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  • this species is best known from a partial female skeleton that got a lot of buzz in 2000 and nine.

    這個物種是最著名的從一個部分的女性骨架,得到了很多的嗡嗡聲在2000年和九。

  • Welcome to watch Mojo.

    歡迎觀看《魔域》。

  • And today we're counting down our picks for the top 10 human ancestors.

    今天我們就來細數一下我們所挑選的人類十大祖先。

  • Lucy became an almost instant celebrity and anthropological circles.

    露西幾乎一下子成了名人,人類學界。

  • It was instantly controversial, and it's still controversial to some people today.

    一下子就引起了爭議,到現在有些人還在爭議。

  • It's a bit of a mess, he said.

    他說,這有點亂。

  • Directors, you're you're kidding, right?

    導演,你是在開玩笑吧?

  • No, you really said it for this list.

    不,你真的為這個名單說了。

  • We're looking at our relatives in the evolutionary tree, whom we may have descended from or interbreed with.

    我們正在尋找我們在進化樹上的親屬,我們可能是他們的後裔或雜交。

  • So an isolated branch like Homo Florencia answers.

    所以,像佛羅倫西亞這樣的孤立的分支回答。

  • For example, thes so called hobbit people of Indonesia is out, no matter how great their nickname will be, ranking roughly in chronological order, although we will also take genetic admixture into account.

    例如,印度尼西亞的所謂霍比特人就被淘汰了,不管他們的綽號會有多大,大致按時間順序排列,不過我們也會考慮到遺傳的因素。

  • Which of these would you most like to travel back in time to meet?

    你最想穿越到過去去見哪一個?

  • Let us know in the comments.

    請在評論中告訴我們。

  • Number 10 Nikolay Pit Focus Nakayama.

    10號尼古拉坑焦點中山。

  • About 14 million years ago, the ancestral lines of the great apes began to split off from our own.

    大約1400萬年前,巨猿的祖先線開始從我們自己的祖先線中分離出來。

  • The great grand folks of orangutan's than gorillas and later chimpanzees all struck out on different evolutionary paths.

    猩猩的曾祖比大猩猩和後來的黑猩猩都走上了不同的進化之路。

  • Nikolay Piturca's Nakayama is the last known common ancestor of gorillas, chimps and humans living 10 million years ago in East Africa.

    尼古拉-皮圖爾卡的 "中山 "是生活在1000萬年前東非的大猩猩、黑猩猩和人類的最後一個已知共同祖先。

  • It was a large ape somewhere around the size of a female gorilla.

    那是一種大型猿類,大約有一隻雌性大猩猩那麼大。

  • The discovery in 2005 of its jawbone and teeth in Kenya supports the view that our evolution took place holy in Africa rather than moving to Europe and back, as had been speculated before.

    2005年在肯亞發現了它的頜骨和牙齒,這支持了這樣的觀點:我們的進化是在非洲神聖地進行的,而不是像以前推測的那樣,搬到歐洲再回來。

  • We're not descended from them where cousins off them.

    我們不是他們的後裔... ...是他們的堂兄弟.

  • So we and they go back to a common ancestor.

    所以,我們和他們要追溯到一個共同的祖先。

  • There, the chimpanzees, there's us.

    在那裡,黑猩猩,還有我們。

  • We go back to a common ancestor, number nine Suhel Anthropocene should insist This is my story on the beginning of yours.

    我們回到一個共同的祖先,九號蘇赫勒人類世應該堅持這是我的故事在你的開始。

  • Experts aren't sure when exactly chimpanzee and human ancestors diverged.

    專家們並不確定黑猩猩和人類的祖先究竟是什麼時候分化的。

  • But the discoverers of South Philanthropist cadence is a species that lived seven million years ago in Central Africa.

    但是,南菲利普斯卡登斯的發現者是700萬年前生活在中非的一個物種。

  • Believe it to be a transitional species from around the time the chimpanzee lineage branched off.

    相信它是黑猩猩系分支前後的一個過渡物種。

  • And, yeah, the name is kind of a mouthful.

    而且,是的,這個名字有點拗口。

  • Um, but this is a really important species.

    嗯,但這是一個非常重要的物種。

  • It was first discovered in 2000 and one, um, in the Central African country of Chad and so far in the last 19 years, we haven't discovered anything older that is likely to be classified as a moment.

    它最早是在2000年被發現的,還有一個,嗯,在中非國家查德,到目前為止,在過去的19年裡,我們還沒有發現任何更古老的東西,有可能被歸為一個時刻。

  • So far, the fossil evidence consists mainly of one small, distorted cranium, and the details are debated That may be close to the reality, but we don't know because we don't know about his hair, his eyes or his nose.

    到目前為止,化石證據主要包括一個小的,扭曲的頭蓋骨,細節是有爭議的。 這可能是接近現實,但我們不知道,因為我們不知道他的頭髮,他的眼睛或他的鼻子。

  • Was it our boreal or bipedal?

    是我們的北方人還是雙足動物?

  • Did it come before or after the split, or was it an offshoot of another line entirely?

    是在分家之前還是之後,還是完全是另一條線的分支?

  • Experts disagree, but the skull does seem to combine both ape like and human like characteristics.

    專家們不同意,但頭骨似乎確實結合了像猿和像人的兩種特徵。

  • Number eight Ardipithecus ramidus Some four million years ago, our curious great grand folks climbed down from the trees toe poke about on the ground.

    八號斑馬鸚鵡螺 大約四百萬年前,我們好奇的曾祖先從樹上爬下來,在地上摸來摸去。

  • This species is best known from a partial female skeleton that got a lot of buzz in 2000 and nine.

    這個物種最著名的是2000年和9年得到了很多嗡嗡聲的部分女性骨架。

  • She was nickname Artie.

    她的綽號叫阿蒂。

  • Artie was small, just under 1.2 m tall and based on the fossils of animals found around her, she lived in a wooded environment, and her skeleton told a surprising story.

    阿蒂個子很小,身高只有不到1.2米,根據周圍發現的動物化石,她生活在一個森林環境中,她的骨骼講述了一個令人驚訝的故事。

  • Their forests were dwindling as the climate became cooler and drier.

    隨著氣候變冷變幹,他們的森林也在不斷減少。

  • Ah, few scientists think that supernovae also played a role with radiation, triggering lightning storms and forest fires that created more grasslands.

    啊,很少有科學家認為超新星也起到了輻射的作用,引發了雷電風暴和森林大火,造成了更多的草原。

  • Fossil remains of Ardipithecus ramidus, unearthed in Ethiopia and dated to 4.4 million years ago, seemed to show the transition towards bipedal ism inaction.

    在衣索匹亞出土的Ardipithecus ramidus化石遺骸,年代為440萬年前,似乎顯示出向兩足動物的不作為過渡。

  • Ardipithecus takes us pretty far back toward that branch and informs us that the node point the junction, the last common ancestor, was neither human nor a chimpanzee.

    Ardipithecus帶著我們很遠地回到那個分支,並告訴我們,結點這個節點,最後的共同祖先,既不是人類,也不是黑猩猩。

  • It was something entirely different.

    這是完全不同的東西。

  • The species had a big toe ideal for grasping branches, but also a pelvic structure that may have allowed them toe walk on two legs.

    該物種有一個大腳趾,非常適合抓取樹枝,但也有一個骨盆結構,可能允許他們用兩條腿行走。

  • We go down to the pelvis.

    我們到骨盆處去。

  • We see the same thing adaptations to two legged walking, but also some primitive characteristics that seem to indicate climbing.

    我們看到同樣的事情適應兩條腿走路,但也有一些原始的特徵,似乎表明爬行。

  • And we can see that best in the nearly intact foot.

    而我們從那隻幾乎完好無損的腳上最能看出這一點。

  • According to some researchers, it's smaller.

    根據一些研究人員的說法,它的體積較小。

  • Canine teeth might suggest a reduction in aggression, foundational for cooperative social behavior.

    犬牙可能暗示著攻擊性的降低,是合作性社會行為的基礎。

  • Number seven Australopithecus afarensis Meet Lucy, one of the most famous fossils in history.

    七號澳洲疣螈 遇見露西,歷史上最著名的化石之一。

  • When you look at it as a whole, there's an amalgam of more primitive and mawr derived features that had not been seen before.

    當你從整體上看,有一個更原始的和毛爾衍生的功能的集合體,這是以前沒有看到過的。

  • In 1974 researchers found her three million year old partial skeleton in the Awash Valley in Ethiopia.

    1974年,研究人員在衣索匹亞的阿瓦什山谷發現了她300萬年前的部分骨架。

  • To celebrate, they played the Beatles song Lucy in the Sky With diamonds inspiring her name, Lucy became an almost instant celebrity and anthropological circles.

    為了慶祝,他們播放了甲殼蟲樂隊的歌曲《Lucy in the Sky》,鑽石激發了她的名字,Lucy幾乎一下子成為了名人和人類學界的焦點。

  • She didn't look like anything we had ever found before.

    她看起來不像我們以前發現的任何東西。

  • She was something very different, and because of that, she opened up for us in an entire new chapter on human origins.

    她是很不一樣的,正因為如此,她為我們開啟了人類起源的全新篇章。

  • Lucy had long arms, a small brain and a protruding jaw, but her pelvis was remarkably human, showing she could walk upright.

    露西有長長的手臂、小小的腦袋和突出的下巴,但她的骨盆卻非常像人類,顯示她可以直立行走。

  • Lucy's legs formed an angle.

    露西的雙腿形成一個角度。

  • Her knees were close together, just like our own knees.

    她的膝蓋靠得很近,就像我們自己的膝蓋一樣。

  • This'll positions the feet directly underneath the body, making walking easier and more efficient.

    這將使雙腳直接定位在身體下方,使行走更容易,效率更高。

  • It's thought that others of her species left remarkably well preserved footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania, as they tracked through the muddy ash left by volcanic eruptions.

    據認為,她的其他物種在坦尚尼亞的Laetoli留下了保存非常完好的腳印,因為它們在火山噴發留下的泥灰中追蹤。

  • Number six Australopithecus Africanus, Lucy's younger cousin, Australopithecus Africanus, holds a special place in archaeological history.

    六號非洲人北極星,露西的小表弟非洲人北極星,在考古史上有著特殊的地位。

  • In 1924 Quarrymen stumbled over its fossilized remains in South Africa, catching the attention of Australian anthropologist Raymond Dart.

    1924年,採石工人在南非偶然發現了它的化石遺蹟,引起了澳洲人類學家雷蒙德-達特的注意。

  • Darts claim that the fossil was the so called missing link between men and apes set him against many of his peers who thought modern man must have jolly welcome from Europe and not Africa.

    達爾茲聲稱,化石是所謂的人類和猿人之間缺失的聯繫,這讓他反對他的許多同行,他們認為現代人必須有來自歐洲而不是非洲的快樂歡迎。

  • It took decades, but Dart was eventually vindicated.

    雖然花了幾十年時間,但達特最終還是平反了。

  • Modern analysis reveals that the fossil, which became known as the Taung child, may have been killed by ah hungry Eagle.

    現代分析表明,這塊化石被稱為Taung孩子,可能是被啊餓鷹殺死的。

  • Ancient times were rough today, millions of years after the small hominid child met his end.

    遠古時代的今天是艱難的,數百萬年後,小人族的孩子遇到了他的結局。

  • It's amazing.

    太神奇了

  • Fossil continues to play a crucial role in our understanding of human evolution.

    化石在我們對人類進化的理解中繼續發揮著至關重要的作用。

  • Number five.

    第五個。

  • Homo habilis.

    馴鹿人

  • As the climate continued to cool and dry out 2.5 million years ago, our ancestors faced new challenges.

    250萬年前,隨著氣候的持續冷卻和乾燥,我們的祖先面臨新的挑戰。

  • Grasslands replaced forests, and old food sources became scarce.

    草地取代了森林,老糧源變得稀缺。

  • Around this time, Homo habilis, the earliest known archaic human, began strolling around the Savannah, meaning handyman.

    大約在這個時候,已知最早的古人類Homo habilis開始在大草原上漫步,意思是雜工。

  • Its name refers to the use of stone tools, possibly to butcher animals.

    它的名字指的是使用石器,可能是為了宰殺動物。

  • The increased meat consumption may have driven other changes in our evolution.

    肉類消費的增加可能推動了我們進化的其他變化。

  • It'll take more research to figure out what exactly is going on here, but that's part of what makes paleoanthropology so interesting.

    這需要更多的研究才能弄清楚這裡到底發生了什麼,但這也是古人類學如此有趣的原因之一。

  • New discoveries are made all the time.

    新的發現不斷湧現。

  • Homo habilis had a flatter face and larger brain than Australopithecus, although some scholars argue the line between them gets pretty blurry.

    智人的臉部比澳拉比丘亞人更平坦,大腦也更大,不過有學者認為它們之間的界限變得很模糊。

  • It was argued very strongly to be a contender for early Homo Andi.

    有人非常強烈地認為,它是早期智人安迪的競爭者。

  • It was instantly controversial, and it's still controversial to some people today.

    一下子就引起了爭議,到現在有些人還在爭議。

  • It's a bit of a mess, but its emergence marked a huge step towards the evolution of modern humans.

    雖然有點亂,但它的出現標誌著現代人類進化的一大步。

  • Number four Homo erectus, he said.

    四號直立人,他說。

  • Direct us.

    直接告訴我們。

  • You're kidding, right?

    你在開玩笑吧?

  • No, you really send it.

    不,你真的發了。

  • Soon a taller and more slender species was also strolling the Savannah Homo erectus, also known as Upright Man.

    很快,一個更加高大纖細的物種也漫步在大草原上直立人,也就是直立人。

  • Homo erectus, is the earliest hominid believed to have mastered fire and to have cooked food, allowing a dramatic improvement in our ancestors diets.

    智人直立人,是最早的智人,據信已經掌握了火,並能烹調食物,使我們祖先的飲食有了極大的改善。

  • It's commonly thought that Homo erectus originated in Africa two million years ago, then spread out through Eurasia.

    一般認為直立人起源於200萬年前的非洲,然後通過歐亞大陸傳播出去。

  • Although Homo erectus has also been found in Africa and Europe, anthropologists have fiercely debated for almost a century where these early Asians came from and whether they belong on our modern family tree.

    雖然在非洲和歐洲也發現了直立人,但近一個世紀以來,人類學家們一直在激烈地爭論這些早期亞洲人來自哪裡,他們是否屬於我們現代的家譜。

  • However, an origin in Asia has also been argued.

    不過,也有人認為起源於亞洲。

  • Another point of contention is its relationship to Homo or gaster, which some consider a separate species, and others African Homo erectus.

    另一個爭議點是它與Homo或gaster的關係,有人認為是一個獨立的物種,也有人認為是非洲直立人。

  • Regardless, it's pretty humbling to think that Homo erectus survived for over two million years, making our own 300,000 year history seem like the blink of an eye.

    不管怎麼說,直立人存活了兩百多萬年,讓我們自己的三十萬年曆史看起來就像一眨眼的功夫,這是很令人慚愧的事情。

  • Hi, fire number three Homo Heidelberg insists.

    嗨,火三號荷馬海德堡堅持。

  • We owe a lot to Homo, Heidelberg insists.

    海德堡堅持認為,我們欠荷馬很多。

  • If Homo erectus is our slightly eccentric grandfather, Homo Heidelberg, Insys is closer to a familiar father figure.

    如果說直立人是我們略顯古怪的祖父海德堡智人,那麼Insys則更接近於我們熟悉的父親形象。

  • They lived roughly 500,000 years ago, Um, in the middle of the place to seen.

    他們大概生活在50萬年前,嗯,在中間的地方看到。

  • They are found all over in three different continents.

    它們在三個不同的大陸上都有。

  • There's examples of them in Europe, and that's primarily where they're found.

    在歐洲就有這樣的例子,主要就是在那裡發現的。

  • While it's thought that Homo Heidelberg ANZUS descended from African Homo erectus, their time on earth overlapped for several millennia.

    雖然人們認為海德堡人ANZUS是非洲直立人的後裔,但他們在地球上的時間卻重疊了幾千年。

  • Arriving on the scene 6 to 700,000 years ago, Homo Heidelberg Antzas looked a lot like us.

    在6到70萬年前到達現場,海德堡蟻人和我們長得很像。

  • With a large brain and similar stature.

    腦子大,身材也差不多。

  • They also built permanent shelters.

    他們還修建了永久性的避難所。

  • Some fanned out throughout Europe and eventually evolved into Neanderthals.

    有些人在歐洲各地散播,最終演變成尼安德特人。

  • A few ready travelers branched out into Asia, evolving into Dennis Evans.

    幾位準備好的旅行者分支到亞洲,演變成丹尼斯-埃文斯。

  • Meanwhile, back in Africa, there emerged a new species, possibly from Homo Heidelberg, Insys, homo SAPIENs.

    同時,回到非洲,出現了一個新的物種,可能是來自海德堡人,Insys,homo SAPIENs。

  • Have you ever seen a homo SAPIEN?

    你見過同人的SAPIEN嗎?

  • You don't know?

    你不知道嗎?

  • Want to know?

    想知道嗎?

  • Yeah.

    是啊。

  • I saw one once at the zoo.

    我在動物園見過一次。

  • Describe it.

    描述一下。

  • Curry?

    庫裡?

  • Yep.

    是的。

  • Big gorilla looking.

    大猩猩的樣子。

  • He was picking his watch.

    他在挑選手錶。

  • Odili he waas?

    奧迪力他是誰?

  • Yeah.

    是啊。

  • Okay.

    好吧,我知道了

  • Number two.

    二號

  • Denise Evans.

    Denise Evans.

  • We don't know much about the denisovans Neanderthals, Eastern cousins.

    我們對東方表親尼安德特人的瞭解不多。

  • The only fossils we have are a few bones and teeth.

    我們僅有的化石是一些骨頭和牙齒。

  • This was the first time that we identified a new form of extinct human just from a genome sequence and hardly any information at all from bones a stone tools.

    這是我們第一次從基因組序列中發現了一種新的滅絕人類形式,幾乎沒有從骨骼和石器中獲得任何資訊。

  • But thanks to DNA analysis, we do know this.

    但多虧了DNA分析,我們確實知道這一點。

  • Our ancestors had a pretty crazy sex life, and we don't mean with each other.

    我們的祖先有一個相當瘋狂的性生活, 我們不意味著與對方。

  • We mean with other species of humans.

    我們是指與其他物種的人類。

  • Dennis Evans branched off from Neanderthals, but also did the dirty with, um, with us and at least one other species, possibly homo erectus.

    丹尼斯-埃文斯從尼安德特人中分離出來 但也和我們一起做了骯髒的事 至少還有一個物種,可能是直立人。

  • Their DNA tells scientists that the Denise Evans may have roamed all across Asia and based on genetic differences between the different fossils from Denise of a cave, scientists think that two of the individuals live roughly 65,000 years apart.

    他們的DNA告訴科學家,丹尼斯-埃文斯可能在亞洲各地漫遊,根據洞穴丹尼斯的不同化石之間的基因差異,科學家認為其中兩個個體的生活時間大概相隔6.5萬年。

  • In fact, today's Melanesian is, and Australian Aboriginals still carry traces of their DNA, and Tibetans might owe a gene that allows them to live at high altitudes to the same source.

    其實,今天的美拉尼西亞人就是這樣,澳洲的原住民身上還帶著他們的DNA痕跡,藏族人之所以能在高海拔地區生活,可能也是源於一種基因。

  • This indicates that Denis O Bins and their descendants may have had, ah, greater geographic area than previously thought.

    這說明,丹尼斯-奧賓斯和他們的後裔可能有,啊,比以前想象的更大的地理區域。

  • Before we continue, be sure to subscribe to our channel and ring the bell to get notified about our latest videos.

    在我們繼續之前,一定要訂閱我們的頻道,並按鈴獲得我們最新的視頻通知。

  • You have the option to be notified for occasional videos or all of them.

    您可以選擇通知您不定期的視頻或所有的視頻。

  • If you're on your phone, make sure you go into your settings and switch on notifications.

    如果你在手機上,請確保你進入設置並打開通知。

  • Number one Neanderthals, knee and itself a species of human in many ways so similar to us, and you're also very different life for our ancestors could certainly be nasty, brutish and short.

    第一尼安德特人,膝蓋和本身是人類的一個物種,在許多方面與我們如此相似,你也很不同的生活,我們的祖先當然可以是討厭的,殘暴的和短。

  • How did they cope in a world where nature was unpredictable and death?

    在這個自然無常、死亡無常的世界裡,他們是如何應對的?

  • Sudden archaeological evidence suggests that Neanderthals might have been the first humans to bury their dead and may have even held funerals.

    突如其來的考古證據表明,尼安德特人可能是第一個埋葬死者的人類,甚至可能舉行過葬禮。

  • It's hard to say if this means Neanderthals had spiritually beliefs, but we do know they were much more sophisticated than once thought.

    很難說這是否意味著尼安德特人有精神信仰,但我們知道他們比曾經認為的要複雜得多。

  • Using fire, advanced stone tools and possibly language, Neanderthals may have even painted cave art in Spain stockier, stronger and bigger brains than us.

    使用火、先進的石器和可能的語言,尼安德特人甚至可能在西班牙畫出了比我們更粗壯、更強壯、更大的大腦的洞穴藝術。

  • They nonetheless vanished about 40,000 years ago, soon after modern humans reached Europe.

    儘管如此,他們還是在大約4萬年前,即現代人類到達歐洲後不久就消失了。

  • Some scientists believe the Neanderthals were killed or out competed by modern humans or Homo SAPIENs who arrived in Europe at around the same time as the Neanderthals.

    一些科學家認為尼安德特人是被現代人類或與尼安德特人同時到達歐洲的智人SAPIENs殺死或競爭過的。

  • Extinction.

    滅絕。

  • But thanks to interbreeding, Neanderthal DNA lives on, carried in the genomes of Homo SAPIENs today, do you agree with our picks?

    但多虧了雜交,尼安德特人的DNA得以延續,今天攜帶在智人SAPIENs的基因組中,你同意我們的挑選嗎?

  • Check out this other recent clip from Watch Mojo and be sure to subscribe and ring the bell to be notified about our latest videos.

    看看這個其他最近的剪輯從Watch Mojo,並一定要訂閱和按鈴通知我們最新的視頻。

this species is best known from a partial female skeleton that got a lot of buzz in 2000 and nine.

這個物種是最著名的從一個部分的女性骨架,得到了很多的嗡嗡聲在2000年和九。

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十大人類祖先 (Top 10 Human Ancestors)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 04 日
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