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  • The Chicago Field Museum is one of the largest and most respected

    本集是由大方得很奇妙的海瑟‧許所贊助

  • natural history museums in the world.

    芝加哥菲爾德博物館是全世界最大且最受尊敬的自然歷史博物館之一。

  • Join me as we go behind the scenes!

    跟我一起來看看幕後詳情!

  • Dun dun dun!

    噹~噹~噹!

  • Because of the nature of the collection we have all of these old, wild-caught specimens

    因為我們的庫藏品主要是來自野外捉來的比較老的樣本

  • and you can put a zoo specimen of the same species

    如果你拿一件動物園來的同品種的樣本

  • in amongst the wild-caught and it stands out like night and day. - Yeah, yeah.

    跟野外來的樣本放在一起做比較,那真是有天壤之別。 - 對呀對呀。

  • In terms of shape and excess bone, and all these weird- missing teeth. - Yeah, abcesses.

    差別在於外型和增生骨質,還有那些奇奇怪怪掉了的牙齒。 - 對呀,還有膿腫。

  • Yeah it's ick.

    對呀它真麻煩。

  • Andrea is our go to person for numbering bones.

    第2281房:安翠雅的辦公室

  • We would love to give you a demonstration of how fine

    安翠雅是我們專責點收骨頭的人。

  • she puts a six digit number on a skull that's about that size.

    我們很樂意向你示範

  • I would love to know because I have demolished a couple pygmy shrew skulls.

    她能多仔細地把六位數數字寫在這種大小的頭骨上。

  • So these are not numbered yet,

    我超想看的,因為我已經弄砸了幾個侏儒鼩鼱的頭骨。

  • - What? but on something this small I would do

    這些還沒有編號啦,

  • the pelvis, each of the limbs, and the scapula. -Oh my gracious. Are you- what?

    - 啥? 在這麼小的東西上我會寫在

  • What's usually the most important things to number are

    骨盆上,每根腿骨上,還有肩胛骨上。 - 噢,我的天。你真的...啥?

  • each side of the mandible and the skull.

    通常最重要需要編號的部份就是

  • A researcher is most likely gonna look at the skull first. - Mhmm. Wow.

    下顎的兩邊和頭骨上。

  • So.

    研究人員最有可能先看頭骨。 - 嗯。哇。

  • This is like watching magic happen.

    所以啊...

  • And if the pen's working fine, then it just takes that,

    這就像是看奇蹟正在發生中。

  • but if- also if the bones are really greasy

    如果針筆都正常,這樣就夠了,

  • using a larger pen where the ink will flow out a little bit quicker

    但是...如果骨頭很油膩

  • works better and usually with uh, something that's pretty greasy,

    那就用大一點的筆,這樣墨水會比較容易出來

  • I'll write the number out once and it'll be really dilluted

    這在很油的東西上效果比較好,

  • and you won't be able to read it very well, and then I'll write over it again.

    我會先寫一次但它會很淡

  • And what do you do if you screw up? - I'll use a scalpel and scrape the ink off.

    這樣不太好辨認,然後我再寫一次補強它。

  • once it's dry, or I will use alcohol and like, a Q-tip.

    那如果你寫壞了怎麼辦? - 我會用解剖刀刮掉墨跡...

  • and wash if off and just let the bone dry. - Okay, and just...

    如果它已經乾了,不然我就用酒精根棉花棒。

  • Um, and so for the skulls, our rule of thumb is

    然後把它洗掉再讓骨頭陰乾。 - 好吧,那麼...

  • to put the skull facing to the left, and imagine it as

    嗯,以頭骨而言我們的經驗法則是

  • a, a grid with four quadrants and we put the number in the lower right.

    讓它面對左方,然後想像它上面有

  • You just put it in a little pill capsule.

    四個象限的方格子,然後我們在右下方的象限寫編號。

  • Yeah, so little pieces that are just gonna get lost like, under the piece of paper

    你就把它放到小藥丸膠囊裡噢。

  • end up going in a little pill capsule.

    對呀,像這種小小的很容易搞丟到類似紙張下面的地方

  • Um, and then the, the pill cap will get numbered.

    最後都收到小藥丸膠囊裡。

  • I swallow things bigger than that.

    嗯,然後再替膠囊編號。

  • And this guy's legs are- - You're not even, you're not even gonna do that.

    我吞的東西比這個都大多了。

  • The legs are being- - I don't even believe you right now.

    還有這傢伙的腳... - 不會吧,你不可能辦到吧。

  • And look at those nails. - I know, it's- it's wonderful,

    這些腳要... - 我現在根本不相信你能辦到。

  • it's like you were anticipating this. - I painted them, just for you.

    你看看她的指甲。 - 我知道啊,很...很漂亮欸。

  • Other systems of writing are different than ours, so sometimes

    就像是你都事先準備好了。 - 我特地為你塗了指甲油噢。

  • the numbers are always on the other side, or

    其他地方編碼標記的規矩跟我們的不一樣,有時候

  • they're always written at an angle, or- - Wow, weird. Yeah.

    號碼永遠寫在另外一邊,或者

  • Like, it's stuff you don't really think about until you actually see it, so.

    它們永遠以特定角度寫,或... - 哇,有夠怪的。對呀。

  • Yeah, no, I- I thought about that too. - Yeah.

    可能是像某些特別的規矩你一般不會想到,除非親眼看到。

  • Like, when I first started numbering I'm like, what? Where do you write the number on a femur?

    對呀,的確是想不到,我...我以前也想到這種狀況。 - 對呀。

  • I'm sure if you came to our collection you would be horrified

    這就像...當我第一次開始標號碼我就想:「哪兒啊?到底該在股骨的什麼地方寫號碼呀?」

  • because sometimes I'm just like, "Aah- 26835" or whatever, and just wr- wherever.

    我確定如果你到我們的庫藏區你會嚇壞了

  • Well, especially when the bones are like, big,

    因為有時候我就是:「啊...26835號...管他的,隨便找個地方寫好了。」

  • you could theoretically write it wherever you want, - Yeah.

    這個嘛,特別是當骨頭比較大根的時候,

  • but like, having a system of like, always writing something in the same place is nice, - Consistency is key.

    理論上你想寫哪裡都行, - 對呀。

  • like it's not always gonna look the same from one animal to the next. - Yeah.

    但是啊,如果有個什麼系統讓你寫在某個固定的地方就比較好, - 關鍵是要一致啦。

  • It's amazing. You got some skills. - But, yeah. Thank you.

    因為不是每一件動物樣本都長得完全一樣。 - 對呀。

  • I'm very impressed, that was really sweet.

    真是神奇。你功力很強欸。 - 就...對呀。謝謝。

  • So many cabinets!

    我大開眼界了,剛剛真的很不錯耶。

  • What are these? What's in here?

    哺乳動物庫藏區

  • I'm so excited! - What's in here?

    櫃子超多的!

  • Aaahh! Seals? Are these seals and sea lions?

    這些是什麼?裡面有什麼?

  • Seals have multiple cusps on each tooth, right? - Yeah.

    好興奮噢! - 裡面有什麼?

  • So you see like, 3 or 4 points on each of those teeth? - Mmhmm.

    啊!海豹?這些是海豹跟海獅嗎?

  • This is a harbor seal, and this- uh, these points, these cusps

    海豹的每一根牙有多重齒冠,對吧? - 對呀。

  • uh, would allow this seal to grab a salmon

    所以你可以看到每根牙有三或四個尖端,對吧? - 嗯哼。

  • and grip it, and it wouldn't get away,

    這是隻斑海豹,而這...這些齒冠

  • like a tight end has little points on his gloves - Yeah.

    呃,能幫牠抓鮭魚

  • so he can catch the- the football.

    並且鉗住牠,魚根本跑不掉。

  • And that's a characteristic that's found throughout all the phocids.

    就像美式足球近端鋒的手套上有小尖刺 - 對呀。

  • They have, uh, cusps on each tooth. - Mmhmm.

    來幫他接到足球。

  • But, there's one particular phocid that has those cusps,

    而這是所有海豹科動物的特徵。

  • but evolution has left them with a morphology that makes them use those cusps

    牠們,呃,每根牙都有幾個齒冠。 - 嗯哼。

  • in a completely different fashion than the harbor seal.

    但是啊,有種海鮑的齒冠與眾不同,

  • Ready? - Mmhmm.

    演化使得牠們在形態學上產生這種齒冠

  • What is happening- Oh, what. Is this a crabeater seal?

    具備有完全不同於其他海豹的形式。

  • That's awesome.

    準備好了嗎? - 嗯哼。

  • Th- They have the weird Christmas tree teeth. - And what do they do with them?

    發生了什麼...哦,什麼?這是食蟹海豹嗎?

  • They filter for krill. - Emily, you're the best!

    太棒了。

  • That's amazing! You can see all the details on all-

    牠...牠們的牙齒好怪,像聖誕樹。 - 那牠們的牙是幹什麼用的?

  • oogh- Why? How did this happen?

    用來過濾南極磷蝦。 - 艾蜜莉,你太神了!

  • So they- they take a mouth full of water, close their teeth,

    太神奇了!你看得到所有的細節還有...

  • and then squeeze the water out through their teeth

    噢...為什麼?這是怎麼變出來的?

  • and filter out all the krill.

    那牠們...牠們含一大口水進來,閉上牙齒,

  • All the, the small, microscopic quote-unquote "crabs"- they're actually invertebrates. - Yeah.

    然後把水擠出牙縫

  • But, uh, and that can sustain them, and it's the most populous seal in the world.

    然後把磷蝦留下來。

  • That's amazing. Yeah. - Not only in Antarctica.

    吃的都是這些非常小的所謂的「蟹」但其實都是小型無脊椎動物啦。 - 對呀。

  • So the same thing that sustains hundreds of thousands of these guys

    但是,呃,這樣就夠牠們活了,而且牠們是世上最多量的海豹。

  • also sustains the 100-foot-long blue whales. - Wow.

    真神奇啊。對呀。 - 而且不光是南極才有。

  • All in Antarctica. - Tha- tha-

    這種食物不只養活了幾十萬隻這些傢伙

  • I can't even- I don't even know how this happens.

    也養活了一百英尺長的藍鯨。 - 哇。

  • Lobodon carcinophagus. "Lobed-tooth crab-lover."

    只有在南極才有。 - 這...這...

  • That's a pretty accurate name for these guys.

    我甚至不...我甚至不知道這怎麼發生的。

  • I want teeth that look like that. - Yeah so th-

    Lobodon carcinophagus,「裂縫牙齒的愛吃螃蟹的海豹」。

  • How long- How long would it take me to like, adapt and grow a pair of those?

    這些傢伙的學名還蠻貼切的。

  • So, I don't know, but if I come back next week, and these teeth are gone,

    我真想長出這種牙齒噢。 - 好吧那麼...

  • and I see the next episode of The Brain Scoop, and you're wearing some necklace with crabeater seal teeth on them...

    要多久...我要多久才能長出像這樣的啊?

The Chicago Field Museum is one of the largest and most respected

本集是由大方得很奇妙的海瑟‧許所贊助

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B1 中級 中文 海豹 頭骨 牙齒 樣本 骨頭 膠囊

芝加哥大冒險,第三部。小骷髏 (Chicago Adventure, Part Three: Little Skeletons)

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    Hhart Budha 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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