes play fun.


  • Right? It's adaptable to change. Right? It opens possibility,

    對吧? 它隨著適應而改變 對吧? 它開啟了各種的可能性

  • and it's cooperative. It's actually how we do our social bonding,

    它是合作的 事實上 我們的社會也是這樣連結的

  • and it's intrinsically motivated. What that means


  • is that we play to play. Play is its own reward.

    我們為了玩而玩 而"玩樂" 這件事本身就是個獎賞

  • Now if you look at these five ways of being,


  • these are the exact same ways of being you need


  • in order to be a good scientist.


  • Science is not defined by the method section of a paper.


  • It's actually a way of being, which is here, and this is true

    而是一種存在的方式 而它就在這裡

  • for anything that is creative.


  • So if you add rules to play, you have a game.

    當你在玩樂當中加上幾條規則 它就變成了遊戲

  • That's actually what an experiment is.


  • So armed with these two ideas,


  • that science is a way of being and experiments are play,

    科學是一種存在方式 而實驗是一種玩樂

  • we asked, can anyone become a scientist?

    所以我想問 每一個人都能成科學家嗎?

  • And who better to ask than 25 eight- to 10-year-old children?


  • Because they're experts in play. So I took my bee arena

    因為他們可是玩樂的專家 所以我帶著我蜜蜂的道具

  • down to a small school in Devon, and the aim of this

    到了英國德文郡的一間小學校 而這件事的目的

  • was to not just get the kids to see science differently,


  • but, through the process of science, to see themselves differently. Right?

    透過這個過程 更能使他們可以用不同的角度看自己 對吧?

  • The first step was to ask a question.

    第一步 就是提出一個問句

  • Now, I should say that we didn't get funding for this study

    好 先說 我們的的研究計畫並沒有得到任何的贊助

  • because the scientists said small children couldn't make

    因為 科學家說 小朋友不可能做出什麽有用的科學貢獻

  • a useful contribution to science, and the teachers said kids couldn't do it.


  • So we did it anyway. Right? Of course.

    但是我們還是做了 對吧? 肯定的

  • So, here are some of the questions. I put them in small print

    這裡有一些他們提出的問題 我把字體縮小了

  • so you wouldn't bother reading it. Point is that five of the questions that the kids came up with

    所以你們不用費神去讀 重點是 這些他們提出的問題中

  • were actually the basis of science publication the last five to 15 years. Right?


  • So they were asking questions that were significant


  • to expert scientists.


  • Now here, I want to share the stage with someone quite special. Right?

    好現在 我要把舞台分享給一個特別的人 好嗎?

  • She was one of the young people who was involved in this study,


  • and she's now one of the youngest published scientists


  • in the world. Right? She will now, once she comes onto stage,


  • will be the youngest person to ever speak at TED. Right?


  • Now, science and asking questions is about courage.

    好 科學和提出問題是需要勇氣的

  • Now she is the personification of courage, because she's

    現在 她即將成為勇氣的化身

  • going to stand up here and talk to you all.


  • So Amy, would you please come up? (Applause)

    艾咪 可以請你上台了嗎? (掌聲)

  • (Applause)


  • So Amy's going to help me tell the story of what we call

    艾咪 要幫我跟大家分享一個關於 "Blackawton蜜蜂計畫" 的故事

  • the Blackawton Bees Project, and first she's going to tell you

    首先 她要先分享 她們提出的問題

  • the question that they came up with. So go ahead, Amy.

    開始吧 艾咪

  • Amy O'Toole: Thank you, Beau. We thought

    艾咪: 謝謝 Beau 我們當初懷疑

  • that it was easy to see the link between humans and apes


  • in the way that we think, because we look alike.

    因為我們想 人類跟猿的長相是有點相近的吧

  • But we wondered if there's a possible link

    所以我們又想 人類跟其他的動物是不是也有可能有些關聯

  • with other animals. It'd be amazing if humans and bees


  • thought similar, since they seem so different from us.


  • So we asked if humans and bees might solve

    我們進階猜想 人類跟蜜蜂是不是有可能用一樣的方式

  • complex problems in the same way.


  • Really, we wanted to know if bees can also adapt

    真的 我們想知道蜜蜂是否能夠用他們先前的經驗

  • themselves to new situations using previously learned rules


  • and conditions. So what if bees can think like us?


  • Well, it'd be amazing, since we're talking about an insect

    那就真的很神奇了吧 我們正在討論的是

  • with only one million brain cells.


  • But it actually makes a lot of sense they should,


  • because bees, like us, can recognize a good flower


  • regardless of the time of day, the light, the weather,

    透過時間 光線 天氣 來分辨一朵好花

  • or from any angle they approach it from. (Applause)

    還能從任何一個角度去接近花朵 (掌聲)

  • BL: So the next step was to design an experiment,

    BL: 而下一步 就是開始設計這個實驗

  • which is a game. So the kids went off and they designed

    一個玩樂的實驗 所以孩子們開始設計實驗了

  • this experiment, and so -- well, game -- and so,

    又或是說 設計一個遊戲

  • Amy, can you tell us what the game was,

    艾咪 你可以跟大家分享你們所設計的這個遊戲嗎?

  • and the puzzle that you set the bees?


  • AO: The puzzle we came up with was an if-then rule.

    艾咪? 我們想出的關卡是一個 "如果-則" 的規則

  • We asked the bees to learn not just to go to a certain color,


  • but to a certain color flower only


  • when it's in a certain pattern.


  • They were only rewarded if they went to the yellow flowers


  • if the yellow flowers were surrounded by the blue,


  • or if the blue flowers were surrounded by the yellow.


  • Now there's a number of different rules the bees can learn

    現在有好幾條蜜蜂可以學習的規則 使他們能夠解決這個關卡

  • to solve this puzzle. The interesting question is, which?

    有趣的是 是哪一條規則呢

  • What was really exciting about this project was we,


  • and Beau, had no idea whether it would work.


  • It was completely new, and no one had done it before,

    這實驗是一個全新的點子 從來沒有人做過

  • including adults. (Laughter)

    包括 "大人們" (笑聲)

  • BL: Including the teachers, and that was really hard for the teachers.

    BL: 包括老師們 因為這個實驗對老師來說也是非常難

  • It's easy for a scientist to go in and not have a clue what he's doing,

    對一個科學家來說 進到實驗室之後卻毫無頭緒是正常的

  • because that's what we do in the lab, but for a teacher

    因為這就是實驗室的一部份 但是對於老師來說

  • not to know what's going to happen at the end of the day --


  • so much of the credit goes to Dave Strudwick, who was

    所以我們就把這個責任交給 Dave Strudwick

  • the collaborator on this project. Okay?


  • So I'm not going to go through the whole details of the study


  • because actually you can read about it, but the next step

    因為你們等等就會瞭解了 而下一個步驟

  • is observation. So here are some of the students

    就是觀察 這邊有幾個孩子

  • doing the observations. They're recording the data

    正在做觀察 他們正在紀錄

  • of where the bees fly.


  • (Video) Dave Strudwick: So what we're going to doStudent: 5C.

    (影片) Dave Strudwick: 所以我們現在要做的是? 學生: 5C

  • Dave Strudwick: Is she still going up here? Student: Yeah.

    Dave Strudwick: 蜜蜂還正在往上飛嗎? 學生: 對

  • Dave Strudwick: So you keep track of each. Student: Henry, can you help me here?

    Dave Strudwick: 你們繼續觀察牠們飛行的方向喔 學生: "亨利 可以幫我一下嗎? "

  • BL: "Can you help me, Henry?" What good scientist says that, right?

    BL: "可以幫我一下嗎 亨利" 好的科學家都是這樣說的 對吧?

  • Student: There's two up there.

    學生: 這裡有兩隻蜜蜂

  • And three in here.


  • BL: Right? So we've got our observations. We've got our data.

    BL: 看到了吧? 我們做完了觀察 也得到了數據

  • They do the simple mathematics, averaging, etc., etc.

    他們做了一些簡單的數學運算 平均 等等等等

  • And now we want to share. That's the next step.

    所以我們想要分享我們的結果 這就是下一步了

  • So we're going to write this up and try to submit this


  • for publication. Right? So we have to write it up.

    才能發表 對吧? 所以我們開始寫報告

  • So we go, of course, to the pub. All right? (Laughter)

    所以我們去了 當然 去了酒吧 (笑聲)

  • The one on the left is mine, okay? (Laughter)

    左邊的那杯是我喝的 看到了吧 (笑聲)

  • Now, I tell them, a paper has four different sections:

    我告訴他們 一份正式的報告應該有四個部分

  • an introduction, a methods, a results, a discussion.

    引言 方法 結論 討論

  • The introduction says, what's the question and why?

    引言的部分應該要提到 你們所提出的問題和理由

  • Methods, what did you do? Results, what was the observation?

    方法, 你們做了什麼? 結論, 你們觀察的結果

  • And the discussion is, who cares? Right?

    最後是討論 不過誰在乎啊? 對吧

  • That's a science paper, basically. (Laughter)

    基本上 這就是一份科學的報告 (笑聲)

  • So the kids give me the words, right? I put it into a narrative,

    所以孩子們給我這些字句 而我把這些字句寫成敘述文

  • which means that this paper is written in kidspeak.

    也就是說 這邊報告是用孩子們的口吻所寫的

  • It's not written by me. It's written by Amy

    所以不是我寫的報告 是艾咪

  • and the other students in the class. As a consequence,

    還有班上其他的孩子們一起寫的 所以

  • this science paper begins, "Once upon a time ... " (Laughter)

    這邊報告的第一句話是 "從前從前..." (笑聲)

  • The results section, it says: "Training phase, the puzzle ... duh duh duuuuuhhh." Right? (Laughter)

    結論的部分寫了 "難題 duh duh duuuuuhhh." (笑聲)

  • And the methods, it says, "Then we put the bees

    方法的部分則是寫了 "然後我們把蜜蜂冰進冰箱裡"

  • into the fridge (and made bee pie)," smiley face. Right? (Laughter)

    "然後做成蜜蜂派" 還有加個笑臉 (笑聲)

  • This is a science paper. We're going to try to get it published.

    這可是一個科學報告 而我們希望能夠發表出來耶

  • So here's the title page. We have a number of authors there.

    這是報告的封面 上面有這些小小作者的名字

  • All the ones in bold are eight to 10 years old.


  • The first author is Blackawton Primary School, because

    名列第一位作者的是 Blackawton 小學

  • if it were ever referenced, it would be "Blackawton et al,"

    因為這樣子以後只要有人引注這份資料 名字就會是 "Blackawton小學等人"

  • and not one individual. So we submit it to a public access journal,

    而不是任何一個個人 然後我們將報告投稿到一個公共的期刊

  • and it says this. It said many things, but it said this.

    期刊說了好多事 但最重要的是 它說了

  • "I'm afraid the paper fails our initial quality control checks in several different ways." (Laughter)


  • In other words, it starts off "once upon a time,"

    換句話來說 這份報告是由 "從前從前..."這句話開始的

  • the figures are in crayon, etc. (Laughter)

    圖還是用蠟筆畫的 (笑聲)

  • So we said, we'll get it reviewed. So I sent it to Dale Purves,

    於是我們說 我們會再拿去修改一下 所以我把報告寄給了Dale Purves

  • who is at the National Academy of Science, one of the leading neuroscientists in the world,


  • and he says, "This is the most original science paper I have ever read" — (Laughter) —

    而他說 "這是一份我看過最原汁原味的報告了" (笑聲)

  • "and it certainly deserves wide exposure."


  • Larry Maloney, expert in vision, says, "The paper is magnificent.

    視覺專家Larry Maloney 說 "這份報告實在是很了不起"

  • The work would be publishable if done by adults."

    如果這是一個成人做的研究 一定會被發表

  • So what did we do? We send it back to the editor.

    於是我們做了什麼? 我們把報告拿回去給編輯

  • They say no.


  • So we asked Larry and Natalie Hempel to write

    所以我們請了Larry還有Natalie Hempel

  • a commentary situating the findings for scientists, right,


  • putting in the references, and we submit it to Biology Letters.

    放在引注資料裡 然後將它投稿到

  • And there, it was reviewed by five independent referees,


  • and it was published. Okay? (Applause)

    它被發表了 (掌聲)

  • (Applause)


  • It took four months to do the science,


  • two years to get it published. (Laughter)

    卻花了兩年才被發表 (笑聲)

  • Typical science, actually, right? So this makes Amy and

    典型的科學 對吧? 而這個發表使艾咪和她的朋友

  • her friends the youngest published scientists in the world.


  • What was the feedback like?


  • Well, it was published two days before Christmas,

    嗯 那是在聖誕節前兩周發表的

  • downloaded 30,000 times in the first day, right?


  • It was the Editors' Choice in Science, which is a top science magazine.


  • It's forever freely accessible by Biology Letters.


  • It's the only paper that will ever be freely accessible by this journal.


  • Last year, it was the second-most downloaded paper

    去年 這篇它成為了下載量第二的報告

  • by Biology Letters, and the feedback from not just scientists


  • and teachers but the public as well.


  • And I'll just read one.


  • "I have read 'Blackawton Bees' recently. I don't have


  • words to explain exactly how I am feeling right now.


  • What you guys have done is real, true and amazing.


  • Curiosity, interest, innocence and zeal are the most basic


  • and most important things to do science.

    "好奇心 興趣 純真 與熱情"

  • Who else can have these qualities more than children?


  • Please congratulate your children's team from my side."


  • So I'd like to conclude with a physical metaphor.


  • Can I do it on you? (Laughter)

    我能在你身上做這個實驗嗎? (笑聲)

  • Oh yeah, yeah, yeah, come on. Yeah yeah. Okay.

    嗯 嗯 嗯 你來吧 好 好 好

  • Now, science is about taking risks, so this is an incredible risk, right? (Laughter)

    科學就是冒險 所以這是一個很好玩的實驗(笑聲)

  • For me, not for him. Right? Because we've only done this once before. (Laughter)

    是對我來說而不是對他 對吧? 因為這個實驗之前只做過一次

  • And you like technology, right?

    你喜歡科技 對吧?

  • Shimon Schocken: Right, but I like myself.

    Shimon Schocken: 對 但我更喜歡我自己

  • BL: This is the epitome of technology. Right. Okay.

    BL:這是一個科技的縮影 好

  • Now ... (Laughter)

    現在... (笑聲)

  • Okay. (Laughter)

    好了 (笑聲)

  • Now, we're going to do a little demonstration, right?

    現在我們來做些示範吧 好嗎?

  • You have