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  • These are challenging times.

    這是一個充滿挑戰的時代。

  • Governments are trying to keep their economies alive by injecting billions of dollars across the board.

    各國政府正試圖通過全面注入數十億美元來保持經濟活力。

  • However, they are trying to do so while receiving less money, a very difficult task,

    然而,他們要做到這一點,同時又要少收錢,這是一個非常困難的任務。

  • especially for nations where public debt was already high before the pandemic.

    特別是對於那些在大流行病之前公共債務已經很高的國家來說。

  • So, how do governments make money?

    那麼,政府是如何賺錢的呢?

  • For most governments, the main source of revenue is taxes.

    對於大多數政府來說,收入的主要來源是稅收。

  • Here in the U.K., the biggest chunk comes from taxes on people's earnings,

    在英國,最大的一塊來自於人們收入的稅收。

  • known as Income Tax and National Insurance Contributions.

    稱為所得稅和國民保險費。

  • If you are employed in the U.K., these come out of your paycheck

    如果你在英國工作,這些錢將從你的工資中扣除。

  • even before it lands in your bank account, while in the United States,

    甚至在它落入你的銀行賬戶之前,而在美國。

  • salaried workers often have to pay a retrospective tax bill based on their previous year's earnings.

    受薪工人往往要根據前一年的收入補交稅款。

  • There are also plenty of indirect taxes levied when goods and services are sold.

    還有很多在銷售商品和服務時徵收的間接稅。

  • When you buy a coffee, a chocolate bar or a car, well that's taxed too.

    當你買咖啡、巧克力棒或汽車時,嗯,那也是要交稅的。

  • These consumption taxes, such as the U.K.'s VAT

    這些消費稅,如英國的增值稅。

  • or India's Goods and Services Tax are another important source of revenue.

    或印度的商品和服務稅是另一個重要的收入來源。

  • In fact, taxes on income and consumption amount to about two thirds of tax revenues in the U.K.

    事實上,在英國,收入和消費稅約佔稅收收入的三分之二。

  • They are also used as a way for governments to influence people's behaviour.

    它們也被政府用來作為影響人們行為的一種方式。

  • For example, the U.K. introduced a “sugar taxaimed at tackling childhood obesity in 2018.

    例如,英國在2018年推出了旨在解決兒童肥胖問題的 "糖稅"。

  • This means that consumers are discouraged from buying sugary soft drinks

    這意味著,消費者不願意購買含糖軟飲料。

  • as these become pricier in comparison with healthier alternatives.

    因為與健康的替代品相比,這些東西變得更加昂貴。

  • Besides being levied on other unhealthy products, such as alcohol and tobacco, duties can also

    除了對其他不健康的產品,如菸酒等徵稅外,還可

  • be used to discourage environmentally damaging activities, such as driving petrol- or diesel-powered vehicles.

    用於阻止破壞環境的活動,如駕駛汽油或機油動力的車輛;

  • The next chunk of government income comes from taxes on property,

    政府收入的下一塊來自於財產稅。

  • whether on your own or on commercial spaces.

    不管是自己還是商業空間上。

  • There are a number of other smaller duties too, when selling or inheriting real estate,

    在出售或繼承房地產時,也有一些其他的小職責。

  • which end up boosting the government's coffers.

    這最終會增加政府的財政收入。

  • It's a similar picture in the U.S. About half of federal revenue comes

    在美國也是類似的情況,大約一半的聯邦收入來自於

  • from individual income taxes, while about a third of the total comes from

    來自個人所得稅,而總量的三分之一左右來自於。

  • payroll taxes that fund social insurance programs. Companies are also taxed on their profits.

    工資稅,為社會保險項目提供資金。公司也要對其利潤徵稅。

  • However, corporate tax in the U.S. has fallen as a proportion of government receipts since the 1950s,

    然而,自20世紀50年代以來,美國的公司稅在政府收入中的比例有所下降。

  • reflecting how the United States has tried to encourage business activity with lower rates.

    反映了美國如何試圖以較低的稅率鼓勵商業活動。

  • While taxation patterns are mostly similar in developed countries,

    雖然發達國家的稅收模式大多相似。

  • low-income nations are more reliant on trade and consumption taxes due to the nature of their economies.

    低收入國家由於其經濟性質,更依賴貿易和消費稅。

  • For example, agricultural workers rarely have fixed or regular incomes,

    例如,農業工人很少有固定或定期的收入。

  • making it hard to calculate income taxes.

    使得所得稅難以計算。

  • The tax collection system in low-income economies also tends to be less efficient,

    低收入經濟體的稅收制度也往往效率較低。

  • which in turn makes generating revenue harder.

    這又增加了創收的難度。

  • Even for an oil-rich country like Saudi Arabia, which has no income taxes,

    即使是像沙特這樣的石油資源豐富的國家,也沒有所得稅。

  • its increased spending in 2020 forced it to triple its consumption tax to 15%.

    其在2020年增加的支出迫使其將消費稅增加三倍至15%。

  • Traditionally, governments have tried to match their expenditure with the money

    傳統上,政府一直試圖使其支出與資金相匹配。

  • they receive from all of these sources of income, also known as running a balanced budget.

    它們從所有這些收入來源獲得的收入,也就是所謂的平衡預算。

  • However, they can run a deficit and borrow money from financial markets to make up the shortfall.

    但是,他們可以出現赤字,向金融市場借錢來彌補不足。

  • But this is a delicate balancing act because interest payments can mount up, effectively increasing spending.

    但這是一個微妙的平衡,因為利息支出會不斷增加,實際上增加了支出。

  • If lenders worry about the total level of debt getting out of control

    如果貸款人擔心債務總量失控的話

  • and threatening the ability of a government to repay them, they charge a lot more for these loans.

    並威脅到政府的還款能力,他們對這些貸款收取更多的費用。

  • In the eurozone, for instance, Italy's bonds offer a higher yield than Germany's, even though they share a currency,

    例如,在歐元區,意大利的債券比德國的債券收益率高,儘管它們共享一種貨幣。

  • because lenders have more confidence in Germany's ability to repay its debt.

    因為貸款人對德國的償債能力更有信心。

  • While central banks can just print more money in theory, either to repay these loans directly,

    雖然央行在理論上可以直接印更多的錢,或者直接償還這些貸款。

  • or to swap for foreign currency if they borrowed in dollars,

    或以美元借貸的情況下換成外幣。

  • adding more money to the economy risks stoking inflation and has devastated economies in the past.

    向經濟注入更多的貨幣有可能引發通貨膨脹,並在過去破壞了經濟。

  • Although some economists have recently started to question

    雖然一些經濟學家最近開始質疑

  • whether this is the inevitable consequence of higher spending,

    這是否是提高支出的必然結果。

  • especially for big economies such as the U.S., it's going to take a lot of convincing

    特別是對於美國這樣的大經濟體來說,這需要很多說服力。

  • before lawmakers feel confident running huge deficits for a long time.

    立法者才有信心長期運行鉅額赤字。

  • However, U.S. President Joe Biden has said he supports setting aside concerns

    不過,美國總統拜登表示,他支持擱置擔憂。

  • about the country's deficit so more money can be spent now to prop up the economy.

    關於國家的赤字,所以現在可以花更多的錢來支撐經濟。

  • This brings us to why we are now more likely to pay even more in taxes.

    這就涉及到為什麼我們現在更容易交更多的稅。

  • Governments have had to step up their spending in the wake of the pandemic.

    在這場大流行病之後,各國政府不得不加大開支。

  • The health emergency halted a lot of economic activity, and governments across the world

    衛生緊急事件停止了很多經濟活動,世界各地的政府

  • have been paying companies to keep workers on their payrolls,

    一直在向公司支付工資,讓工人留在他們的工資單上。

  • increasing unemployment benefits and supporting health services.

    增加失業福利和支持保健服務;

  • They have also delayed tax bills for businesses so they have a bit longer to find the cash.

    他們還延後了企業的稅單,讓他們有更多的時間去尋找現金。

  • These measures, though necessary, are emptying the coffers of many treasury departments around the world.

    這些措施雖然是必要的,但卻掏空了世界上許多財政部門的庫房。

  • Given how important citizens' contributions are for their income,

    鑑於公民的貢獻對其收入的重要性。

  • governments are expected to increase taxes in the coming years to restore their finances.

    預計各國政府將在未來幾年增加稅收,以恢復財政。

  • The U.K.'s independent watchdog for public finances said that tax rises or spending cuts

    英國獨立的公共財政監督機構表示,加稅或減支。

  • of between $29 billion and $63 billion will be needed just to stop public debt levels

    僅僅為了阻止公共債務水準,就需要290億至630億美元的資金。

  • from rising relative to GDP. In his latest plans for the economy,

    從相對於GDP的上升。在他最新的經濟計劃中。

  • the U.K.'s finance minister has already announced an increase in corporate tax.

    英國財長已經宣佈增加企業稅。

  • It's going to take this country, and the whole world,

    這將需要這個國家,和整個世界。

  • a long time to recover from this extraordinary economic situation.

    從這一特殊的經濟形勢中恢復過來需要很長的時間。

  • This is why we hear more leaders discussing new taxes, such as on profits made by digital giants and on pollution.

    這就是為什麼我們聽到更多的領導人討論新的稅收,比如對數字巨頭的利潤和對汙染。

  • While we don't know when taxes will rise, and by how much, it is likely these levies will be passed on to consumers,

    雖然我們不知道什麼時候會漲稅,以及漲多少,但這些徵收很可能會轉嫁到消費者身上。

  • which means there's a good chance we'll paying more to the government before very long.

    這意味著我們很有可能在不久之後向政府支付更多的錢。

  • Hi everyone, thank you so much for watching.

    大家好,非常感謝大家的觀看。

  • How do you feel about potentially paying more taxes? And what should governments be taxing?

    你如何看待可能要交更多的稅?政府又應該徵收什麼稅?

  • Let us know in the comments section, and I'll see you soon.

    請在評論區告訴我們,我們很快就會再見。

These are challenging times.

這是一個充滿挑戰的時代。

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B1 中級 中文 收入 政府 稅收 增加 支出 所得稅

政府如何賺錢?| CNBC解釋 (How do governments make money? | CNBC Explains)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 16 日
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