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  • For as long as we've had language, some people have tried to control it.

    從人類擁有語言以來,有些人便開始試著要完全控制它。

  • And some of the most frequent targets of this communication regulation are the ums, ers, and likes that pepper our conversations.

    而最常被當溝通時矯正的標靶之一,便是出現在對話中的「嗯」、「呃」、「那個」之類的詞。

  • Ancient Greek and Latin texts warned against speaking with hesitation, modern schools have tried to ban the offending terms, and renowned linguist Noam Chomsky dismissed these expressions as "errors" irrelevant to language.

    古希臘和拉丁文的文本中警告人們,不要猶豫不決地說話。但現代學校嘗試著禁用這樣具有冒犯性的說法,而著名語言學家 Noam Chomsky 則認為這些用詞並不是與語言無關的「錯誤」。

  • Historically, these speech components had been lumped into the broader bucket of "disfluencies" —linguistic fillers which distract from useful speech.

    綜觀歷史,這些口語詞彙常被歸納為更廣泛的「不流暢用語」:也就是混淆在實際表達意義的口語中,在言語上的填充用字。

  • However, none of this controversy has made these so-called disfluencies less common.

    然而,這些爭議都沒有讓這些所謂的「不流暢」消失不見。

  • They continue to occur roughly 2 to 3 times per minute in natural speech.

    在自然談話中,它們仍每分鐘大約出現 2 至 3 次。

  • And different versions of them can be found in almost every language, including sign language.

    而幾乎每一種語言都能找到不同的版本,其中甚至包括了手語。

  • So are ums and uhs just a habit we can't break?

    那麼,難道「嗯」和「呃」只是種我們無法擺脫的習慣嗎?

  • Or is there more to them than meets the ear?

    還是說,它們其實蘊藏著更多不為人知的祕密?

  • To answer this question, it helps to compare these speech components to other words we use in everyday life.

    要回答這個問題,我們可以先將這些口語用詞,與我們日常生活中使用的其他詞彙相比較。

  • While a written word might have multiple definitions, we can usually determine its intended meaning through context.

    雖然一個書面詞彙可能有多種不同定義,但我們通常可以從上下文來判斷其本意。

  • In speech however, a word can take on additional layers of meaning.

    然而在口語表達中,一個詞可能幫含了更多層次的涵義。

  • Tone of voice, the relationship between speakers, and expectations of where a conversation will go can imbue even words that seem like filler with vital information.

    語氣、對話者之間的關係,以及對談話內容走向的期望,會讓即使看起來僅像填充字的詞語,也能潛藏著重要的資訊。

  • This is where "um" and "uh" come in.

    這就是「嗯」和 「呃」的作用。

  • Or "eh" and "ehm," "tutoa" and "öö," "eto" and "ano."

    或者 "eh "和 "ehm"、"tutoa "和 "öö"、"eto "和 "ano"。

  • Linguists call these filled pauses, which are a kind of hesitation phenomenon.

    語言學家稱這些為填補停頓詞,這是一種遲疑現象。

  • And these seemingly insignificant interruptions are actually quite meaningful in spoken communication.

    而這些看似微不足道的中段,其實在口語交流中帶有許多意涵。

  • For example, while a silent pause might be interpreted as a sign for others to start speaking, a filled pause can signal that you're not finished yet.

    舉例來說,雖然無聲的停頓可能被解釋為示意他人開始發言,但填補停頓詞則可以表明你還沒有說完話。

  • Hesitation phenomena can buy time for your speech to catch up with your thoughts, or to fish out the right word for a situation.

    遲疑現象可以為你的發言爭取時間,讓你的思路跟上,或找到合適的詞來形容某種情況。

  • And they don't just benefit the speaker— a filled pause lets your listeners know an important word is on the way.

    而且它們不僅有利於演講者而已。填補停頓詞能讓你的聽眾知道,你的下一句話將會是重點。

  • Linguists have even found that people are more likely to remember a word if it comes after a hesitation.

    語言學家甚至發現,人們更容易以記住緊跟在遲疑之後的一個單詞。

  • Hesitation phenomena aren't the only parts of speech that take on new meaning during dialogue.

    遲疑現象並不是語言中唯一會在對話中產生新意義的部分。

  • Words and phrases such as "like," "well" or "you know" function as discourse markers, ignoring their literal meaning to convey something about the sentence in which they appear.

    「像是」、「這個嘛」或「你知道」等字詞和短語的功能為「言談標記」,忽略了字詞的實際意義,並表達對於該句子的的特定意涵。

  • Discourse markers direct the flow of conversation, and some studies suggest that conscientious speakers use more of these phrases to ensure everyone is being heard and understood.

    言談標記能引導談話的流向,而一些研究表明,有同理心的演講者多會使用這些短語,以確保每個人的意見都能被聽到和理解。

  • For example, starting a sentence withLook...” can indicate your attitude and help you gauge the listener's agreement.

    舉例來說,用「看...」來開始一句話可以表明你的態度,並幫助你衡量聽眾對你言論的認同感。

  • “I meancan signal that you're about to elaborate on something.

    「我是說」可以表示你要闡述某件事情。

  • And the dreadedlikecan perform many functions, such as establishing a loose connection between thoughts, or introducing someone else's words or actions.

    而可怕的「像是 (like)」可以實現很多功能,如建立想法之間的鬆散聯繫,或引導到別人的言行。

  • These markers give people a real-time view into your thought process and help listeners follow, interpret, and predict what you're trying to say.

    這些標記可以讓人們即時地瞭解你的思維過程,並幫助聽眾跟隨、解釋和預測你想說的內容。

  • Discourse markers and hesitation phenomena aren't just useful for understanding languagethey help us learn it too.

    言談標記與遲疑現象不僅僅對語言的理解上有幫助,它們還能在語言的學習上有所助益。

  • In 2011, a study showed toddlers common and uncommon objects alongside a recording referring to one of the items.

    一項在 2011 年進行研究將幼兒常見的和不常見的物品展示給他們看,並在旁邊播放提及其中一個物品的錄音。

  • When a later recording asked them to identify the uncommon object, toddlers performed better if that instruction contained a filled pause.

    當之後的錄音要求他們辨認不常見的物品時,若是之前的錄音中包含了填補停頓詞,幼兒的表現會更好。

  • This may mean that filled pauses cue toddlers to expect novel words, and help them connect new words to new objects.

    這可能意味著填補停頓詞提示了幼兒接下來的字詞較新,幫助他們將新詞與新物品聯繫起來。

  • For adolescents and adults learning a second language, filled pauses smooth out awkward early conversations.

    針對學習第二語言的青少年和成年人來說,填補停頓詞能夠和緩語言學習早期的尷尬的對話。

  • And once they're more confident, the second-language learner can signal their newfound fluency by using the appropriate hesitation phenomenon.

    在一旦他們變得更加自信後,第二語言學習者便能使用適當的遲疑現象來表現他們對語言掌握的流利程度。

  • Because, contrary to popular belief, the use of filled pauses doesn't decrease with mastery of a language.

    這是因為,與一般大眾以為的相反,實際上對填補停頓詞的使用並不會隨著對語言的熟練而減少。

  • Just because hesitation phenomena and discourse markers are a natural part of communication doesn't mean they're always appropriate.

    盡管遲疑現象與言談標記是溝通中自然的一環,但這並不代表這樣的習慣適合每一種場合。

  • Outside of writing dialogue, they serve no purpose in most formal writing.

    在抄寫對話之外,它們在大多數的正式寫作中沒有任何作用。

  • And in some contexts, the stigma these social cues carry can work against the speaker.

    而在某些情況下,因為這樣做而引發的社會責難與恥辱可能會對發言者有負面影響。

  • But in most conversations, these seemingly senseless sounds can convey a world of meaning.

    但在大多數對話中,這些看似毫無意義的聲音卻隱含著五彩繽紛的意涵。

  • You're never too young to start honing your skill as a speaker.

    要訓練自己成為演說家的技能永遠不嫌早。

  • Get started with TEDEd Student Talks, a program connecting young people around the world through the power of spoken word.

    你可以從加入 TEDEd Student Talks 開始。這是一個藉由演說的力量來連接全球各地學生的計畫。

  • Visit ed.ted.com/studenttalks, because every one has an idea worth sharing.

    立即前往 ed.ted.com/studenttalks。每個人都有值得分享的點子。

For as long as we've had language, some people have tried to control it.

從人類擁有語言以來,有些人便開始試著要完全控制它。

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 語言 現象 標記 語音 話語

為什麼我們說話的時候會猶豫不決?- Lorenzo García-Amaya (Why do we, like, hesitate when we, um, speak? - Lorenzo García-Amaya)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 09 月 12 日
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