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  • So I'm standing here with Chris Niezgoda who is the collections manager of flowering plants in botany


  • and we're going on a tour of the economic botanical collection.


  • - Economic botany is the use of plants by people. So whether they eat them, whether they use them medicinally, whether they make hats out of them.


  • We have boxes, we have glass jars, we have liquids, so it's a challenge to store them and that's why a lot of museums and institutions don't.


  • As you can see when we open these drawers, these are nice, new boxes, because for many years after they were off-exhibit


  • they were just in bottoms of cases, exhibit cases or in closets. - Oh, wow.

    它們本來在箱子底、展示箱裡或甚至櫃子裡。 - 噢,哇。

  • - Kodak boxes, old shoe boxes, which makes my heart stop because our aim is to preserve everything.


  • - A box like this costs about $5-$10. - Per box? For 12,000 artifacts. - Per box. Wherea- Right. And a box like this costs under a dollar.

    像這樣一個盒子大約要五到十美元。 - 每個盒子?一共有一萬兩千件文物欸。 每個盒子。沒錯。而像這種盒子花不到一美金。

  • - You have Valerian root. - Yeah. - Valerian root from 1907.

    你們有纈草耶。 - 對呀。 1907年的纈草。

  • - Yes! This is from 1907. It was used as a stimulant tonic in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, etc., etc.


  • - Kalaa wood, and this is from SiamThailand. It's said to possess property of curing snake bites, and is [used] by native jugglers as a snake charm.


  • So, you attract the snakes, get bitten by them, and then use it to cure your snake bite, I guess. - Well, now I know, when I'm juggling snakes...

    所以咧,你撥弄那些蛇,你被蛇咬,你再用它來治蛇咬...我猜啦。 - 這個嘛,現在我知道如果我在弄蛇的話...

  • - We have collections of teas! I mean how much more botanical can you get? - Tea! Oh! Old tea! Yeah.

    我們有茶葉庫藏品噢!我是指,沒有比這個更「素」的吧? - 茶!哦!古老的茶!對呀。

  • - This is one of my favorites, just the box. - That's a nice box.

    這是我最喜歡的之一,就只是因為盒子。 - 那盒子不錯哦。

  • - This one's from Spain, this one's from Paraguay, another one from Paraguay... - And these are just spices and herbs and other byproducts, and is that parsley?

    這個是西班牙來的,這個是巴拉圭來的,這也是巴拉圭來的... - 這些是香料和草藥以及副產品,那個是荷蘭芹嗎?

  • - From Germany. And why we have parsley from Germany, whether someone sent it to us, whether Millspaugh [first curator of botany] asked for parsley from Germany


  • - Who knows? - I'm sure every jar has a story. - Yeah.

    - 誰知道呢? 我想每個罐子都藏個故事。 - 對呀。

  • - Here's a finished product. It's under plastic, but isn't that beautiful? - Wow. Yeah, is that a rug of some sort?

    這裡有個完成品。包在塑膠套裡,是不是很漂亮呀? - 哇,對呀。那是地毯還是什麼?

  • - It's—yeah, it's like a doormat— - Yeah, yeah. - and it's made of pine fibers from Georgia.

    它是...對呀,它是種門墊... - 對呀,對呀。 而它是用喬治亞州的松樹纖維做成的。

  • We have a lot of pine material from Georgia. They have lots of pines down there; it's a big pine growing area.


  • - Oh, neat! - Isn't that pretty? - Yeah!

    - 哦,好精緻! 是不是很漂亮? - 對呀!

  • - And these are all fibers, and this one came from the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, so this is from 1904, so again,


  • something over 100 years old but in great shape. - Yeah, it looksit's beautiful.

    百年骨董,但是狀況還很良好。 - 對呀,它看起來...它好漂亮噢。

  • - A trunk of a date palm. - I was looking for my date palm trunk!

    一截海棗樹幹。 - 我正在找我的海棗樹幹耶!

  • - Right, and here we had a Stanley Field expedition. They were in British Guiana, which is now Guyana, and brought back a date palm.


  • - Woah. Now you know. - 'Cause date palms are very important in the food industry, so..

    - 哇。現在知道了。 因為海棗在食品工業非常重要,所以...

  • - That makes sense. What is this? - This is the part of the palm that has the flowers initially, and fruits would be attached to it.

    - 這有道理耶。這是啥? 這是海棗樹原來開花的部位,花落之後果子就連在上面。

  • - Okay, so it naturally looks like this? - Yeah, so it's thewith flowers it's called an inflorescence. When you have fruits attached to it it's called an infructescence.

    - 好吧,所以這是它原來的樣子? 對呀,所以它是...如果花還在上面就叫做花序。當果子還連在上面就叫做果序。

  • Looks like I could wear it as a hair extension. - Yeah!

    看來好像我可以拿來接髮。 - 對呀!嘻嘻嘻

  • We have musical instruments. - I've played one of those in music class. - Oh really? Okay.

    我們也有樂器。 - 我上音樂課有玩過哦。 哦真的嗎?好吧。

  • - Maybe you should come up and play. We can have a concert. - Yeah! Let's have a gourd concert. That'd be fun.

    也許你有空該過來玩一下。我們可以辦個音樂會。 - 耶!咱們辦個葫蘆音樂會。肯定有趣。

  • - So these are all part of the same set. Gourds are very important in economic botany. You can see they make canisters out of them.


  • - Hats! I love the hats! - Here are the hats. I love the hats, too.

    - 帽子!我喜歡帽子! 這些是帽子。我也喜歡帽子。

  • - They're beautiful. - Can you see someone wearing that?

    - 它們好漂亮! 你可以想像某人戴著它的樣子嗎?

  • - It has flowers that are carved out of plant parts. It's gorgeous. I would wear that. I can't even believe how they make, like, this lace out of the bark, too.


  • - All these beautiful weaving techniquesjust think, someone trying to get all of that.


  • - Do you know what it's made out of? - Yeah, this is the double coconut. - Okay.

    - 你知道它是什麼做的嗎? 知道啊,這是海椰子做的。 - 好吧。

  • - The double coconut is... - Yeah... - Have you seen that?

    海椰子是... - 對呀。 你看過嗎?

  • - Yeah, I have. - We have one.

    - 有啊,看過。 我們那裏有一個。

  • - This is a model to show you what the inside of a double coconut is, but the double coconut only grows in the Seychelles islands, off of India.


  • Now they don't allow any exportation of it 'cause it's been lost on some of the islands just because of overuse.


  • And it takes a long time for these things to germinate, but... - Yeah, I mean, that's a huge seed. Is that a seedconsidered a seed?

    而且它要發芽得花很長的時間... - 對呀,瞧這種子有多大啊。這是種子...這算是種子嗎?

  • - That's the seed. That's the largest seed in the world. - Wow. Really? - And that's the finished

    是種子。全世界最大的。 - 哇。真的嗎? 而這是完成的...

  • - Do you need a hand? - This is it before itall the fibers are taken off of it.

    - 要不要我幫忙? 這是在之前...在纖維被取下來之前的樣子。

  • - Wow. That is huge! - So this is a pretty big fruit. So you can imagine how big a tree you need to have a fruit this big.

    - 哇。好大一顆! 這算是很大一顆果實了。你可以想像要長出這麼大的果實,那棵樹會有多大。

  • - Yeah. That's massive. - Yeah.

    - 對呀。巨大無比。 對呀。

  • - Do you need a hand getting it back up there? - Probably.

    - 你需不需要我幫你抬回去? 大概要。

  • - We have a magic broom. Okay? People have to come up with ways to sweep their houses, and you know, why not use something in nature?


  • This one is from 1912. So, 100 years old. - Wow.

    這是1912年的。所以有百年歷史了。 - 哇。

  • - This is made out of corn husks. It's a little doll. - It's cute! I like how he has a mustache.

    這個是用玉米殼做的小洋娃娃。 - 它好可愛噢!我喜歡他長鬍子的樣子。

  • - Oh, here's the ukulele. - Oh wow! - Yeah, remember you were talking about your musical band? Well...

    哦,這個是四絃琴。 - 噢哇。 對呀,還記得你提到過你的樂團嗎?這個嘛...

  • - Here's the ukulele. - It's beautiful. - And it's from koa wood, which is used for ukuleles.

    這就是四絃琴。 - 它好漂亮。 它是用洋槐木做的,做四絃琴最好了。

  • It's from Hawaii, and it's from 1928. - Oh, it's beautiful.

    它是夏威夷來的,1928年。 - 噢,它真漂亮。

  • And shoes! - And shoes! The shoes, um...

    還有鞋子! - 還有鞋子!這些鞋子,嗯...

  • - Botanical shoes! Wow. - Botanical shoes. You can imagine...

    - 木屐!哇! 木屐。你可以想像...

  • - Sandals! - ...sandals that look very much like sandals that are worn today.

    - 涼鞋! 涼鞋...看來跟現在我們穿的涼鞋很像。

  • Let me just take the... - They don't have a lot of arch support, but, you know.

    讓我去拿... - 它們看來沒有很好的足弓支撐...但是,還好啦。

  • - No, but, you know, you're walking around, you need something to protect your feet, and these were from...


  • Venezuela. - A palm.

    委內瑞拉。 - 棕櫚樹。

  • - Oh, and these are some of my favorite things, just because they're so beautiful. These are wooden shoe forms.


  • - Oh! Wow. - Look at that. Isn't that gorgeous? They would use forms like this to shape the leather and make shoes.

    - 噢!哇! 你看看!是不是很華麗啊?他們用這種鞋楦子為皮革塑形並做成鞋子。

  • Here we have arrows with points made of a legume wood. This is from the New Hebrides [modern day Vanuatu], 1906. Yeah, I wouldn't want to be shot by one of these.


  • - Wow! - Isn't this beautiful? - Yeah, what is that?

    - 哇! 是不是很漂亮? - 對呀,那是什麼?

  • - This is just a resin that they've shaped into a spiral form, you know, similaryou could think of it as a snail or some kind of invertebrate.


  • - Wow, fossil gum... - Yeah, again, 100 years old.

    - 哇,變成化石的樹膠... 對呀,又一個百年骨董。

  • - Wow, it's beautiful. - This is from north Guinea, in Africa. Isn't that gorgeous? - Yeah, it's beautiful.

    - 哇,它好漂亮。 這是從非洲幾內亞北部來的。是不是很華麗啊? - 對呀,它好漂亮。

  • - Same type of resin, but now fashioned into... - ...a little sculpture. Wow. - A little sculpture. From New Zealand.

    同一種樹脂,但是現在塑成... - 一個小雕像。哇。 一個小雕像。紐西蘭來的。

  • - What can you learn from a resin? - Well resins are used in paints and varnishes, and decorative objects of fossilized resinamber jewelry.

    - 從樹脂你可以學到什麼? 這個嘛,樹脂可用於油漆和透明漆,變成化石的樹脂(琥珀)還可以做成珠寶。

  • - So then if you had this collection you'd be able to maybe take some information from it, take a sample, and then be able to...

    - 所以如果你有這些庫藏品你就能取得資訊,取得採樣,然後就能...

  • - ...see the chemical composition and see why this Trachelobium is different from a Hymenea


  • which is different from a resin that would come from, like the Myrtaceae family, see what compositions they have.


  • - Oh, there are the toolsthe rubber-tapping tools. So you can see that they would score the tree with this instrument and then...


  • there were these little tin cups that they would collect the rubber in. - Oh, okay.

    用這些小錫杯來收集橡膠。 - 哦,好吧。

  • - And here we have the bark. You can see how they scored the bark for the rubber to run, for the sap to run, and then collect it.


  • - Little bundle of rubber here. There you go. - There you go. There you have it.

    這是一小團橡膠。這就是了。 - 這就是了。就是這個。

  • - Down here is ourwe try to keep all the liquids together. - Yeah, wow.

    在這邊是我們的...我們試著把所有的液體放在一起。 - 對呀,哇。

  • - But this is a... great collection. - This is an interesting collection.

    這是組...很棒的庫藏品。 - 這是組有意思的庫藏品。

  • - We tryobviously on theseto keep everything in the original containers. They have to remain upright because we don't want it really...


  • - We don't want them leaking! - ...leaking, and we don't want to... - We don't want them to evaporate.

    - 我們不想有東西漏出來! ...有任何滲漏,我們也不想... - 我們不想它們揮發掉。

  • - ...replace the corks or evapora— I mean, it is gonna evaporate 'cause cork is porous, but we try the best way possible to keep them upright so we designed these little trays.


  • More things in bigger jars. We have lots of olive oils: 1893, Spain- We've got olives, we want to sell olives.


  • - But you are slowly losing all of the liquid. Is there anything to do to stop that, or what are you gonna do in another hundred years when it's all gone?


  • - Somebody else's problem in a hundred years. - You'll be retired by then. - I'll be retired by then, yes, yes.

    那是一百多年後別人的問題了。 - 那時你早就退休了。 那時我早就退休了,沒錯,沒錯。

  • - You can do everything, literally everything that you can possibly think of to preserve these collections and yet you can't stop something from evaporating. - Right.

    - 你可以盡你一切能力、所有想得到的辦法去保存這些庫藏品,但你就是沒辦法阻止揮發。 對。

  • - So somebody at home should invent a way to prevent these liquids from evaporating. That's your homework.


So I'm standing here with Chris Niezgoda who is the collections manager of flowering plants in botany



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B1 中級 中文 漂亮 盒子 帽子 罐子 樹皮 鞋子

《經濟植物學集》 (The Economic Botanical Collection)

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    Hhart Budha 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日