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  • Once described as "no different to the vomit of a drunkard," sushi has been on quite a journey.


  • The story of sushi goes back to prehistoric southeast Asia.


  • There, fish was preserved by packing it with salt and cooked rice, resulting in a vinegary, fermented fish, and a gloopy ricethe rice part was truly disgusting and usually discarded.


  • In Japan, where the technique remained in use as it died out elsewhere, it was called nare-sushinare meaning aged.

    而在日本,這種技術被保存了下來,並被稱作熟成壽司 (なれ寿司),其中「なれ」是熟成的意思。

  • This was the definition of sushi for several centuries.


  • But by the 15th Century, especially in coastal areas where fish was more plentiful all year round, people were leaving it for less timeand daring to eat the rice, which, eaten early, was pleasantly tangy.


  • Two hundred years later, with Japanese demand for the taste of sushi booming, an even quicker version was invented, which involved simply adding vinegar to the rice to flavor it.


  • Finally in the 1820s, in what is now Tokyo, raw fishas fresh as possiblewas added to the rice, now no longer aged at all, and modern sushi was born.

    最後在 1820 年代,在今天東京所在的位置,盡可能保持新鮮、完全沒有經過熟成的生魚被放在飯上,而現代壽司就此誕生。

  • The Japanese called it haya-sushihaya meaning fast.

    日本人將它稱為速壽司,其中的速 (はや) 便是快速的意思。

  • Japan was a very closed country until 1854, so it wasn't until the late Victorian period that Westerners, particularly Americans, started spending time in Japan and encountered sushi.

    日本直到 1854 年開國為止都是個極為封閉的國家,因此直到維多利亞時代時,特別是美國的西方人才開始在日本定居,並接觸到了壽司。

  • It required an incredible level of skill.


  • Getting it wrong wasn't just annoying, but potentially riskyone rare delicacy, pufferfish, which today is tightly regulated, is highly poisonous if badly prepared.


  • It wasn't until the 1970s that sushi, both as a luxury treat and as a cheap street food, started to be seen outside Japan.

    直到 1970 年代,壽司才開始同時作為一種奢侈的美食與便宜的街頭小吃出現在日本以外的地方。

  • It first emerged in California, which had a large Japanese population, and followed the Japanese across the world.


  • Californians, initially aghast at the idea of eating raw fish, grew to love it.


  • But, to encourage them, Japanese sushi chefs came up with the Californian Roll, which originally contained cooked crab.


  • Other Westernized recipes followed, including the decidedly 1980s Philadelphia Roll, with smoked salmon and cream cheese.

    其他的西方化做法也隨之而來,包括了 1980 年代時發明,包著煙燻鮭魚與奶油起司的經典費城卷。

  • Most Western countries don't allow fresh raw fish to be used because of the danger from parasitesfish must be frozen, which kills the parasites, before use.


  • As sushi spread, the deeply ingrained Western fear of raw fish meant that more and more versions came into use which relied on ingredients such as cooked prawns, smoked fish or egg,


  • and where the often complex side sauces were replaced with simple soy sauce, ginger and wasabi.


  • The ultimate Westernization is probably the Asian-Latin fusion which is the sushi burrito, invented in 2011.

    其中最終極的西化結果,可能是在 2011 年時被發明出來,亞洲與拉丁元素融合在一起的壽司捲餅。

  • The first sushi restaurant in the UK opened in London in 1994, in the Citythe heart of business land.

    英國第一家壽司店於 1994 年在倫敦這座商業中心城市開張。

  • Today, sushi is booming, marketed as being healthy, convenient, and still just a little bit exotic.


  • The conveyer belt concept used in many restaurants adds a certain level of novelty, as do the chopsticksalthough according to many Japanese, sushi is best eaten with the fingers.

    眾多餐廳採用的旋轉壽司輸送帶概念增加了一些的新意,而筷子也是——雖然根據很多日本人的說法, 壽司還是用手吃最好。

  • Today, there are many types of sushi.


  • At its best, it is often still very expensive and very beautiful, and its devotees can be positively fanatical.


  • A Japanese apprenticeship lasts at least five years for a sushi chef, and both Japan and the UK have sushi restaurants which have been awarded three Michelin stars.

    日本壽司廚師的學徒期至少為 5 年,而在日本和英國都有榮獲米其林三星評等的壽司店。

  • Not bad for a food which started as a way to stop fish from rotting.


Once described as "no different to the vomit of a drunkard," sushi has been on quite a journey.


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以前居然被稱作嘔吐物?!來看日本壽司是如何發揚光大的! (How we fell in love with sushi | BBC Ideas)

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