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  • this video was made possible by brilliant learn complex topics simply for 20% off by being one of the 1st 200 to sign up at brilliant dot org's slash real life floor.

    這段視頻是由輝煌學習複雜的主題,只是為了20%的折扣,由第1 200個註冊在輝煌點組織的斜線現實生活地板之一。

  • Earth has around seven continents, depending on how you count them, but only three of those seven are actually connected.

    地球上大約有七塊大陸,就看你怎麼數了,但這七塊大陸中只有三塊是真正相連的。

  • And it's the Big Three that air in the Middle Europe, Asia and Africa are technically all connected with one another by land, which has led some to label all three.

    而正是中歐、亞洲和非洲的空中三巨頭,在技術上都是通過陸路相互連接的,這也讓一些人給這三者貼上了標籤。

  • Combined as a single super continent.

    合為一個超級大陸。

  • Afro Eurasia, Afro Eurasia is the largest contiguous landmass in the world.

    非洲歐亞大陸,非洲歐亞大陸是世界上最大的連片陸地。

  • It encompasses 57% of the world's land area and is home to 86% of the human population.

    它佔世界陸地面積的57%,是86%人口的家園。

  • It's no wonder, then, that Afro Eurasia is sometimes referred to as the world island.

    是以,難怪非洲歐亞大陸有時被稱為世界島。

  • But the world island has a big connectivity problem.

    但世界島有一個很大的連接問題。

  • While Asia is connected overland to both Africa and Europe, Europe and Africa, on their own remains separated from each other.

    雖然亞洲與非洲和歐洲都有陸路聯繫,但歐洲和非洲本身仍然是相互分離的。

  • The only land connection between the two is by going all the way around the Black Sea, through Western Asia and finally across the Sinai Peninsula into Egypt, Europe and Africa.

    兩者之間唯一的陸路聯繫,就是一直繞過黑海,經過西亞,最後穿過西奈半島,進入埃及、歐洲和非洲。

  • are mostly separated from one another by the Mediterranean Sea.

    彼此之間大多隔著地中海。

  • But there's a couple spots inside of the sea where the two continents come extremely close to touching at the Strait of Gibraltar, where they're only 14 kilometers apart, and at the Strait of Sicily, where they're only 145 kilometers apart, connecting the two continents together by a bridge or a tunnel.

    但是在海里面有幾個地方,兩個大陸極度接近接觸,在直布羅陀海峽,它們只相距14公里,在西西里海峽,它們只相距145公里,通過一座橋或一條隧道把兩個大陸連接在一起。

  • At either of these two narrowest points.

    在這兩個最窄處的任何一處。

  • What forever changed the way that people and goods move across the world?

    是什麼永遠改變了人和貨物在世界範圍內流動的方式?

  • Island Europe is home to 746 million people and 25% of the global economy, while Africa is home to nearly 1.3 billion people and about 3% of the global economy.

    島國歐洲有7.46億人,佔全球經濟的25%,而非洲有近13億人,約佔全球經濟的3%。

  • A tunnel or bridge would connect billions of people and enable easier trade and transportation between both sides.

    一條隧道或橋樑將連接數十億人,並使雙方的貿易和運輸更加方便。

  • But actually constructing such a structure is a lot easier said than done.

    但實際上建造這樣的結構,說起來容易做起來難。

  • Let's take a look at building something across the Strait of Gibraltar first, the narrowest point here between the continents is only 14.3 kilometers wide, and here's a list of dozens of bridges that already exists that air longer than that.

    我們先來看看跨直布羅陀海峽的建設情況,這裡大陸之間最窄的地方只有14.3公里寬,這裡列舉了幾十座已經存在的橋樑,空氣比這個長。

  • The Channel tunnel that connects England with France beneath the English Channel is even longer than that to at around 38 kilometers long.

    英吉利海峽下面連接英國和法國的英吉利海峽隧道比它還要長,長約38公里。

  • The relatively shorter distance between Spain and Morocco isn't really the problem here, though.

    不過,西班牙和摩洛哥之間的距離相對較短,並不是這裡的真正問題。

  • It's the depth you see.

    你看到的是深度。

  • There is basically a giant underwater cliff right here in the middle of the straight because the water is about 900 m deep.

    因為水深約900米,所以直道中間基本上就有一個巨大的水下懸崖。

  • It some points for comparison.

    它的一些點進行比較。

  • The deepest point between England and France, where the Channel Tunnel was constructed, is on Lee 115 m beneath sea level, and that still took over six years and about €12 billion in today's money to construct building a 14 kilometer long tunnel or bridge under or over nearly a kilometer deep ocean is outside the realm of our current engineering capabilities, but it might just be possible to build one of the low key Haitian just gets shifted a little over to the west.

    英法之間的英吉利海峽隧道最深的地方是在海平面以下115米的李上,這還是花了6年多的時間和大約120億歐元的今天的錢來建造的在近千米深的海底或在近千米深的海洋上建造一條14千米長的隧道或橋樑,這不是我們目前的工程能力所能做到的,但也許就可以建造一條低調的海天只是被轉移到西邊去了一點。

  • Over here, the distance between Europe and Africa is a little longer at around 23 kilometers instead of only 14.

    在這裡,歐洲和非洲之間的距離更長一些,約為23公里,而不是隻有14公里。

  • But the ocean depth is at a much more manageable 300 m instead of 900 for another comparison, there is a tunnel under construction right now in Norway that is very comparable to this.

    但是海洋的深度是在一個更容易管理的300米,而不是900米,再做一個比較,現在挪威有一個正在建設的隧道,和這個很有可比性。

  • When completed in 2025 or 2026 the wrong fast fixed length will connect the Norwegian municipalities of random berg and broken with one another by a tunnel underneath a gigantic fjord.

    當2025年或2026年完成時,錯誤的快速固定長度將連接挪威各市鎮的隨機berg,並通過一個巨大的峽灣下面的隧道相互打破。

  • The tunnel will stretch 27 kilometers long and reach a maximum depth beneath the ocean of 392 m, meaning that this tunnel will crush both the length and depth of a hypothetical tunnel between Europe and Africa at the Strait of Gibraltar.

    這條隧道將綿延27公里長,海底最大深度達到392米,這意味著這條隧道將在直布羅陀海峽粉碎歐洲和非洲之間的假設隧道的長度和深度。

  • Once again, though, the difficulty of Gibraltar is more than just an issue with length or depth.

    不過,直布羅陀的難度又不僅僅是長度或深度的問題。

  • Another major problem is the fact that the Strait of Gibraltar rests on a seriously active geological fault line called the Azores Gibraltar Transform Fault, which cuts right through the middle of the straight.

    另一個主要問題是,直布羅陀海峽位於一條被稱為亞速爾直布羅陀變換斷層的嚴重活躍的地質斷層線上,該斷層線直接從直道中間穿過。

  • It's still an active fault line and has historically costs um, pretty massive earthquakes in the area like the 8.4 magnitude quake, the destroyed Lisbon in 17 55 and the 7.8 magnitude quake that leveled buildings and Portugal and Morocco in 1969.

    它仍然是一個活躍的斷層線和歷史上成本嗯,相當大規模的地震在該地區像8.4級地震,被摧毀的里斯本在17 55和7.8級地震,使建築物和葡萄牙和摩洛哥在1969年。

  • The existence of this fault line and the threat of large earthquakes in the future is a significant engineering challenge for any tunnel or bridge in the area to overcome that neither the Channel Tunnel nor the Norwegian Rog fast fixed length ever faced.

    這條斷層線的存在和未來大地震的威脅,是該地區任何隧道或橋樑都要克服的重大工程挑戰,這是英吉利海峽隧道和挪威羅格快速固定長度隧道都不曾面臨的。

  • So building a tunnel across the Strait of Gibraltar will be challenging for anybody who ever attempts it.

    所以,修建一條橫跨直布羅陀海峽的隧道,對任何一個嘗試過的人來說,都是一種挑戰。

  • But the other potential area for a Europe Africa tunnel that I mentioned previously would be even more complicated.

    但我之前提到的另一個潛在的歐非隧道區域就更復雜了。

  • The Strait of Sicily proposals have been made in the past for such a structure, but none have ever been incredibly serious.

    西西里海峽過去曾有人提出過這樣的結構建議,但都沒有得到難以置信的重視。

  • I'd say that's mostly because a Sicily and Tunisia are separated from each other by 145 kilometers of open ocean and be Sicily is still just a island and isn't even connected to the European mainland itself.

    我想說,這主要是因為一個西西里島和突尼西亞之間隔著145公里的公海,而且是西西里島還只是一個島嶼,甚至連歐洲大陸本身都沒有連接。

  • Which means that another bridge would have to be built between Sicily and the Italian mainland for the whole thing toe work.

    這就意味著必須在西西里島和意大利大陸之間再建一座橋,才能讓整件事成功。

  • But none of that has stopped some insane proposals from being made anyway.

    但無論如何,這些都沒有阻止一些瘋狂的提議。

  • One such idea calls for the construction of four artificial islands between Sicily and Tunisia along a straight line, and the subsequent construction of five separate tunnels connecting the islands together with the Tunisian and Sicilian mainland's.

    其中一個想法是要求在西西里島和突尼西亞之間沿直線建造4個人工島,隨後建造5條獨立的隧道,將這些島嶼與突尼西亞和西西里大陸的島嶼連接在一起。

  • These tunnels would provide nonstop rail service between Palermo and Tunis, with a total transportation time of three hours each way, and would further connect the rail network of North Africa with the network in Europe.

    這些隧道將為巴勒莫和突尼西亞之間提供不間斷的鐵路服務,單程總運輸時間為3小時,並將進一步連接北非和歐洲的鐵路網。

  • Finally, this project would hopefully be combined with a long planned and troubled Strait of Messina bridge that would hypothetically connect Sicily with the Italian mainland.

    最後,這個項目將有望與規劃已久且陷入困境的墨西拿海峽大橋結合起來,假設這座大橋將連接西西里島和意大利大陸。

  • The plan to build a suspension bridge here across the Strait of Messina has been around since the 19 nineties, but it's been fraught with problems ever since the Italian government canceled the bridge in 2006 over budget problems, resumed construction again in 2009 and then canceled it again in 2013 over even Mawr budget problems.

    在這裡修建一座橫跨墨西拿海峽的懸索橋的計劃從1990年代就開始了,但自從意大利政府在2006年因預算問題取消了這座橋,2009年再次復工,2013年又因連毛預算問題而取消後,就一直充滿了問題。

  • But if it had been built, the plan called for a 3.3 kilometer long suspension bridge that would be supported by two enormous 382 m high pillars, each one being taller than the Empire State Building and making the bridge by far the tallest structure anywhere in Italy and one of the tallest in all of Europe.

    但如果建成了,計劃要求建造一座3.3公里長的吊橋,由兩根382米高的巨大柱子支撐,每根柱子都比帝國大廈還要高,使這座橋成為目前意大利任何地方最高的建築,也是全歐洲最高的建築之一。

  • it would have accommodated six freeway lanes, a railway that could have supported 200 trains a day and two walkways.

    它本來可以容納六條高速公路車道,一條每天可以支持200輛火車的鐵路和兩條人行道。

  • It would've smashed the world record for the longest suspension bridge, more than doubling the length of the current longest suspension bridge in Japan that connects the main island of Hong Xu with the island of Awaji.

    它將打破世界最長的吊橋紀錄,比目前日本連接洪旭本島和淡路島的最長吊橋長度增加一倍以上。

  • Mainly, though, the bridge would have dramatically increased the speed and ability to travel between the Italian mainland and Sicily, but at an estimated price of over €6 billion.

    不過主要是,這座大橋將極大地提高意大利本土和西西里島之間的交通速度和能力,但價格估計超過60億歐元。

  • It wasn't going to come cheap, especially not when you consider that there's already unaffordable and easy ferry service between the two sides than anyone could take.

    這並不便宜,尤其是考慮到兩岸之間已經有了比任何人都負擔不起的便捷渡輪服務,就更不可能了。

  • Ultimately, this is the main problem with all of these crazy ideas to connect Africa to Europe or even Sicily to Italy.

    歸根結底,這就是所有這些將非洲與歐洲甚至西西里島與意大利連接起來的瘋狂想法的主要問題。

  • There's just already fairies that provide this service.

    只是已經有仙女提供這種服務了。

  • And while they're not necessarily is convenient for everyday people there dramatically cheaper to maintain than the construction of colossal mega projects.

    雖然他們不一定是方便日常的人有顯著便宜的維護比建設巨大的大型項目。

  • There are three fairies that leave every single week between Palermo and Tunis.

    有三個仙女每週都會在巴勒莫和突尼西亞之間出發。

  • They take a bit over nine hours, and they only cost 40 to €60 and there are almost constant fairies every day across the Strait of Gibraltar between Spain and Morocco that only take about an hour and only cost €35.

    他們需要9個小時多一點,而且只需要40到60歐元,在西班牙和摩洛哥之間的直布羅陀海峽,每天幾乎都有仙女不斷,只需要一個小時左右,而且只需要35歐元。

  • If you really want to take a road trip between Europe and Africa, you can easily do it today just by taking a ferry with your car like any of these.

    如果你真的想在歐洲和非洲之間來一次公路旅行,今天只要像以上的這些,只要帶著你的車乘坐渡輪,你就可以輕鬆實現。

  • And so the construction of a multi billion dollar bridge that may or may not even be possible in the first place just stops making sense.

    是以,建造一座價值數十億美元的大橋,可能甚至可能根本不可能,就不再有意義。

  • The more you kind of think about it, designing bridges between two points is incredibly challenging.

    你越是種思考,在兩點之間設計橋樑是非常具有挑戰性的。

  • If you think it's easy to design a massive bridge yourself between places like Italy and Sicily, or even between Europe and Africa, or anywhere else, you'll need a pretty firm grasp on things like physics, low distribution, tension, torque, gravity and much more and all of those things you can learn about in depth by using brilliant and taking their physics of the everyday course.

    如果你認為在意大利和西西里等地之間,甚至在歐洲和非洲之間,或者其他任何地方,自己設計一座巨大的橋樑很容易,那麼你需要對物理學、低分佈、張力、扭矩、重力等東西有相當紮實的掌握,而這些東西你都可以通過使用輝煌和學習他們的物理學日常課程來深入瞭解。

  • I've found that brilliant is incredible.

    我發現,輝煌是不可思議的。

  • A teaching regular people like you or me about complicated subjects through active learning and problem solving math and physics can seem incredibly overwhelming when you don't have someone there to help guide you through the steps in the process.

    一個像你或我這樣的普通人,通過主動學習和解決問題來教授複雜的科目,當你沒有人在那裡幫助指導你完成這個過程中的步驟時,數學和物理似乎令人難以置信地壓倒性。

  • But that's exactly what brilliant will do for you.

    但這正是輝煌會為你做的。

  • By breaking these subjects down into easy to follow bite sized chunks across a huge variety of different stem fields, you can even learn something new every single day with their short, daily challenges that each tie into one of their full interactive courses.

    通過將這些主題分解成簡單易懂的小塊,橫跨各種不同的幹線領域,你甚至可以通過他們簡短的日常挑戰,每天學習一些新的東西,每個挑戰都與他們的完整互動課程之一掛鉤。

  • If you want to learn even Maura's well, if you like watching my channel, then I know that you enjoy learning about cool things for free, so you should head over to brilliant orc slash r L L to sign up for free and then by being one of the 1st 200 people to use that link.

    如果你想學習甚至Maura的好,如果你喜歡看我的頻道,那麼我知道你喜歡免費了解很酷的東西,所以你應該前往輝煌的獸人斜線r L L免費註冊,然後通過是第1 200人使用該鏈接。

  • You'll also get 20% off of their annual premium subscription.

    你還可以享受他們年度高級訂閱的8折優惠。

  • By doing this, you'll be achieving all of your own stem learning goals, and you'll be supporting real life floor at the same time.

    通過這樣做,你將實現自己所有的乾貨學習目標,同時你也將支持現實生活中的地板。

this video was made possible by brilliant learn complex topics simply for 20% off by being one of the 1st 200 to sign up at brilliant dot org's slash real life floor.

這段視頻是由輝煌學習複雜的主題,只是為了20%的折扣,由第1 200個註冊在輝煌點組織的斜線現實生活地板之一。

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B1 中級 中文 隧道 非洲 大陸 歐洲 建造 意大利

建造歐洲到非洲隧道的瘋狂計劃 (The Insane Plan to Build a Europe to Africa Tunnel)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 08 日
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