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  • Motivation is the experience of wanting something or wanting to avoid it.

    動機是指想要得到某樣東西,或是想要逃避它的體驗。

  • When we study how we get motivated to learn, develop, and succeed, we can identify two contrary forces: extrinsic and intrinsic ones.

    在研究我們究竟是如何獲得學習、發展和成功的動力後,我們可以找到兩股相反的力量:那就是外在和內在的推力。

  • On the one hand, we want to belong, desire to be loved, and seek to get the attention we think we deserve.

    一方面,我們想要有歸屬感、渴望被愛、尋求得到我們認為應得的關注。

  • We are motivated extrinsically by rewards in order to progress socially.

    我們會因為受到獎勵感受到外在的動力,讓我們能更加社會化。

  • On the other hand, we strive to explore things that are satisfying in themselves, disregarding rewards.

    另一方面,我們則努力探索自己在做的時候本來就會感到滿足的事情,不求外在的回報。

  • We are motivated intrinsically by a natural curiosity which we follow because it feels right.

    我們被內在的天然好奇心所驅動,因為打從內心感到正確而追隨這種動力。

  • The opinions of others don't matter.

    別人的意見並不重要。

  • To understand why we probably need a good mix of both, let's imagine two four-year-old children.

    而要理解為什麼我們可能得在兩者間取得良好的平衡,讓我們先來想像一下兩名四歲的孩子吧。

  • Both grow up in families that want only the best for their kids, but have completely opposing views on how to motivate them to succeed.

    這兩位孩子所來自的家庭都希望能為他們提供最棒的環境,但兩家人對於如何促進他們孩子的成功有著完全相反的看法。

  • Tom's parents believe that all their boy needs is love.

    Tom 的父母認為他們的孩子只需要滿滿的愛就行了。

  • To not undermine his intrinsic interests, they never praise him or use rewards.

    為了不破壞他的內在興趣,他們從不誇獎他,或是給他獎賞。

  • Eventually, they decide not to give him any feedback at all, fearing it could corrupt his free mind.

    最後,他們決定完全不對他的作為給予任何的回饋,因為他們怕這樣會破壞 Tom 的自由意志。

  • Over the years, Tom develops an immense capacity to imagine, spending most of his time playing by himself.

    多年下來,Tom 發展出了極強的想像力,而大多時間他都自己一個人玩耍。

  • By being allowed to follow his passions, he learns what he likes and what he doesn't.

    由於他能自由追尋自己的熱情,他了解到自己喜歡什麼,不喜歡什麼。

  • But Tom doesn't learn what others expect, and gets easily irritated when asked to do something in a particular way.

    但 Tom 並沒有學會如何應對別人對他的期待,並且很容易在被要求以特定的方式做事時激怒。

  • Mira's parents believe that their precious little girl needs clear rules about what's good and what's not.

    Mira 的父母則認為,他們的寶貝女兒需要明確的規則來界定什麼是好的,什麼是壞的。

  • They see it as their duty to help Mira learn by providing precise and actionable feedback on all aspects of her young life.

    他們把幫助 Mira 學習視為自己的責任,並對她年幼人生的各個方面都設定了嚴格且即時的反饋。

  • Mira spends her days in preschool, music, and ballet lessons.

    Mira 每天都在上學前班、音樂課和芭蕾舞課。

  • Over the years, she gets exceptionally good at the things that please the adults around her.

    多年下來,她變得能極完美地完成所有能討好她周遭大人的事情。

  • However, since there is neither time to play nor to relax, she doesn't discover her own interests.

    然而,因為既沒有時間玩樂,也沒有時間放鬆,她並沒有發掘出自己的興趣。

  • Being alone bores her.

    獨自一人讓她感到無趣。

  • At 14, Tom is independent and begins writing science fiction.

    14 歲時,Tom 的個性自主獨立,並開始寫起了科幻小說。

  • He realizes that he isn't quite like his friends, and spends most of his time at the library.

    他意識到自己和朋友們不太一樣,並花上大部分的時間窩在圖書館裡。

  • When he shares his writing, others can't quite relate.

    當他把自己的作品分享給別人看時,別人不太能有所共鳴。

  • At the same age, Mira is at the top of her class and has plenty of friends and admirers.

    與 Tom 同一個年紀時,Mira 是班上的領導者,有著很多朋友和崇拜她的人。

  • She knows what is expected of her, and makes sure to meet those expectations.

    她知道人們對她的期望是什麼,並總是確保自己滿足這些期望。

  • Sometimes the pressure becomes unbearable, although that's her secret.

    有時她會覺得壓力變得難以承受,但這是她私下的祕密。

  • By the day he turns 21, Tom has a unique perspective of the world.

    到了 21 歲那天,Tom 對這個世界發展出了獨特的看法。

  • He is intelligent but doesn't like to work for money, and hence is always broke.

    雖然他很聰明,但他不喜歡為錢工作,所以總是一窮二白。

  • He hates the idea of conforming to conventional norms and is annoyed if someone interferes with his creative expression.

    他討厭符合傳統規範的想法,而如果有人干涉他表達自己的創意,他便會大為光火。

  • At this point, Tom knows a lot about himself, but doesn't connect well with others.

    此時的 Tom 非常了解自己,卻無法很好地與他人溝通。

  • To him, people seem to follow rules without questioning them, just like sheep.

    在他看來,人們似乎都在毫不猶豫地循規蹈矩,就像羊群一樣。

  • Integrating into the society is difficult at this point, and he begins to search for Utopia.

    事已至此,想要融入社會已難如登天,於是他便開始尋求烏托邦的存在。

  • Mira makes it into a top medical school, where she realizes she'll never be top of the class again.

    Mira 進入了一所頂尖的醫學院,而她在這裡意識到,自己永遠不會再成為班上的頂尖份子了。

  • Once that place seems out of reach, her motivation drops, and she wonders if medicine actually interests her.

    而在發現班上的頂尖地位遙不可及後,她的動力直線下降,開始懷疑自己是不是真的對醫科抱有熱忱。

  • Since quitting is no option, she takes up a second major and runs for student council president.

    由於退學是不可能的,她於是開始了雙主修,並試著競選學生會主席。

  • Soon, Mira will know everything about what others expect, but nothing about what she likes for herself.

    過了不久,Mira 就能知道別人對她所期望的一切,但對自己喜歡的東西卻一無所知。

  • All her life, she has just listened, driven by external feedback loops.

    她的一生只是在聽從別人的意見,在外部反饋循環的驅動下過活。

  • At this point, she's almost lost the ability to question the norms of the society she grew up in.

    此時的她幾乎已經完全失去了質疑自己聽著長大的社會規範的能力。

  • Listening to our heart can tell us who we are, but not how to be happy among others.

    我們的心可以告訴我們自己想要成為怎麼樣的人,但不能告訴我們如何快樂地與他人一同生活。

  • Listening to others can motivate us to be a part of their world, but doesn't teach us if that world is ours.

    傾聽別人的聲音可以激勵我們自己成為他們世界的一部分,但並不能教會我們這樣的世界究竟屬不屬於自己。

  • This is why it's probably good for the two to go together.

    這就是為什麼我們需要兩者兼具。

  • Then we can learn what we want, and get the feedback we need in order to stay motivated to explore new roads into a better society.

    如此一來,我們既能了解自己想要的是什麼,也能聆聽別人的意見,讓我們能有動力一同攜手打造出更美好的社會。

  • A large body of research shows that balancing the two forces is not straightforward.

    大量研究表明,想要平衡這兩種動力並不簡單。

  • One meta analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

    有一項對 128 項研究的整合分析研究了外在獎勵對內在動機的影響。

  • While most rewards significantly undermined our intrinsic interest, positive feedback, which is an extrinsic motivator, inspires us to keep going.

    雖然大多數獎勵大大削弱了我們的內在興趣,但作為外在動力的正向反饋卻會激勵著我們繼續前進。

  • Put simply, honest words of encouragement get us going, while money or gifts undermine our inner drive.

    簡單來說,真誠的鼓勵話語能讓我們繼續前行,而金錢或禮物則會削弱我們的內在動力。

  • What about you?

    你的情況又是如何呢?

  • Do you listen to your heart, or to the voices of society? And from your personal experience, which of the two eventually takes your decision?

    你是聽從自己內心的渴望,還是遵從社會的意見呢?從你的個人經歷來看,這兩者哪一個會成為你最後下決定的依據?

  • Share your thoughts, and check the description to dive deeper into the topic.

    跟我們分享你的想法吧,然後如果你想更深入了解這個主題,請查看影片詳情中的資訊。

  • Sprouts videos are published under the Creative Commons license.

    Sprouts 影片皆有創用 CC 授權。

  • That means our videos are free and anyone can download, edit, and play them for personal use.

    這代表著我們的影片為免費提供,任何人都能以個人使用名義下載、編輯與播放。

  • And public schools, governments, and nonprofit organizations can also use them for training, online courses, or designing new curriculums.

    公立學校、政府與非營利組織也能用這些影片來訓練、進行線上課程,或是設計新的課綱。

  • To help us stay independent and support our work, you can join our patrons and contribute.

    為了幫助我們繼續獨立運作,你也能成為我們的贊助人,並做出貢獻。

  • Just visit patreon.com/sprouts.

    請前往 patreon.com/sprouts 網站。

  • Even $1 can make a difference.

    就算只是一美元也能有所幫助。

Motivation is the experience of wanting something or wanting to avoid it.

動機是指想要得到某樣東西,或是想要逃避它的體驗。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 內在 反饋 外在 湯姆 米拉 獎勵

家長必看!到底應該教小孩傾聽還是在追隨自己的內心呢? (Extrinsic vs Intrinsic Motivation: Are You Listening or Following Your Heart?)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 11 月 07 日
影片單字