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  • - I'm here with Philipp Heck, who is the Robert A. Pritzker, Associate Curator of MeteachsadfaaMeteoraww shoot...

    在我身邊的是菲利浦‧赫克,他是羅伯‧A‧普立茲克館副館長,負責隕俗...隕...噢,該死的...

  • - The Robert A. Pritzker, Associate Curator for Meteoritics and Polar Studies.

    羅伯‧A‧普立茲克館副館長,負責隕石學與極地研究。

  • - There. - I practiced this many times.

    沒錯。 - 我練習過很多次了。

  • - Yeah. Today we're going to talk about the age of the solar system.

    對呀,嘻嘻嘻嘻。今天我們要談的是太陽系的年齡。

  • -These large, white, aluminum ridge inclusions that you can see here, these are the oldest minerals that formed in the solar system,

    你所看到的這些大顆白色的鋁化合物雜質,它們是太陽系裡所組成的最古老的礦物,

  • and they can be dated, and it' basically the start of the solar system. We call it T-0, time 0. It's 4.567 billion years.

    而且能夠判定其年代大約是在太陽系一開始就有的。我們把它叫做 T-0,時間零點,也就是四十五億六千七百萬年前。

  • It's an easy number to remember. 4.567 billion.

    這個數字很好記。四五六七百萬。

  • - We know how old the solar system is because of this specific specimen. - Exactly, exactly. This defines T-0.

    我們就是靠這個樣本才知道太陽系有多老的。 - 正是如此,正是如此。它決定了 T-0。

  • When I give public talks, I usually give people a slice in plastic, and I say "You can hold the oldest piece of material in the solar system."

    當我去公開演講的時候,我通常會給人們摸一小片包在塑膠裡的切片,我會說:「你可以拿著這片全太陽系最古老的物質。」

  • And, even, you don't see it, but the oldest material available to anyone on this planet is in there.

    而且就算你看不到,這就是全世界所有人所能找得到的最古老的物質了。

  • There's nothing older that you can touch. - Wow.

    你能摸得到的東西沒有比這更古老的了。 - 哇。

  • - Pre-solar grains. They're older than the sun, older than the meteorite itself.

    太陽前晶粒。這些顆粒比太陽還老,比隕石本身還老。

  • Some of them might be as old as 5.5 billion years. - And how do you know that?

    它們有一些可能已經有五十五億年那麼老了。 - 你怎麼知道的?

  • - So these pre-solar grains, they can be analyzed chemically.

    這些太陽前晶粒可以用化學方法分析。

  • Their isotopic composition is highly anomalous, very different than anything in the Solar System.

    它們的同位素相當異常,跟太陽系裡其他的任何東西都不一樣。

  • Their composition cannot be explained by any process that can occur in the Solar System.

    它們的成分無法用任何可能發生太陽系裡的過程來解釋。

  • The fact that they are embedded in that rock tells us they could not have been incorporated later;

    光是它們龕在石頭裡這一點就表明了它們不可能是以後才組成的;

  • They must have been part of that mixture from which the rock formed.

    它們一定是在那石頭形成時的混合物的一部份。

  • And since the rock formed 4.6 billion years ago, they must be older. - Older the 4.6 billion years.

    而因為那顆石頭組成於四十六億年前,它們一定比那更老。 - 比四十六億年更老。

  • - And some minerals even can be dated. So far we have only dated approximately 30 grains.

    而且有些礦物甚至可以測出年代。到目前為止我們只測了大約三十個顆粒。

  • Most of them are about 200 million years older than the sun.

    它們大部份比太陽還老大約兩億年。

  • And a few of them are about a billion years older than the sun, which makes them about 5.6 billion years old.

    有一小部份大約比太陽老十億年,所以總的來看應該有五十六億年那麼老了。

  • We think the solar system formed, basically from a cloud of gas and dust, and this cloud of gas and dust formed from different sources, from different stars.

    我們認為太陽基本上由氣體跟灰塵的星雲所形成的,而這個氣體跟灰塵的星雲有不同的來源,來自不同的星星。

  • Some of these stars were indeed stellar explosions, supernovae. They exploded, and during these explosions, new elements formed.

    這些星星有些爆炸而成為超新星。在它們爆炸的過程中就形成了新元素。

  • After the matter cooled down, some of this matter condensed as gas.

    在這一團物質冷卻之後,有些就凝成了氣體。

  • There were other starsmany other starswhich were like the sun, but they were already at the end of their life.

    其他的一些星星...其實很多啦...就像太陽一樣,只不過它們已經到了生命的終點。

  • They expanded, became red giants, and expelled the matter into space. And from all these mixtures of stellar ejecta, this pre-solar cloud formed.

    它們擴張成紅巨星,然後把物質散發到太空中。然後所有這些星體的噴出物就混合並組成太陽誕生前的星雲。

  • Within this pre-solar molecular cloud, the protosolar disk formed. It's basically a rotating disk of gas and dust.

    在這個太陽誕生前的分子雲中,碟狀原始太陽形成了,基本上就是個旋轉的氣體跟灰塵的碟子。

  • The protosun formed, and later, the sun. Planetary building blocks formed.

    原始太陽形成之後,後來就成了太陽。行星的組成份子也形成了。

  • Most of the matter was alteredheatedthe pre-solar signature is not visible anymore, but some of this pre-solar matter survived without having been altered.

    大部份的物質因為加熱而改變,失去太陽系誕生以前時期的特徵,但是少數這種太陽系誕生以前物質沒有改變而留存下來。

  • That's whats trapped in hereit's only a tiny fraction. The most abundant type of pre-solar materials are diamondsnano-diamonds.

    卡在這裡面的就是...雖然只有一小部份。太陽系誕生以前物質最多的型態就是鑽石...奈米鑽石。

  • These diamonds are tinythey're only 2 nanometers acrossmaybe consist of 1000 to 2000 carbon atoms. We can extract them from meteorites.

    這些鑽石非常細小...直徑只有兩奈米...大約只有一兩千個碳原子。我們能從隕石裡萃取出來。

  • We basically dissolve everything else, just are left with the acid residue of diamondsand in this little vial I have billions of diamonds.

    基本上我們把其他一切都溶解掉,直到酸性溶液裡殘留鑽石...而我手裡這個小瓶子裡就有幾十億個鑽石。

  • You normally wouldn't see them because they are so small they wouldn't scatter light, but they clump togetheras you can see, that white residue

    一般而言你是看不見它們的,因為它們小到了不能反射光線的程度,但是它們會聚集在一起,如你所見的,形成白色懸浮物

  • - Yeah - These are all diamonds. It's literally stardust.

    - 對呀。 這些全是鑽石。名副其實的星塵。

  • - It's awfully ethereal looking. Kind of like floats around in this nebulousness.

    看起來超空靈的。好像是飄在星雲裡面。

  • -These diamonds, they were discovered in Chicago, in 1987, at the University of Chicago, with a Field Museum meteorite.

    這些鑽石是1987年在芝加哥市的芝加哥大學從一顆菲爾德博物館的隕石裡發現的。

  • -Really? That...it's overwhelming.

    真的嗎?那真是...太超過了。

  • It's...It's— How did you... how did you get into this?

    它...它真是...你怎麼...你都是怎麼開始參與這個的啊?

  • - Yeah, so when I heard about this first, I was extremely fascinated, and I heard about it when I was a student of earth science in Switzerland,

    這個啊,當我剛聽到這個的時候,我深深的著迷了,那個時候我在瑞士當地球科學系的學生,

  • and did an undergraduate project in a cosmo-chemistry lab there. "This is so fascinating, would it be possible to do a PhD there?" -Yeah

    而且在那兒參與了一項大學部的宇宙化學實驗室的研究計畫。我想:「太有意思了,能不能在這裡做博士研究啊?」 - 對呀。

  • - Just because I was completely hooked. I was always interested in astronomy, and volunteered at the local observatory there, and thought, "Oh, if I could do that for a living, that would be fantastic."

    那完全是因為我著了迷啊。我一直都對天文學有興趣,因而在當地天文台當志工,我在想:「哦,如果幹這個能當飯吃就更好了。」

  • And, yeah, actually, the opportunity came up, and I was able to work on the stardust duringfor my PhD. -Really?

    然後,對呀,機會真的來了,我在攻讀博士時真的參與了星塵的研究。 - 真的哦?

  • - And everything, yeah, so I'm very fortunate to work on such a very—I would sayon the oldest matter that is available anywhere on this planet.

    然後一切水到渠成,沒錯,我有幸能從事地球上最古老物質的研究工作。

  • It keeps us very motivated, and it's really great. -Yeah

    這讓我們興趣盎然,真的很棒。 - 對呀

  • - With every question that you answer, you open 10 more questions that can be studied, but then you have to make a wise decision, which questions are actually worth pursuing to answer?

    每次解答了一個問題,就會有十個新問題冒出來,但是你必須明智地抉擇,要挑對下一個值得花心力去解答的問題。

  • -Yeah. - Worth the time and money. And one of these is the origin of those nano-diamonds.

    - 對呀。 要值得花時間跟經費。而追尋奈米鑽石來源就是這種問題。

  • Because nano-diamonds are basically pure carbon, and they survived the formation and evolution of our Solar Systemand almost nothing else did survivealmost everything has been altered.

    這是因為奈米鑽石基本上就是純碳,它們能熬過太陽系誕生時的變遷...其他一切物質都熬不過來...幾乎都被改變了。

  • So the carbon in our body and our skin, you don't see a pre-solar signature anymore. - Yeah

    但是在我們身體裡跟皮膚上的碳,你就看不到太陽系誕生的痕跡了。 - 對呀。

  • - Although it might have the same origin as these diamonds. -So, the carbon that makes up those diamonds is the same carbon that makes uplike the carbon within me and you.

    儘管它跟這些鑽石的來源是一樣的。 - 所以構成這些鑽石的碳跟你我身體裡的碳是一樣的。

  • - Exactly. - And all of life on Earth.

    正是如此。 - 而且所有地球上的生物也是。

  • - Exactly. - So this is like our great times infinitygreat, greatancestor, essentially.

    沒錯。 - 所以這等於是我們的很古老很古老以前的老祖宗了。

  • - Yeah, so I think we have a common origin. - Yeah.

    對呀,所以我認為我們有一個共同的起源。 - 對呀。

  • - These diamonds, and life on Earth, and this is a proxy ofit's basically the tiny fraction that survived all these billions of years since the planets and the Earth formed.

    這些鑽石,還有地球上的生命,就只是個代表...基本上它就是幾十億年前行星和地球組成時所殘留下來的一小部份。

  • And by studying those diamonds, they open upthey are like a time capsule. By studying them, we can learn about the pastabout the time before the Solar System.

    經由研究這些鑽石,打開了一扇門...它們就像時光膠囊。經由研究它們,我們可以知道過去...關於太陽系開始以前的時光。

  • (So if you were to take those diamonds down to a pawn shop, how much is one of them worth?)

    那如果你拿這些鑽石去當鋪,一顆該值多少錢?

  • - He would not even know.

    他根本不知道啦。

  • - I don't know, but I always tellthey probably wouldn't make nice engagement rings, because they are so small, but there are millions!

    我不知道欸,不過我一直都知道...它們大概不能拿來做訂婚戒指,因為太小了,可是它們有好幾百萬顆呢!

- I'm here with Philipp Heck, who is the Robert A. Pritzker, Associate Curator of MeteachsadfaaMeteoraww shoot...

在我身邊的是菲利浦‧赫克,他是羅伯‧A‧普立茲克館副館長,負責隕俗...隕...噢,該死的...

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B1 中級 中文 鑽石 太陽系 物質 古老 奈米 形成

星形材料和納米鑽石 (Starstuff and Nanodiamonds)

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    Hhart Budha 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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