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  • Yup, it's that time again,

    是啊,又到了這個時候。

  • the International Space Station is in need of fresh cargo and experiments.

    國際空間站需要新的貨物和實驗。

  • Northrop Grumman's Antares rocket is getting ready to launch CRS-15

    諾斯羅普-格魯曼公司的 "安塔瑞斯 "火箭正準備發射CRS-15火箭

  • and there are some game changing experiments

    還有一些改變遊戲規則的實驗

  • that will help us further our knowledge of how humans can adapt to long term space travel;

    這將幫助我們進一步瞭解人類如何適應長期太空旅行。

  • from material testing, muscle atrophy in worms,

    從材料測試、蠕蟲的肌肉萎縮。

  • and even grape juice fermentation...and no, it's not exactly wine.

    甚至葡萄汁發酵......不,這不完全是葡萄酒。

  • Northop Grumman is a longtime favorite as far as NASA resupply missions go.

    就NASA再補給任務而言,Northop Grumman是長期以來的寵兒。

  • The company has been supplying its Antares rockets since the early 2010's and will continue to do so until at least 2023.

    該公司從2010年初就開始供應安塔瑞斯火箭,並將繼續供應至少到2023年。

  • This is mostly because this low cost, two stage, middle class rocket is reliable as heck.

    這主要是因為這種低成本、兩級、中檔的火箭可靠得不得了。

  • And in the last two years installed two newly built RD-181 engines to the first stage of its rocket.

    並在過去兩年中為其火箭的第一級安裝了兩臺新造的RD-181發動機。

  • Its latest payload capacity is now 8,000 kg,

    目前其最新有效載荷能力為8000公斤。

  • helping to get to Low Earth Orbit with ease.

    幫助輕鬆進入低地球軌道。

  • And the cargo capsule?

    那貨艙呢?

  • Well, Antares is rarely ever seen nowadays without the Cygnus spacecraft.

    好吧,安塔瑞斯現在很少看到沒有天鵝座飛船的情況。

  • This is because it's another reliable craft that already delivered more than

    這是因為它是另一種可靠的手藝,已經交付了超過。

  • 30,000 kg of critical cargo to the ISS during its first contract missions.

    在第一批合同任務期間,向國際空間站運送30,000公斤關鍵貨物。

  • And its first launch of this year is NG-15,

    而其今年的首發是NG-15。

  • and the capsule this time around is named after mathematician Katherine Johnson,

    而這次的太空艙是以數學家凱瑟琳-約翰遜的名字命名的。

  • who played a critical role during the early days of human space flight.

    在載人航天飛行早期發揮了關鍵作用的人。

  • The mission will be carrying a load more of exciting experiments.

    這次任務將攜帶更多的精彩實驗。

  • Starting with an oldie, but a goodie.

    從一個老古董開始,但卻是個好東西。

  • Back in 2018, the Materials International Space Station Experiment - Flight Facility,

    早在2018年,材料國際空間站實驗-飛行設施。

  • also known as MISSE-FF,

    又稱MISSE-FF。

  • was permanently installed outside of the station.

    永久性地安裝在車站外。

  • It doesn't do much, just stands still in different directions for periods of time,

    它的作用不大,只是在不同的方向靜止一段時間。

  • but is probably one of the most vital ongoing experiments aboard the ISS,

    但可能是國際空間站上正在進行的最重要的實驗之一。

  • and that's because it tests various materials for the harsh environment of space.

    那是因為它要測試各種材料的太空惡劣環境。

  • We're talking literally any kind of material from paints to solar cells.

    我們說的是從油漆到太陽能電池的任何材料。

  • MISSE-FF is actually part of a longer MISSE series,

    MISSE-FF實際上是一個較長的MISSE系列的一部分。

  • starting back in 2001 and to date, it's tested more than 4,000 kinds of materials.

    早在2001年開始,至今已測試了4000多種材料。

  • Some of which have helped push our understanding of our solar panels.

    其中一些有助於推動我們對太陽能電池板的認識。

  • And now they're sending up phosphor powders and composites that are used for rapid temperature measurement from 0 degrees celsius to 1,200 degrees celsius.

    而現在他們送上來的熒光粉和複合材料,用於從0攝氏度到1200攝氏度的快速測溫。

  • Results from this experiment can inform scientists on if phosphor composites can be used in petroleum, healthcare, and aerospace industries.

    這個實驗的結果可以為科學家們提供資訊,說明熒光粉複合材料是否可以用於石油、醫療和航空航天行業。

  • Ultimately, though researchers want more than materials to last in space,

    最終,雖然研究人員希望在太空中持續的不僅僅是材料。

  • we want humans up there too.

    我們希望人類也能在上面。

  • But muscle atrophy is one of the leading challenges of long-term space duration.

    但肌肉萎縮是長期空間持續時間的主要挑戰之一。

  • So to understand how our muscles degrade in space,

    所以要了解我們的肌肉在太空中是如何退化的。

  • we're sending up some worms with our astronauts in a special device known as the NemaFlex.

    我們要和太空人一起把一些蟲子送上去... ...裝在一個叫NemaFlex的特殊裝置裡。

  • [Dr. Siva Vanapallo] "So in terms of the animal, it's it's really small."

    [西瓦-瓦納帕羅博士]"所以,就動物而言,它是... ...它真的很小。"

  • "And if you want to measure how strong it is,"

    "如果你想衡量它的實力如何"。

  • "you need to really figure out a way to measure all the forces, which this worm is exerting."

    "你需要真正找出一種方法來測量所有的力量, 這條蟲子正在施加。"

  • "So our lab and students have built this device,"

    "所以我們的實驗室和學生們已經造出了這個裝置"。

  • "which essentially has an array of soft colors,"

    "它本質上有一系列柔和的顏色,"

  • "and the worm as it cross to these array of this of these pillars,"

    "和蟲子,因為它穿越到這些柱子的這些陣列,"

  • "we can record pictures of how much of the deflection,"

    "我們可以記錄圖片多少的偏移,"

  • "which is happening, sends the result."

    "正在發生的,發送結果。"

  • It's important to note that this isn't just any old worm either.

    需要注意的是,這也不是普通的蟲子。

  • They're nematodes known as C. Elegans

    它們是一種線蟲,叫C. Elegans。

  • and they are a cost effective model organism

    而且它們是一種成本效益高的模式生物

  • to test on because they're not only flight proven,

    來測試,因為它們不僅經過飛行驗證。

  • but they're the first animal to have their entire genome sequenced.

    但他們是第一個動物 有他們的整個基因組測序。

  • Meaning researchers can see changes in their system pretty easily.

    意味著研究人員可以很容易地看到他們系統的變化。

  • One of which is the expression of key muscle genes being reduced while the worms are in spaceflight.

    其中之一是在蠕蟲在太空飛行時,關鍵肌肉基因的表達量減少。

  • With NemaFlex, researchers can now see if that decreased expression is related to the strength

    通過NemaFlex,研究人員現在可以看到這種表達量的減少是否與強度有關。

  • the worms push out while they're going through the device.

    蟲子在通過設備的時候會被推出去。

  • And what's more? They can reproduce quickly and scientists will be able to see if this gene passed on to other generations.

    還有呢?它們可以快速繁殖,科學家們將能夠看到這種基因是否會傳遞給其他世代。

  • [Dr. Siva Vanapallo] "So as a result, if we do observe that our device is able to record these changes in strength,"

    [Siva Vanapallo博士]"是以,如果我們觀察到我們的設備能夠記錄這些強度的變化,"

  • "then it opens up tremendous opportunities in conducting experiments on different drugs"

    "那麼它就為進行不同藥物的實驗提供了巨大的機會"

  • "and figuring out how to maintain and improve the health of astronauts."

    "並找出如何維護和改善太空人的健康。"

  • - And scientists are not only worried about how our bodies would fare in space,

    - 而科學家們不僅擔心我們的身體在太空中的表現。

  • but also how long food would last.

    但同時也是食物能持續多久。

  • And a team in collaboration between Michael David Winery and Common Sense Solutions

    而邁克爾-戴維酒莊和常識解決方案公司合作的一個團隊

  • are talking about grape juice... that will sort of be made into wine.

    說的是葡萄汁... 將會被釀成葡萄酒。

  • [Jeff Farthing] "We're not really looking at it as making wine."

    [傑夫-法辛]"我們並沒有把它看成是在釀酒。"

  • "In essence, we will be making wine out there"

    "本質上,我們將在外面做酒"

  • "and we're going to end up with an alcoholic beverage on our hands."

    "而我們最終將與酒精飲料在我們的手中。"

  • "It's not going to be anything that's going to be pleasant,"

    "這不會是什麼讓人愉快的事情"。

  • "but it's going to be a better piece of the puzzle to do it this way,"

    "但這樣做會是更好的一塊拼圖,"

  • "to present to other scientists who are going to be looking at how food would be managed in outer space."

    "向其他將研究如何在外太空管理食物的科學家介紹。"

  • - Although it seems like grape juice isn't the top of everyone's nutrition list, it's a good case study for more crops.

    - 雖然看起來葡萄汁並不是每個人的營養榜首,但對於更多的農作物來說,它是一個很好的案例。

  • The ISS team will be monitoring the fermentation process of the juice

    ISS小組將監測果汁的發酵過程。

  • to understand how microbiota will act in microgravity.

    以瞭解微生物群在微重力下的作用。

  • Microbes can determine lots of variables when it comes to fruit like their size, shape, flavor, and even yield.

    在水果方面,微生物可以決定很多變量,比如水果的大小、形狀、味道,甚至產量。

  • [Jeff Farthing] - "Microbiota would just be really any microbe that's out there,"

    [Jeff Farthing]--"微生物群只是真的 任何微生物的存在,"

  • "meaning bacteria or yeast."

    "意思是細菌或酵母。"

  • "Those are the two main players in what is going to break down food."

    "這是要分解食物的兩個主要角色。"

  • "It's already been studied many, many times."

    "已經研究過很多很多次了。"

  • "We know what's happening on earth."

    "我們知道地球上發生了什麼。"

  • "It's what's going to happen up in space, that's what's going to be interesting."

    "在太空中會發生什麼,那才是最有趣的。"

  • - So, how do they plan to do it?

    - 那麼,他們打算怎麼做呢?

  • [Jeff Farthing] - "So we're going to make little micro fermentations."

    "所以我們要做一些小的微發酵。"

  • "This is what we're doing it in. This is an IV bag"

    "這就是我們要做的。"這是一個靜脈注射袋"

  • "that's already approved for NASA."

    "這已經被準許為美國宇航局。"

  • "We're going to put about 200 milliliters in here, very small,"

    "我們要在這裡放200毫升左右,非常小"。

  • "and then we're going to let the fermentation happen naturally."

    "然後我們要讓發酵自然發生。"

  • - And throughout 15 days, several samples will be taken, and placed in a freezer

    - 而在整個15天內,將採集若干樣本,並將其放入冷凍室中

  • until the samples are ready to return to Earth for analysis.

    直到樣品可以返回地球進行分析。

  • Now, this is just a taste of the countless experiments astronauts are up to in the floating lab we call the ISS.

    現在,這只是太空人在我們稱之為國際空間站的浮動實驗室裡進行的無數實驗的一個嘗試。

  • And this latest launch is expected to head up there in mid to late February 2021.

    而這次最新的發佈會預計將在2021年2月中下旬前往那裡。

  • And it's always exciting, no matter how big or small.

    而無論大小,總是令人興奮的。

  • Each experiment gets us closer to better understanding ourselves, our world, and the space we may one day live in.

    每一次實驗都會讓我們更接近於更好地瞭解自己,瞭解我們的世界,以及我們有一天可能生活的空間。

  • Space isn't just for astronauts.

    太空不僅僅是太空人的天下。

  • If you've ever wanted to send an experiment to the ISS now may be your chance.

    如果你曾經想把實驗送到國際空間站,現在可能是你的機會。

  • The Center for the Advancement of Science in Space, or CASIS,

    空間科學促進中心,即CASIS;

  • has officially announced they're looking for concept submissions by February 25, 2021,

    已經正式宣佈他們在2021年2月25日之前徵集概念稿。

  • and these can be anything like translational medicine

    而這些可以是任何東西,如轉化醫學

  • and technology demonstrations.

    和技術展示。

  • Don't miss out and don't forget to subscribe to Seeker for all your space news.

    不要錯過,別忘了訂閱《探索者》,瞭解所有的空間新聞。

  • Thank you so much for watching.

    謝謝你的觀看。

Yup, it's that time again,

是啊,又到了這個時候。

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為什麼國際空間站將接受蟲子和葡萄汁的實驗? (Why the ISS Will Be Receiving Experiments With Worms and Grape Juice)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 19 日
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