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由 AI 自動生成
  • - We humans like to think

    - 我們人類喜歡思考

  • that we're the perfectly evolved species,

    我們是完美進化的物種。

  • but I get constant back pain.

    但我的背部一直疼痛。

  • - I go blind in one eye

    - 我瞎了一隻眼睛

  • and then I get migraines and puke for seven hours.

    然後,我得到偏頭痛和 嘔吐了七個小時。

  • - Every time I explore a new city, I sprain my ankle.

    - 每當我探索一個新的城市,我都會扭傷腳踝。

  • - I got gout.

    - 我有痛風。

  • - Greg's mom gave him a cane.

    - 格雷格的媽媽給了他一根手杖。

  • (laughing)

    (笑)

  • So today we're going to go on a journey of biology

    那麼今天我們就來進行一次生物之旅吧

  • and evolutionary history to discover

    和進化史來發現

  • the perfectly evolved human,

    完美進化的人類。

  • starting with your terribly designed feet.

    從你那雙設計糟糕的腳開始。

  • - Apart from being sexually attractive to some people,

    - 除了對某些人有性吸引力外。

  • for example, Mitch's sexual awakening

    比如米奇的性覺醒

  • was Gaston's foot in "Beauty and the Beast."

    在 "美女與野獸 "中是加斯頓的腳。

  • - [Mitch] Like Greg!

    - 像格雷格一樣!

  • - (laughs) Our feet are an evolutionary mess.

    - (笑)我們的腳在進化過程中是一團糟。

  • Early hominids would stay safe from predators

    早期的類人猿會遠離掠食者,保持安全。

  • by running into trees.

    通過撞樹。

  • You can see how your feet

    你可以看看你的腳

  • were initially designed to grasp or grab branches.

    最初的設計是為了抓住或抓住樹枝。

  • Please don't put this on WikiFeet, you freaks.

    請不要把這個放在WikiFeet上,你這個怪胎。

  • And the way our feet would grip the tree branch

    而我們的腳會抓住樹枝的方式

  • was with numerous complex bones in the feet,

    是與腳上眾多複雜的骨骼。

  • much like the apes and chimps climbing in trees today.

    就像今天爬在樹上的猿猴和黑猩猩一樣。

  • This is why you currently have the absurd amount

    這就是為什麼你目前有荒唐的數量。

  • of 26 bones in your feet.

    腳上26根骨頭的。

  • 26 bones is for gripping.

    26根骨頭是用來抓的。

  • That is way too many for just walking around.

    這也太多了吧,光是走走看看就夠了。

  • So the perfectly evolved human needs the ostrich foot.

    所以完美進化的人類需要鴕鳥腳。

  • Other than humans, birds are the only other

    除了人類,鳥類是唯一的其他

  • animal on earth that are truly bipedal.

    地球上真正雙足的動物。

  • Human started walking upright 5 million years ago,

    人類在500萬年前開始直立行走。

  • whereas birds have been running around on two feet

    鳥盡弓藏

  • for 250 million years.

    2.5億年。

  • If you look at this diagram,

    如果你看這張圖。

  • you see that birds evolved hundreds of millions of years ago

    你看,鳥類是在幾億年前進化而來的。

  • with the dinosaurs, even.

    與恐龍,甚至。

  • Compared to us, Eutherian mammals on the right over here,

    和我們相比,右邊的尤瑟派哺乳動物在這邊。

  • who on the timeline of evolution of life on Earth

    誰在地球生命進化的時間軸上?

  • pretty much climbed out of trees like yesterday.

    幾乎從樹上爬出來,就像昨天一樣。

  • So it's not surprising that a bird's ancient bipedal design

    所以,鳥類古老的雙足設計也就不足為奇了。

  • would actually help our current bipedal bodies.

    其實會對我們現在的雙足身體有所幫助。

  • We have an arch as a shock absorber,

    我們有一個拱門作為減震器。

  • while ostriches only have two toes,

    而鴕鳥只有兩個腳趾。

  • with just a bone per toe,

    每個腳趾只有一根骨頭。

  • that act as absorbers and outrigger.

    作為吸收器和支腿的。

  • These two toes stabilize the foot in running mode,

    這兩個腳趾在跑步模式下可以穩定腳步。

  • but now we must move on to the perfect-

    但現在,我們必須繼續完善--

  • - Ankle.

    - 踝關節。

  • We have found broken ankles in human fossils

    我們已經在人類化石中發現了斷腳踝

  • dating back three million years ago.

    可以追溯到300萬年前。

  • So we've been breaking our ankles for millions of years.

    所以我們的腳踝已經斷了幾百萬年了。

  • I don't feel so bad about my ankles anymore.

    我覺得我的腳踝不再那麼糟糕了。

  • Our ankles have intervening ligaments and seven bones,

    我們的腳踝有中間的韌帶和七根骨頭。

  • leading to numerous injuries.

    導致許多人受傷。

  • So the perfectly evolved human ankles

    所以完美進化的人類腳踝

  • are also coming from the ostrich.

    也是來自鴕鳥。

  • With these ankles, we'd optimize our upright balance,

    有了這些腳踝,我們就能優化我們的直立平衡。

  • locomotion, and deal a lot better with crashes.

    運動,處理撞車問題也會好很多。

  • This is why ostrich legs have been used as models

    這就是為什麼鴕鳥腿被用作模型的原因。

  • for prosthetics for amputees,

    為被截肢者安裝假肢;

  • and the Boston Dynamic Ostrich Robot

    和波士頓動態鴕鳥機器人

  • is a long-necked bird copy.

    是一個長頸鳥的副本。

  • Cassie, an Agility Robotics invention,

    敏捷機器人公司發明的Cassie。

  • walks with the speed somewhere between human and ostrich.

    走路的速度介於人類和鴕鳥之間。

  • Now, let's move on to something

    現在,讓我們繼續說點什麼

  • that has started to bother me

    煩心事

  • and is a telltale sign of old age, knees.

    並是老了的一個明顯標誌,膝蓋。

  • - Our knees are a particular type of mess.

    - 我們的膝蓋是一種特殊的混亂。

  • Some evolutionary biologists argue

    一些進化生物學家認為

  • that we stopped evolving biologically 10,000 years ago

    我們在一萬年前就停止了生物演化

  • when we invented agriculture.

    當我們發明了農業。

  • And they argue that from that point forward,

    而他們認為,從這一點來看。

  • we started to evolve culturally.

    我們開始了文化上的進化。

  • But then, other evolutionary biologists think

    但其他進化生物學家認為

  • that these drastic shifts in culture

    這些文化的急劇變化

  • have actually allowed for adaptive evolution,

    實際上已經允許適應性進化。

  • which actually accelerated our evolution

    這實際上加速了我們的進化

  • a hundred times faster.

    快了一百倍。

  • And that, folks, is an example of evolutionary biologists

    各位,這就是進化生物學家的一個例子

  • battling it out with separate contradicting theories.

    用各自矛盾的理論來爭奪。

  • This actually happens a lot in this field of study

    這種情況其實在這個研究領域經常發生

  • because we're trying to piece together information

    因為我們正在努力拼湊資訊

  • about our human history over thousands of years.

    關於我們人類幾千年的歷史。

  • Either way, one thing we know for sure

    不管是哪種方式,有一件事我們是肯定的

  • is that we are not running from predators,

    是我們沒有在逃避掠奪者。

  • and when it comes to eating food, we're not hunting it.

    而當談到吃的食物, 我們不是狩獵它。

  • No, no, no.

    不,不,不。

  • I press a button on my measly little electronic device

    我在我那小小的電子設備上按下一個按鈕。

  • and the food shows up at my house.

    而食物出現在我家。

  • He is lazy.

    他是懶惰的。

  • I know for a fact, you probably do this too,

    我知道,你可能也會這樣做。

  • so do not judge me.

    所以不要評判我。

  • And for this reason, our knees need to change.

    為此,我們的膝蓋也需要改變。

  • Anthropologist Matt Cartmill explains that,

    人類學家馬特-卡特米爾解釋說。

  • "Evolution doesn't act to yield perfection,

    "進化的作用並不是為了產生完美。

  • it acts to yield function."

    它的作用是產生功能"。

  • And that's why I have asked for

    這也是為什麼我要求

  • the perfect pair of Graham's knees.

    格雷厄姆的一雙完美的膝蓋。

  • Who is Graham, you ask?

    你問格雷厄姆是誰?

  • Graham is a quote-unquote human

    格雷厄姆是一個引號--不引號的人。

  • designed to survive a car crash

    專為車禍而設計

  • as part of a road safety campaign

    作為道路安全運動的一部分

  • for the transport accident commission in Australia.

    澳洲運輸事故委員會的。

  • Patricia Piccinini not only has a great name,

    帕特里夏-皮奇尼尼不僅有一個好名字。

  • but she also used silicone and human hair

    但她也使用硅膠和人發

  • to bring us this weirdness.

    給我們帶來這種怪異的感覺。

  • Graham's knees bend in all directions

    格雷厄姆的膝蓋向四周彎曲。

  • so he's able to quickly move out of the way

    這樣他就能迅速讓開了

  • of oncoming traffic.

    的來車。

  • The fact that our knees only bend in one D,

    事實上,我們的膝蓋只彎曲了一個D.

  • also known as one direction,

    也就是所謂的一個方向。

  • is the main reason why they almost always break first.

    是他們幾乎都是先斷的主要原因。

  • Graham's knees being so floppy

    格雷厄姆的膝蓋軟綿綿的

  • means that they can retain their structure during a crash.

    意味著它們可以在撞擊時保持其結構。

  • Me, after I get new knees,

    我,在我換了新的膝蓋之後。

  • wash-a-widdy-widdy-bad-ba-dee-ba-doo-da-be

    洗一widdy-widdy-bad-ba-dee-ba-doo-da-be

  • Okay, but what about body symmetry?

    好吧,但是身體的對稱性呢?

  • - Known as the bilateral body,

    - 被稱為雙邊體。

  • our bodies have left-right symmetry.

    我們的身體具有左右對稱性。

  • The left side of our body is a mirror image of the right.

    我們身體的左邊是右邊的鏡像。

  • Non-bilaterian animals are

    非兩棲動物是

  • octopuses, jellyfish, or anemones,

    章魚、水母或海葵。

  • but there are no non-bilaterian animals

    惟獨沒有非兩棲動物。

  • who live on dry land.

    生活在旱地上的人。

  • The bilaterian body likely began on the sea floor

    雙面體很可能是從海底開始的

  • as bodies made for crawling over surfaces

    匍匐前進

  • with direction and traction made their way on land.

    有了方向和牽引力,他們在陸地上走了一遭。

  • Since all land dwelling animals are bilaterian,

    由於所有陸生動物都是雙棲動物。

  • we're gonna keep that.

    我們要保持這一點。

  • I'm sorry to crush your dream about having a perfect body

    很抱歉粉碎了你擁有完美身材的夢想。

  • that is part sea anemone, but that design

    那是海葵的一部分,但那個設計... ...

  • is made for species that don't move.

    是為不動的物種而生的。

  • But you, girl, you're going to be moving

    但是,你,女孩,你會被移動

  • in your new pair of-

    在你的新對-

  • - Hips.

    - 臀部。

  • This one is obvious.

    這個很明顯。

  • We will be using the hips

    我們將使用臀部

  • of the perfectly evolved Shakira.

    的完美進化夏奇拉。

  • (vocalizing and upbeat dance music)

    (發聲和歡快的舞曲)

  • No, but for real, we do need to change

    不,但說真的,我們確實需要改變。

  • the reproductive system.

    生殖系統;

  • An anatomist named Alice Roberts

    一個叫愛麗絲-羅伯茨的解剖學家

  • actually set out to design her own perfectly evolved human.

    其實是為了設計自己完美進化的人類。

  • Empathizing with women giving birth to large-headed babies

    對生大頭嬰兒的婦女有同感

  • and risking their health,

    並危及他們的健康。

  • Alice figured humans would be better off with pouches

    愛麗絲認為,人類最好是用小袋來裝東西

  • like those of kangaroos.

    像那些袋鼠的。

  • Alice 2.0 wouldn't struggle with

    愛麗絲2.0不會掙扎於

  • getting a baby out of her system.

    把孩子從她的身體里弄出來

  • And yes, Alice 2.0's fetus crawls out into her pouch

    是的,愛麗絲2.0的胎兒爬出了她的小袋。

  • until it completes its development,

    直到它完成發展。

  • so her childbirth would be less painful.

    這樣她生孩子就不會那麼痛苦了。

  • Her baby would be mooching through the pouch,

    她的孩子會在袋子裡摸索。

  • so there would be no need for Alice to have breasts.

    所以就不需要讓愛麗絲有乳房了。

  • I know some straight men might be in the comments right now,

    我知道有些直男現在可能在評論裡。

  • like, "But we need the titties."

    像,"但我們需要的titties。"

  • But we're talking functional perfection here.

    但我們在這裡談論的是功能上的完美。

  • Also, we'll be taking your nipples and balls.

    還有,我們會拿走你的乳頭和蛋蛋。

  • Male nipples are pointless.

    男性的乳頭是沒有意義的。

  • They exist because males, females, and everything in between

    他們的存在是因為男性,女性,以及一切介於兩者之間的東西。

  • come from the same genetic blueprint.

    來自同一個基因藍圖。

  • Female nipples matter.

    女性乳頭很重要。

  • Male nipples are pointless.

    男性的乳頭是沒有意義的。

  • So bloop, gotta go.

    所以,BLOOP,得走了。

  • As for our testes, they hang outside of us,

    至於我們的睪丸,它們掛在我們的外面。