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  • Ninety-nine percent of all freshwater ice on Earth

    地球上99%的淡水冰都在這裡

  • is sitting on top of Greenland and Antarctica,

    正坐在格陵蘭島和南極洲之上。

  • and each year, a little more of it melts into the ocean.

    每年都會有更多的東西融進海里

  • Normally, it would take hundreds to thousands of years

    正常情況下,需要幾百年到幾千年的時間。

  • for it all to melt away.

    為這一切融化。

  • But what if something happened

    但如果發生了什麼事呢

  • that caused a massive global melt overnight?

    導致一夜之間全球大面積融化?

  • As we slept, sea levels would rise

    當我們睡覺時,海平面會上升

  • by a whopping 66 meters.

    以高達66米。

  • Coastal cities like New York, Shanghai, and London

    紐約、上海、倫敦等沿海城市。

  • would drown in the apocalyptic mass flood,

    會淹沒在世界末日的大洪水中。

  • forcing up to 40% of the world's population

    迫使世界上多達40%的人口被迫離開。

  • out of their homes.

    出他們的家。

  • While all this chaos ensues aboveground,

    當這一切混亂髮生在地面上的時候。

  • something equally sinister is happening below.

    下面還發生了同樣邪惡的事情。

  • All that rising salt water will infiltrate

    所有上升的鹽水都會滲入地下。

  • groundwater reserves farther inland,

    更遠的內陸地區的地下水儲備。

  • forcing its way into nearby freshwater aquifers.

    迫使其進入附近的淡水含水層。

  • You know, the ones that supply our drinking water,

    你知道,那些供應我們飲用水的人。

  • irrigation systems, and power-plant cooling systems?

    灌溉系統和發電廠冷卻系統?

  • All those aquifers would be destroyed.

    所有這些含水層都會被破壞。

  • Not good.

    不太好

  • On top of that, the ice on Greenland and Antarctica

    除此之外,格陵蘭島和南極洲的冰層也是如此

  • is made of fresh water, so when it melts,

    是由淡水製成的,所以當它融化後。

  • that's about 69% of the world's freshwater supply

    佔全球淡水供應量的69%左右

  • that's going straight into the oceans.

    這是要直接進入海洋。

  • This will wreak havoc on our

    這將會對我們的生活造成嚴重的破壞。

  • ocean currents and weather patterns.

    洋流和天氣模式。

  • Take the Gulf Stream, for example.

    以灣流為例。

  • It's a strong ocean current

    這是個強大的洋流

  • that brings warm air to northern Europe

    給北歐帶來了暖空氣

  • and relies on dense, salty water from the Arctic

    並依靠來自北極的稠密鹹水為生

  • in order to function.

    才能發揮作用。

  • But a flood of fresh water would dilute the current

    但淡水的泛濫會沖淡這股水流

  • and could weaken or even stop it altogether.

    並可能削弱甚至完全停止。

  • Without that warm air,

    沒有了那股暖氣。

  • temperatures in northern Europe would plummet,

    北歐的氣溫會驟然下降。

  • and that could spawn a mini ice age,

    這可能會催生一個小冰河時代。

  • according to some experts.

    據一些專家介紹。

  • That's not even the worst of it.

    這還不是最糟糕的。

  • Take a look at what will happen

    看看會發生什麼

  • when that last 1% of freshwater ice

    當最後1%的淡水冰層

  • that's not part of Greenland or Antarctica thaws.

    這不是格陵蘭島或南極洲融化的一部分。

  • Some of that 1% is sitting in glaciers farther inland.

    這1%中的一部分是在更遠的內陸的冰川中。

  • The Himalayan glaciers specifically

    特別是喜馬拉雅冰川

  • pose one of the largest threats

    構成的最大威脅之一

  • because of what's trapped inside:

    因為裡面藏著什麼。

  • toxic chemicals like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane,

    二氯二苯三氯乙烷等有毒化學品。

  • or DDT.

    或滴滴涕。

  • Scientists discovered that glaciers like this

    科學家發現,像這樣的冰川

  • can store these chemicals for decades.

    可以將這些化學品儲存幾十年。

  • But as they thaw, those glaciers release the chemicals

    但當它們解凍時,這些冰川會釋放出化學物質

  • into rivers, lakes, and groundwater reserves,

    進入河流、湖泊和地下水保護區。

  • poisoning each one as they go.

    一邊走一邊給每個人下毒。

  • The rest of that 1% is hanging out underground,

    剩下的那1%的人在地下閒逛。

  • mostly in the Arctic tundra,

    多在北極凍土區。

  • as something called permafrost.

    作為一種叫做永凍土的東西。

  • Permafrost is organic matter that's been

    凍土是一種有機物,它是被破壞的。

  • frozen in the ground for two-plus years.

    凍在地下兩年多。

  • Now, one of the most immediate problems

    現在,最直接的問題之一是

  • with thawing permafrost would be mercury poisoning.

    凍土解凍將導致汞中毒。

  • That's right: There are an estimated 15 million gallons

    是的估計有1500萬加侖

  • of mercury stored up in the Arctic permafrost.

    儲存在北極永久凍土中的汞。

  • That's almost equal to the amount of mercury

    這幾乎等同於汞的數量。

  • everywhere else on Earth.

    地球上的其他地方。

  • On top of that, the organic matter in permafrost

    除此之外,永久凍土中的有機物

  • is a tasty meal for microorganisms.

    是微生物的美味佳餚。

  • After they digest it all, they fart out

    他們消化完之後,就會放屁了

  • two of the most potent greenhouse gases out there,

    兩種最強的溫室氣體。

  • carbon dioxide and methane.

    二氧化碳和甲烷。

  • Scientists estimate this could double

    科學家們估計,這可能會增加一倍

  • the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere,

    大氣中溫室氣體的當前水準;

  • and potentially cause global temperatures to rise

    並可能導致全球氣溫上升

  • by 3.5 degrees Celsius compared to today.

    與今天相比降低了3.5攝氏度。

  • That might not sound like much,

    這可能聽起來不大。

  • but say goodbye to that mini European ice age,

    但告別了那個小型歐洲冰河時代。

  • and even rivers and lakes around the world.

    甚至世界各地的江河湖泊。

  • They'd evaporate from the higher temperatures

    它們會因為溫度過高而蒸發掉

  • and cause mass droughts and desert-like climates.

    並造成大規模乾旱和類似沙漠的氣候。

  • And all that extra water vapor in the atmosphere

    大氣中所有多餘的水蒸氣。

  • would fuel more frequent and stronger

    將助長更頻繁、更強烈的

  • storms, floods, and hurricanes.

    風暴、洪水和颶風。

  • So all of that newly established coastline on the eastern US

    所以,所有的新建立的海岸線 在美國東部的

  • would be one of the last places you'd want to live.

    會是你最不想住的地方之一。

  • Instead, there would be mass migrations to Canada, Alaska,

    反而會大量移民到加拿大、阿拉斯加。

  • the Arctic, and even what's left of the Antarctic.

    北極,甚至是南極的剩餘部分。

  • And you're right, this is probably never going to happen.

    你是對的,這可能永遠不會發生。

  • After all, there's enough ice right now

    畢竟現在的冰塊已經夠多了。

  • to cover the entire continent of North America

    覆蓋整個北美洲大陸

  • in a sheet a mile thick.

    在一英里厚的薄片。

  • So the next time you hear about record-breaking heat

    所以下次你聽到破紀錄的熱度時

  • or ultra-powerful hurricanes,

    或超強颶風。

  • at least you know that it could be worse.

    至少你知道,它可能會更糟。

  • But scientists estimate that if we don't take action

    但科學家估計,如果我們不採取行動的話

  • and global temperatures increase by just 1 degree Celsius,

    而全球氣溫僅上升1攝氏度。

  • the effects of climate change we already see today

    我們今天已經看到的氣候變化的影響

  • will be irreversible.

    將是不可逆轉的。

  • So yes, it could be worse,

    所以,是的,可能會更糟。

  • and it will be if we're not careful.

    如果我們不小心的話,就會這樣。

Ninety-nine percent of all freshwater ice on Earth

地球上99%的淡水冰都在這裡

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B2 中高級 中文 淡水 冰川 北極 格陵蘭島 南極洲 融化

如果一夜之間所有的冰都融化了怎麼辦 (What If All The Ice Melted Overnight)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 08 日
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