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  • In an era of extreme polarization,

    在一個極度分化的時代。

  • it's really dangerous to talk about right and wrong.

    談論對與錯真的很危險。

  • You can be targeted, judged for something you said 10 years ago, 10 months ago,

    你可以因為10年前、10個月前說過的話而被針對、被評判。

  • 10 hours ago, 10 seconds ago.

    10小時前,10秒前。

  • And that means that those who think you're wrong

    這意味著那些認為你錯了的人... ...

  • may burn you at the stake

    焚身之禍

  • or those who are on your side

    或者站在你這邊的人

  • that think you're not sufficiently orthodox

    嫌你不夠正統

  • may try and cancel you.

    可能會試圖取消你。

  • As you're thinking about right and wrong, I want you to consider three ideas.

    當你在思考對與錯的時候,我希望你能考慮三個想法。

  • What if right and wrong is something that changes over time.

    如果是非是隨著時間的推移而變化的東西呢。

  • What if right and wrong is something that can change because of technology.

    如果是非是可以因為技術而改變的東西呢。

  • What if technology is moving exponentially?

    如果技術的發展是指數級的呢?

  • So as you're thinking about this concept,

    所以當你在思考這個概念的時候。

  • remember human sacrifice used to be normal and natural.

    記得人類的犧牲曾經是正常的,自然的。

  • It was a way of appeasing the gods.

    這是一種討好神靈的方式。

  • Otherwise the rain wouldn't come,

    否則雨就不會來了。

  • the sun wouldn't shine.

    陽光不會照耀。

  • Public executions.

    公開處決。

  • They were common, normal, legal.

    他們是普通的、正常的、合法的。

  • You used to take your kids to watch beheadings in the streets of Paris.

    你曾經帶著你的孩子去巴黎街頭看砍頭。

  • One of the greatest wrongs, slavery,

    最大的錯誤之一,奴隸制。

  • indentured servitude,

    契約奴役;

  • that was something that was practiced for millennia.

    那是幾千年來一直在實行的事情。

  • It was practiced across the Incas, the Mayas, the Chinese,

    它在印加人、瑪雅人、中國人中都有實行。

  • the Indians in North and South America.

    南北美洲的印第安人。

  • And as you're thinking about this,

    而當你在思考這個問題的時候。

  • one question is why did something so wrong last for so long?

    有一個問題是,為什麼如此錯誤的事情會持續這麼久?

  • And a second question is: why did it go away?

    而第二個問題是:為什麼會消失?

  • And why did it go away in a few short decades in legal terms?

    而在法律上,為什麼短短几十年就消失了呢?

  • Certainly there was a work

    當然,有一個工作

  • by extraordinary abolitionists who risked their lives,

    冒著生命危險的非凡的廢奴主義者。

  • but there may be something else happening alongside these brave abolitionists.

    但在這些勇敢的廢奴主義者身邊可能還發生了別的事情。

  • Consider energy and the industrial revolution.

    考慮能源和工業革命。

  • A single barrel of oil contains the energy equivalent

    一桶石油所含的能量相當於

  • of the work of five to 10 people.

    5至10人的工作的。

  • Add that to machines,

    加到機器上。

  • and suddenly you've got millions of people's equivalent labor

    忽然間你就有了幾百萬人的等價勞動。

  • at your disposal.

    在你的支配下。

  • You can quit oppressing people and have a doubling in lifespan

    你可以不壓迫別人,讓自己的壽命增加一倍。

  • after a flattened lifespan for millennia.

    經過千百年的扁平化壽命。

  • The world economy, which had been flat for millennia,

    世界經濟,已經平淡了幾千年。

  • all of a sudden explodes.

    突然爆發。

  • And you get enormous amounts of wealth and food and other things

    你會得到大量的財富和食物和其他東西。

  • produced by far fewer hands.

    由少得多的人手生產。

  • Technology changes the way we interact with each other in fundamental ways.

    技術從根本上改變了我們彼此之間的互動方式。

  • New technologies like the machine gun

    機槍等新技術

  • completely changed the nature of warfare in World War I.

    徹底改變了第一次世界大戰的戰爭性質。

  • It drove people into trenches.

    它把人們趕進了戰壕。

  • You were in the British trench, or you were in the German trench.

    你在英國戰壕裡,或者你在德國戰壕裡。

  • Anything in between was no man's land.

    中間的任何東西都是無人之境。

  • You entered no man's land.

    你進入了無人之境。

  • You were shot. You were killed.

    你被槍殺了你被殺了

  • You tried to leave the trench in the other direction.

    你想從另一個方向離開壕溝。

  • Then your own side would shoot you

    那你自己就會向你開槍

  • because you were a deserter.

    因為你是個逃兵。

  • In a weird way, today's machine guns are narrowcast social media.

    以一種奇怪的方式,如今的機槍是窄播社交媒體。

  • We're shooting at each other.

    我們在互相射擊。

  • We're shooting at those we think are wrong

    我們要向那些我們認為錯誤的人開槍。

  • with posts, with tweets, with photographs, with accusations, with comments.

    有帖子,有微博,有照片,有指責,有評論。

  • And what it's done is it's created these two trenches

    而它所做的是它創造了這兩個壕溝。

  • where you have to be either in this trench or that trench.

    在那裡,你必須在這個壕溝或那個壕溝。

  • And there's almost no middle ground to meet each other,

    而且幾乎沒有任何中間環節可以滿足對方。

  • to try and find some sort of a discussion between right and wrong.

    試圖找到某種討論是非的方式。

  • As you drive around the United States, you see signs on lawns.

    當你在美國開車時,你會看到草坪上的標誌。

  • Some say, "Black Lives Matter."

    有人說,"黑人生命重要"。

  • Others say, "We support the police."

    還有人說:"我們支持警察。"

  • You very rarely see both signs on the same lawn.

    你很少在同一片草坪上看到這兩種標誌。

  • And yet if you ask people,

    然而如果你問人家。

  • most people would probably support Black Lives Matter

    大多數人可能會支持黑人生命至上的原則

  • and they would also support their police.

    他們也會支持他們的警察。

  • So as you think of these polarized times,

    所以當你想到這個兩極分化的時代。

  • as you think of right and wrong,

    如同你認為的是非。

  • you have to understand that right and wrong changes

    你要明白,是非的變化

  • and is now changing in exponential ways.

    並且現在正以指數級的方式變化。

  • Take the issue of gay marriage.

    就拿同志婚姻問題來說吧。

  • In 1996, two-thirds of the US population was against gay marriage.

    1996年,美國有三分之二的人反對同志婚姻。

  • Today two-thirds is for.

    今天,三分之二是為了。

  • It's almost 180-degree shift in the opinion.

    這幾乎是180度的輿論轉變。

  • In part, this is because of protests,

    部分原因是抗議。

  • because people came out of the closet,

    因為人們走出櫃子。

  • because of AIDS,

    因為艾滋病。

  • but a great deal of it has to do with social media.

    但很大程度上與社交媒體有關。

  • A great deal of it has to do with people out in our homes,

    很大程度上與我們家裡的人外出有關。

  • in our living rooms, through television, through film, through posts,

    在我們的客廳裡,通過電視,通過電影,通過帖子。

  • through people being comfortable enough,

    通過人們足夠舒適。

  • our friends, our neighbors, our family,

    我們的朋友,我們的鄰居,我們的家人。

  • to say, "I'm gay."

    說:"我是同志。"

  • And this has shifted opinion

    而這也讓輿論發生了變化

  • even in some of the most conservative of places.

    甚至在一些最保守的地方。

  • Take the Pope.

    就拿教皇來說吧。

  • As Cardinal in 2010,

    2010年擔任紅衣主教。

  • he was completely against gay marriage.

    他完全反對同志婚姻。

  • He becomes Pope.

    他成為教皇。

  • And three years after the last sentence

    而在最後一句話之後的三年

  • he comes out with "Who am I to judge?"

    他說:"我有什麼資格判斷?"

  • And then today, he's in favor of civil unions.

    而今天,他又贊成民事結合。

  • As you're thinking about technology changing ethics,

    當你在思考技術改變倫理的時候。

  • you also have to consider that technology is now moving exponentially.

    你也要考慮到現在的科技發展是指數級的。

  • As right and wrong changes,

    隨著是非的變化。

  • if you take the position, "I know right.

    如果你採取的立場是:"我知道對。

  • And if you completely disagree with me, if you partially disagree with me,

    如果你完全不同意我的觀點,如果你部分不同意我的觀點。

  • if you even quibble with me, then you're wrong,"

    如果你連我都質疑,那你就錯了,"

  • then there's no discussion,

    那就沒得商量了。

  • no tolerance, no evolution, and certainly no learning.

    沒有寬容,沒有進化,當然也沒有學習。

  • Most of us are not vegetarians yet.

    我們大多數人還不是素食主義者。

  • Then again, we haven't had

    不過話說回來,我們還沒有

  • a whole lot of faster, better, cheaper alternatives to meat.

    一大堆更快、更好、更便宜的肉類替代品。

  • But now that we're getting synthetic meats,

    但現在我們得到了合成肉。

  • as the price drops from 380,000 dollars in 2013

    由於價格從2013年的38萬降到了38萬。

  • to 9 dollars today,

    到今天的9美元。

  • a great big chunk of people

    一大堆人

  • are going to start becoming vegetarian or quasi-vegetarian.

    要開始成為素食者或準素食者。

  • And then in retrospect, these pictures

    然後回想起來,這些照片

  • of walking into the fanciest, most expensive restaurants in town

    走進城裡最豪華、最昂貴的餐廳的感覺

  • and walking past racks of bloody steaks

    走過一排排血淋淋的牛排

  • is going to look very different in 10 years, in 20 years and 30 years.

    10年後、20年後和30年後的樣子會大不相同。

  • In these polarized times,

    在這個兩極分化的時代。

  • I'd like to revive two words you rarely hear today:

    我想重提兩個今天很少聽到的詞。

  • humility and forgiveness.

    謙虛和寬恕。

  • When you judge the past, your ancestors, your forefathers,

    當你判斷過去,你的祖先,你的先人。

  • do so with a little bit more humility,

    謙虛一點。

  • because perhaps if you'd been educated in that time,

    因為如果你在那個時候接受過教育,也許。

  • if you'd lived in that time,

    如果你生活在那個時候。

  • you would've done a lot of things wrong.

    你會做了很多事情的錯誤。

  • Not because they're right.

    不是因為他們是對的。

  • Not because we don't see they're wrong today,

    不是因為我們今天沒看到他們錯了。

  • but simply because our notions,

    但只是因為我們的觀念。

  • our understanding of right and wrong change across time.

    我們對是非的理解會隨著時間的推移而改變。

  • The second word, forgiveness.

    第二個詞,寬恕。

  • Forgiveness is incredibly important these days.

    現在,寬恕是非常重要的。

  • You cannot cancel somebody for saying the wrong word,

    你不能因為說錯一個字就取消某人的資格。

  • for having done something 10 years ago,

    因為10年前做了一件事。

  • for having triggered you and not being a hundred percent right.

    因為觸發了你,而不是百分之百的正確。

  • To build a community, you have to build it and talk to people

    要想建立一個社區,就必須建立社區,並與人交談。

  • and learn from people

    博採眾長

  • who may have very different points of view from yours.

    誰可能有非常不同的觀點與你。

  • You have to allow them a space

    你要給他們一個空間

  • instead of creating a no man's land.

    而不是創造一個無人區。

  • A middle ground, a ??? and a space of empathy.

    一箇中間地帶,一個?"? "和一個共鳴的空間。

  • This is a time to build community.

    這是一個建立社區的時代。

  • This is not a time to continue ripping nations apart.

    現在不是繼續撕裂國家的時候。

  • Thank you very much.

    非常感謝你。

In an era of extreme polarization,

在一個極度分化的時代。

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