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  • Horses. Greyhounds. Pronghorn antelope. These animals are among some of the world's fastest, clocking in speeds above 55 kilometers per hour!

    馬。格雷伊獵犬。叉角羚。以上是世界上腳程數一數二快的幾個動物,最高時速可以高達每小時 55 公里!

  • Now, compared to us humanswe're relatively slow.

    而我們人類相較之下就慢了許多。

  • That's because on average, we run about 17 kilometers per hour.

    因為我們人類的平均最高速度只能跑到每小時 17 公里左右。

  • But breaking away from the pack is the cheetah. It can reach speeds greater than 100 kilometers per hour, in just three seconds!

    但獵豹才是真的在眾多動物種脫穎而出的那個。牠的最高時速可以超過每小時 100 公里,而且只需要花上三秒就能達成!

  • Some have even hit up to 75 miles per hour!

    有些獵豹甚至可以達到每小時 75 英里 (約 120.7 公里) 的速度!

  • And that's because every part of the cheetah works together to produce this burst of speed.

    而這是因為獵豹身上每一個部位的通力合作,才讓牠能夠爆發出如此速度。

  • Thanks to a combination of focus, power, flexibility, traction, and the ability to actually steer their bodies like a boat, the cheetah sits at the top as the fastest land animal on Earth!

    歸功於專注力、力量、靈活性、抓地力,以及能夠像船一樣變更行進方向的能力,這些特質結合在一起,讓獵豹穩坐地表最快動物的寶座。

  • Now, unlike other big cats, whose bodies evolved for power, the cheetahs evolved for speed.

    與其他大型貓科動物演化成更加具有力量的型態不同,獵豹的演化方向專注在速度上。

  • Their bodies are aerodynamically built with small heads, light bones, and a slender body.

    它們的身體符合空氣動力學原理:頭部小巧、骨架輕盈且身軀纖細。

  • Now, let's start at the top. A cheetah has a short muzzle, small canines, and other features to help reduce the overall weight of its head.

    我們從牠的頭開始說起吧。獵豹的鼻口部分較短、犬齒較小,再加上其他的相關頭部特徵,能夠幫助減少牠的頭部重量,

  • All of this results in a skull that weighs just 500 grams.

    這讓牠的頭部僅重達 500 公克而已!

  • Now, cheetahs need this light skull to make space for a large nasal cavity because cheetahs need lots of oxygen.

    而獵豹之所以需要輕盈的頭骨,是為了要創造出能夠使牠吸入大量氧氣的巨大鼻腔。

  • To help meet this need, they have large nostrils that allow for quick and large intakes of air,

    為了滿足氧氣需求,獵豹需要大大的鼻孔,讓牠能快速地吸取大量空氣,

  • while the cheetah's large chest holds its lungs and heart, which work together to help circulate the oxygen throughout its body.

    而獵豹碩大的胸腔則裝著牠的肺部與心臟,攜手合作把氧氣送到身體各處。

  • And during a chase, that's crucial, since a cheetah can take anywhere between 60 to 150 breaths per minute!

    這在獵豹追捕獵物時特別重要,因為當下獵豹每分鐘會呼吸 60 到 150 次!

  • This is a drastic increase since at rest, a cheetah takes in about 9 breaths per minute.

    與獵豹在休息時每分鐘僅呼吸 9 次相比,呼吸的次數提升地非常劇烈。

  • That means that when these cats really get going, their breathing rate goes up to sixteen times faster!

    這代表當這些豹貓竭盡全力奔跑時,牠們的呼吸速度是平常的十六倍!

  • What's even more fascinating is that while running, you'll notice that a cheetah's head doesn't move. It stays incredibly still.

    更有趣的是,當獵豹在奔跑時,牠的頭部是不會動的。牠的頭就這樣靜止得好好的。

  • I mean, just think about it. If you were going 100 kilometers per hour on a highway, you have to focus, otherwise you'd probably crash.

    我是說,你想想看,當你以超過每小時 100 公里的速度疾馳在高速公路時,你必須保持專注,不然很可能會出車禍。

  • Same goes for a cheetah. So focus is key.

    而這對獵豹來說也是一樣的。專注就是成功關鍵。

  • But what about the power behind these sprints?

    但是驅動這種奔跑動作的力量是從何而來的呢?

  • Well, cheetahs have incredibly powerful muscles that are built for quick bursts of speed.

    獵豹有著非常強而有力的肌肉,專為高速奔跑所需的爆發力打造。

  • That's because their muscles have a higher amount of a certain fiber called fast-twitch glycolytic fibers.

    牠們肌肉中富含著一種被稱作快縮糖解飢的特定纖維。

  • These produce quick and powerful muscle contractions to generate that burst of energy we see as a cheetah accelerates.

    這種纖維會產生快速且強力的肌肉收縮反應,並生成出獵豹加速時所需的爆發性能量。

  • Now, while most of us might be in awe of its speed, equally impressive is a stride that measures roughly seven meters.

    而雖然我們大多數的人都會為獵豹的速度所震撼,但其實牠們一次跨步所能跳躍過的距離也令人瞠目結舌:足足有大約七公尺長。

  • The secret behind this incredible stride: a hyper-flexible spine!

    而牠們之所以能跳這麼遠的距離,背後的祕訣就在牠們超有彈性的脊椎上!

  • A bendy spine lets the cheetah's vertical shoulder blades and hips swivel, allowing its front and back legs to overlap.

    獵豹彎曲的脊椎使牠的垂直肩胛骨以及屁股能夠旋轉,讓牠的前腳與後腳能夠交互重疊。

  • This creates a spring motion, propelling its back legs forward with each step.

    每走一步,便會產生出一種彈簧般的動作,將牠的後腿向前推進。

  • And for most of these strides, cheetahs are actually airbornewhich is incredible!

    而在跳躍動作的大部分時間,牠其實整隻都跳在半空中,超酷的對吧!

  • Once back on the ground, the cheetah relies on its footpads, which are tough and have ridges.

    而回到地面之後,獵豹便要依靠牠粗糙且有著溝槽的腳掌了。

  • These act just like tire treads providing the necessary traction during a chase.

    這些溝槽就像是輪胎上的胎紋一樣,提供了獵豹在追逐時所需的抓地力。

  • Now, unlike other big cats or even domestic ones, whose claws fully retract, cheetahs have semi-retractable claws, which look more like a dog's, like Henry's here.

    與其他的大型貓科動物,甚至是家貓們完全收起的爪子不同的是,獵豹有著可以伸縮到某種程度的爪子,讓它看起來更像是狗的爪子,就像我懷裡的 Henry 一樣。

  • So you always see their little nails, even in little track, you know, footprints and stuff.

    所以你總是能清楚看見牠們小小的爪子,甚至能在腳印之類的足跡上看見。

  • Cheetah claws aren't covered by a sheath, which is a protective skin fold.

    獵豹的爪子沒有被爪鞘,一種保護性的皮膚褶皺所覆蓋。

  • The absence of this skin means that these claws act like cleats, helping the cheetah (to) grip to the ground and accelerate when needed.

    而少了這層皮意味著這些爪子能像夾板一樣,幫助獵豹在必要時抓緊地面並加速奔跑。

  • And when it's time to course-correct during a chase, it's all about the cheetah's long and muscular tail.

    在追逐過程中需要修正方向的時候,獵豹細長且肌肉發達的尾巴變發揮了關鍵作用。

  • During a chase, a cheetah swings its tail, so it acts like a rudder and a counterweight.

    在追逐獵物時,獵豹會搖晃尾巴,有如駕船一般把它當成舵和配重來操控。

  • This helps to stabilize the cat as it zig-zags towards its prey.

    正能幫助獵豹在以曲折的路線追逐獵物時,保持牠身體的穩定。

  • One thing to keep in mind: cheetahs are built for short bursts of energy.

    要記住的是:獵豹的身體完全是為了短時間爆發所打造的。

  • So at top speed, a typical chase lasts only 30 seconds.

    因此若是以極速奔馳,一場典型的追逐戰通常只會持續 30 秒。

  • That's because the chase puts tremendous stress on every part of the cheetah's body, forcing it to rest for up to 30 minutes in order for its respiratory and heart rates to return to resting levels.

    這是因為奔跑會對獵豹身體的每一個部位都產生極大的壓力,讓牠必須在奔跑之後休息上 30 分鐘,才能回復到平穩狀態時的呼吸速度和心率。

  • Okay. So, we've learned that cheetahs are incredibly fascinating animals, and every part of them works to help achieve incredible speeds.

    好了,我們現在已經瞭解到獵豹是種非常迷人的動物,而牠們身上的每一個部位都為那驚人的奔跑速度貢獻了一份力量。

  • But despite being the fastest, cheetahs are also Africa's most threatened big cat.

    但儘管獵豹是世界上最快的動物,卻也是非洲最瀕臨絕種的大型貓科動物。

  • Over a century ago, there were roughly 100,000 cheetahs, roaming from Africa to the Middle East, to India.

    在一個世紀以前,在非洲、中東與印度約有 10,000 隻獵豹生活著。

  • But now, only about 7,100 are remained in the wild.

    但現在野生的獵豹約只剩下約 7100 隻。

  • Habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict are some of the biggest drivers behind this population loss.

    失去棲息地、盜獵和人類與自然間的衝突,都是讓牠們的數量銳減的最大因素。

  • And that's where conservation is so crucial to helping save this incredible animal from extinction.

    而這就是為什麼保育工作對於保護這種美妙非凡的動物很重要。

  • We know so much about the cheetah that we know we can save it, and the cheetah's survival is in humans hands.

    我們對獵豹瞭解得相當透徹,並清楚知道我們能夠保護牠們,而獵豹的存亡就取決在人類的手中。

  • If we've got enough oomph with us within a human population, we can save the species.

    如果我們能從全世界的人們手中聚集到足夠的力量,我們便能拯救這個物種。

  • When you've got such small populations of these rare and endangered species, we have a world to change.

    這個物種僅存的數量是如此的稀少且瀕臨絕種,想要拯救牠,我們必須要有改變整個世界的覺悟。

  • And our motto from Cheetah Conservation Fund is: Save the cheetah and change the world.

    而我們「獵豹保育基金」的宗旨便是:拯救獵豹,改變世界。

  • And fun fact: Unlike other big cats, cheetahs don't roar.

    這裡提供一個有趣的小知識:與其他的大型貓科動物不同,獵豹不會大聲吼叫。

  • To communicate, they chirp! And even purr like Willie here!

    牠們是用鳴叫的方式來互相溝通的!甚至會像這隻 Willie 一樣發出呼嚕聲!

  • Thanks for watching Seeker's new series Tusks to Tails.

    感謝收看 Seeker 頻道的全新系列節目《從牙到尾重》。

  • I'm Evan Antin, and I hope you've enjoyed this video.

    我是 Evan Antin,希望你喜歡這個影片。

  • (If) there's an animal you want us to cover, leave us a comment. I'll see you next time!

    如果有你希望我們報導的動物,請在下面留言給我們。下次見囉!

Horses. Greyhounds. Pronghorn antelope. These animals are among some of the world's fastest, clocking in speeds above 55 kilometers per hour!

馬。格雷伊獵犬。叉角羚。以上是世界上腳程數一數二快的幾個動物,最高時速可以高達每小時 55 公里!

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零到一百只要三秒鐘?!面臨絕種危機的最速動物——獵豹!(Here's Why Cheetahs Are So Much Faster Than Other Animals)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 22 日
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