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  • Historically, most cars have run on gasoline,

    歷史上大多數汽車皆仰賴汽油運行,

  • but that doesn't have to be the case in the future.

    但未來不一定如此。

  • Other liquid fuels and electricity can also power cars.

    其他液體燃料和電力也可以為汽車提供動力。

  • So, what are the differences between these options?

    那麼這些方案有什麼不同?

  • And which one's best?

    哪一個最好呢?

  • Gasoline is refined from crude oil,

    汽油是由原油提煉而成,

  • a fossil fuel extracted from deep underground.

    一種從地下深處提取的化石燃料。

  • The energy in gasoline comes from a class of molecules called hydrocarbons.

    汽油中的能量來自一種叫做碳氫化合物的分子。

  • There are hundreds of different hydrocarbons in crude oil,

    原油中有數百種不同的碳氫化合物,

  • and different ones are used to make gasoline and diesel,

    分別用於製造汽油和機油,

  • which is why you can't use them interchangeably.

    因此它們才不能互換使用。

  • Fuels derived from crude oil are extremely energy dense,

    從原油中提取的燃料能量密度極高,

  • bringing a lot of bang for your buck.

    非常具有經濟效益。

  • Unfortunately, they have many drawbacks.

    可惜它們也有很多缺點。

  • Oil spills cause environmental damage and cost billions of dollars to clean up.

    溢油破壞環境,清理費用高達數十億美元。

  • Air pollution from burning fossil fuels like these

    這些燃燒化石燃料帶來的空氣汙染,

  • kills 4.5 million people each year.

    每年導致 450 萬人死亡。

  • And transportation accounts for 16% of global greenhouse gas emissions,

    運輸業佔全球溫室氣體排放量的16%,

  • almost half of which comes from passenger cars burning fossil fuels.

    其中近一半來自燃燒化石燃料的客車。

  • These emissions warm the planet and make weather more extreme.

    這些排放造成地球暖化,使天氣更加極端。

  • In the U.S. alone, storms caused by climate change

    僅在美國,由氣候變化引起的風暴

  • caused $500 billion of damage in the last five years.

    在過去5年就造成了 5000 億美元的損失。

  • So, while gas is efficient,

    所以,雖然天然氣效率高,

  • something so destructive can't be the best fuel.

    這麼具破壞性的東西不可能是最好的燃料。

  • The most common alternative is electricity.

    最常見的替代品是電力。

  • Electric cars use a battery pack and electric motor

    電動汽車使用電池組和電動機

  • instead of the internal combustion engine found in gas-powered cars,

    而非汽油動力汽車中的內燃機,

  • and must be charged at charging stations.

    並且必須在充電站充電。

  • With the right power infrastructure, they can be as efficient as gas-powered cars.

    如果有合適的電力基礎設施,它們可以像汽油動力汽車一樣高效。

  • If powered by electricity generated without fossil fuels,

    如果由不使用化石燃料產生的電力驅動,

  • they can avoid greenhouse gas emissions entirely.

    就可以完全避免溫室氣體排放。

  • They're more expensive than gas-powered cars,

    它們比汽油驅動的汽車更貴,

  • but the cost difference has been shrinking rapidly since 2010.

    但自 2010 年以來,成本差異迅速縮小。

  • The other alternatives to gasoline are other liquid fuels.

    汽油的其他替代品是其他液體燃料。

  • Many of these can be shipped and stored using the same infrastructure as gasoline,

    其中許多可以使用與汽油相同的基礎設施進行運輸和儲存。

  • and used in the same cars.

    並用在同一種車款上。

  • They can also be carbon-neutral if they're made using carbon dioxide from the atmosphere,

    如果是用二氧化碳製造,它們也可以達到碳中和,

  • meaning when we burn them, we release that same carbon dioxide back into the air,

    表示燃燒它時,同樣的二氧化碳會釋放回空氣中,

  • and don't add to overall emissions.

    這樣不會增加整體排放量。

  • One approach to carbon-neutral fuel is to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

    製作碳中和燃料的一種方法是從大氣中捕獲二氧化碳,

  • and combine its carbon with the hydrogen in water.

    並將碳與水中的氫結合。

  • This creates hydrocarbons, the source of energy in fossil fuels,

    這就產生了碳氫化合物,也就是化石燃料的能源來源,

  • but without any emissions if the fuels are made using clean electricity.

    而且如果使用清潔電力製造燃料,則不會有任何排放。

  • These fuels take up more space than an energetically equivalent amount of gasoline,

    這些燃料比等量的汽油占用更多的空間,

  • an obstacle to using them in cars.

    造成汽車使用的障礙。

  • Another approach is to make carbon-neutral fuels from plants,

    另一種方法是用植物製造碳中性燃料,

  • which sequester carbon from the air through photosynthesis.

    透過光合作用從空氣中吸收碳。

  • But growing the plants also has to be carbon neutral,

    但種植的也要是碳中和的植物,

  • which rules out many crops that require fertilizer,

    這就排除了許多需要化肥的農作物,

  • a big contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

    是溫室氣體排放的主要來源。

  • So, the next generation of these fuels must be made from either plant waste

    所以,新一代燃料必須用植物廢料

  • or plants that don't require fertilizer to grow.

    或不需要施肥就能生長的植物製造。

  • Biofuels can be about as efficient as gasoline, though not all are.

    生物燃料的效率可以和汽油差不多,但不是所有生物燃料都是如此。

  • For a fuel to be the best option, people have to be able to afford it.

    要成為最好的燃料選擇,前提是必須讓人們負擔得起。

  • Unfortunately, the high upfront costs of implementing new technologies

    可惜實施新技術的前期成本很高,

  • and heavy subsidies for the producers of fossil fuels

    而對化石燃料生產者的大量補貼

  • mean that almost every green technology is more expensive than its fossil-fuel-based cousin.

    代表幾乎所有的懷寶技術都比以化石燃料為基礎的技術更昂貴。

  • This cost difference is known as a green premium.

    這種成本差異叫做綠色溢價。

  • Governments have already started subsidizing electric vehicles

    政府已經開始補貼電動車

  • to help make up the difference.

    以彌補差額。

  • In some places, depending on the costs of electricity and gas,

    在一些地方,取決於電、氣的成本,

  • electric cars can already be cheaper overall,

    電動汽車的整體價格已經更便宜了,

  • despite the higher cost of the car.

    儘管汽車的成本較高。

  • The other alternatives are trickier, for now.

    就目前而言,其他的替代選擇更為棘手。

  • Zero-carbon liquid fuels can be double the price of gasoline or more.

    零碳液體燃料的價格可能是汽油的兩倍或以上。

  • Innovators are doing everything they can to bring green premiums down,

    創新者正竭盡全力降低綠色溢價,

  • because in the end, the best fuel will be both affordable for consumers

    畢竟,最好的燃料是消費者負擔得起的

  • and sustainable for our planet.

    且可以為地球永續使用的燃料。

Historically, most cars have run on gasoline,

歷史上大多數汽車皆仰賴汽油運行,

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 燃料 汽油 化石 排放 成本

汽車用什麼燃料最好? (What’s the best fuel for your car?)

  • 3695 180
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 06 日
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