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  • Let's talk dirty.

    我們來說點"髒話"吧

  • A few years ago, oddly enough,

    幾年前 奇怪的是

  • I needed the bathroom,

    我需要去上廁所

  • and I found one, a public bathroom,

    我找到了一間公共廁所

  • and I went into the stall,

    我走進廁所間的時候

  • and I prepared to do what I'd done most of my life:

    正要準備做我這一生常做的事

  • use the toilet, flush the toilet, forget about the toilet.

    那就是方便後 沖水 再將一切拋諸腦後

  • And for some reason that day, instead,

    不知道什麼原因 那天

  • I asked myself a question,

    我反而問了自己一個問題

  • and it was, where does this stuff go?

    那就是 這些東西會到哪裡?

  • And with that question, I found myself plunged

    這個問題使我陷入了--

  • into the world of sanitation --

    一個關於衛生的世界--

  • there's more coming -- (Laughter) —

    後面還有呢 --(笑聲)--

  • sanitation, toilets and poop,

    一個關於衛生、馬桶以及糞便的世界

  • and I have yet to emerge.

    而我至今還未浮上來

  • And that's because it's such an enraging,

    因為 那是個多麼令人激動

  • yet engaging place to be.

    又令人著迷的世界

  • To go back to that toilet,

    回到馬桶的故事

  • it wasn't a particularly fancy toilet,

    那個馬桶並沒有什麼特別之處

  • it wasn't as nice as this one

    也沒有比

  • from the World Toilet Organization.

    「世界馬桶組織」的馬桶來的好

  • That's the other WTO. (Laughter)

    簡稱也叫WTO的組織 (笑聲)

  • But it had a lockable door, it had privacy, it had water,

    可是它有可鎖的門 有隱私 有水

  • it had soap so I could wash my hands,

    它有肥皂可以讓我洗手

  • and I did because I'm a woman, and we do that.

    而我當然洗了 因為我是女人 我們都會洗

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • But that day, when I asked that question,

    可是那天 我問了那個問題

  • I learned something, and that was that I'd grown up thinking

    我學到了件事: 一直以來 在我成長過程中

  • that a toilet like that was my right,

    我以為使用馬桶是我的權利

  • when in fact it's a privilege.

    可是其實那是一種特權

  • 2.5 billion people worldwide have no adequate toilet.

    全世界有25億人沒有馬桶

  • They don't have a bucket or a box.

    他們沒有一個桶子或箱子

  • Forty percent of the world with no adequate toilet.

    全世界有百分之四十的人沒有馬桶

  • And they have to do what this little boy is doing

    他們只能像這個小男孩一樣

  • by the side of the Mumbai Airport expressway,

    在孟買機場的高速公路邊

  • which is called open defecation,

    這被稱為隨地排便

  • or poo-pooing in the open.

    或者叫做在戶外上大號

  • And he does that every day,

    他每天都得這樣做

  • and every day, probably, that guy in the picture

    每一天 在照片上的男人可能

  • walks on by,

    會路過 卻無動於衷

  • because he sees that little boy, but he doesn't see him.

    因為他雖然看到了小男孩 卻沒有真正看進眼底

  • But he should, because the problem

    可是他應該要的 因為

  • with all that poop lying around

    這麼多糞便在地上所帶來的問題

  • is that poop carries passengers.

    就是糞便上載著一些"乘客"

  • Fifty communicable diseases like to travel in human shit.

    50種傳染病喜歡以人的糞便來傳播

  • All those things, the eggs, the cysts,

    所有的東西 包括蛋、囊、

  • the bacteria, the viruses, all those can travel

    細菌、病毒 所有這些東西

  • in one gram of human feces.

    都可以在一公克的人類糞便中傳播

  • How? Well, that little boy will not have washed his hands.

    怎麼會呢?因為那個男孩不可能洗手

  • He's barefoot. He'll run back into his house,

    他打著赤腳 跑回家去

  • and he will contaminate his drinking water and his food

    他可能攜帶的疾病

  • and his environment

    會污染周邊的飲用水 、食物

  • with whatever diseases he may be carrying

    以及環境

  • by fecal particles that are on his fingers and feet.

    因為他的手指和腳上都有糞便物質

  • In what I call the flushed-and-plumbed world

    在這個我稱為「沖水就了事」的世界

  • that most of us in this room are lucky to live in,

    我們大部分的人都很幸運可以在這生活

  • the most common symptoms associated with those diseases,

    這些疾病中最常見的病症--

  • diarrhea, is now a bit of a joke.

    腹瀉 -- 現今聽起來是個笑話

  • It's the runs, the Hershey squirts, the squits.

    也稱為拉肚子、拉稀、澇屎

  • Where I come from, we call it Delhi belly,

    在我生長的地方 我們稱它為

  • as a legacy of empire.

    "德里腹"

  • But if you search for a stock photo of diarrhea

    可是如果你在一家領先的照片圖像公司

  • in a leading photo image agency,

    搜尋腹瀉的照片

  • this is the picture that you come up with.

    你會找到的是這張圖片

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Still not sure about the bikini.

    我不太懂為什麼她要穿比基尼

  • And here's another image of diarrhea.

    這是另外一張關於腹瀉的照片

  • This is Marie Saylee, nine months old.

    這是瑪麗賽里 九個月大

  • You can't see her, because she's buried

    你看不到她 因為她被埋葬

  • under that green grass in a little village in Liberia,

    在位於利比理亞小村莊的一片青草底下

  • because she died in three days from diarrhea --

    因為她在三天內死於腹瀉--

  • the Hershey squirts, the runs, a joke.

    也就是所謂的拉肚子、拉稀 我們當笑話來看待的病

  • And that's her dad.

    這是她的父親

  • But she wasn't alone that day,

    可那天她並不是唯一的受害者

  • because 4,000 other children died of diarrhea,

    因為還有其他 4,000 位孩童也死於腹瀉

  • and they do every day.

    每天都如此

  • Diarrhea is the second biggest killer of children worldwide,

    腹瀉是世界第二大兒童的殺手

  • and you've probably been asked to care about things

    而你們可能被灌輸要關注的是

  • like HIV/AIDS or T.B. or measles,

    一些像艾滋病、肺結核 或者麻疹的病

  • but diarrhea kills more children

    可是死於腹瀉的孩童

  • than all those three things put together.

    卻超過這其他三個疾病加起來的總數

  • It's a very potent weapon of mass destruction.

    這是一個非常嚴重的高規模毀滅性疾病

  • And the cost to the world is immense:

    而世界要對此付出的代價非常龐大

  • 260 billion dollars lost every year

    每年惡劣衛生狀況帶來的虧損

  • on the losses to poor sanitation.

    逹2600億元

  • These are cholera beds in Haiti.

    這是位於海地的霍亂專用病床

  • You'll have heard of cholera, but we don't hear about diarrhea.

    你們可能聽說過霍亂 卻沒聽說過腹瀉的問題

  • It gets a fraction of the attention and funding

    給予腹瀉的關注與資助只占

  • given to any of those other diseases.

    其他疾病的一小部份

  • But we know how to fix this.

    可是我們有解決辦法

  • We know, because in the mid-19th century,

    我們知道,在19世紀中期

  • wonderful Victorian engineers

    那些偉大的維多利亞工程師們

  • installed systems of sewers and wastewater treatment

    建造了下水道與廢水處理的系統

  • and the flush toilet, and disease dropped dramatically.

    也建造了沖水馬桶,所以疾病大幅下降

  • Child mortality dropped by the most

    當時兒童死亡率下降的幅度

  • it had ever dropped in history.

    是有史以來最大的

  • The flush toilet was voted the best medical advance

    沖水馬桶被英國醫學雜誌讀者選為

  • of the last 200 years by the readers of the British Medical Journal,

    兩百年以來最厲害的醫學進展

  • and they were choosing over the Pill, anesthesia,

    而他們要在藥丸、麻醉 以及 手術裡

  • and surgery.

    做選擇

  • It's a wonderful waste disposal device.

    這是一個美妙的廢物處理設備

  • But I think that it's so goodit doesn't smell,

    我覺得它真的很棒--不會臭

  • we can put it in our house, we can lock it behind a door

    可以把它放在房子裡 把它鎖在門後面

  • and I think we've locked it out of conversation too.

    可是同時我們也把它鎖在談話之外

  • We don't have a neutral word for it.

    對於糞便 我們沒有中性詞

  • Poop's not particularly adequate.

    “便便”並不非常適當

  • Shit offends people. Feces is too medical.

    “屎”又會得罪人 “排泄物”又太醫學了

  • Because I can't explain otherwise,

    我沒有其他辦法可以解釋

  • when I look at the figures, what's going on.

    當我看到這些數據代表了什麼

  • We know how to solve diarrhea and sanitation,

    我們知道要如何解決 腹瀉與環境衛生的問題

  • but if you look at the budgets of countries,

    可是如果你們看看這些國家的預算

  • developing and developed,

    不管是發展中國家還是已發展國家

  • you'll think there's something wrong with the math,

    你會覺得哪裏好像算錯了

  • because you'll expect absurdities like

    因為你會預期一些荒謬的情況 像是

  • Pakistan spending 47 times more on its military

    巴基斯坦花在軍事上的錢

  • than it does on water and sanitation,

    比花在水源與環境衛生的錢高出47倍

  • even though 150,000 children die of diarrhea

    儘管每年巴基斯坦會有

  • in Pakistan every year.

    十五萬位孩童死於腹瀉

  • But then you look at that already minuscule

    你再看看 那本來就極其微小的

  • water and sanitation budget,

    水源與環境衛生預算

  • and 75 to 90 percent of it will go on clean water supply,

    百分之75到90的預算會 花在乾淨的供水系統上

  • which is great; we all need water.

    這是好事;我們都需要水

  • No one's going to refuse clean water.

    沒有人會抗拒乾淨的水源

  • But the humble latrine, or flush toilet,

    可是公共廁所,或者沖水馬桶

  • reduces disease by twice as much

    所減少的疾病

  • as just putting in clean water.

    是乾淨水源的兩倍

  • Think about it. That little boy

    想想看

  • who's running back into his house,

    那位跑回家的小男孩

  • he may have a nice, clean fresh water supply,

    他可能擁有乾淨的水源

  • but he's got dirty hands that he's going to contaminate his water supply with.

    可是他的髒手會污染水源

  • And I think that the real waste of human waste

    我認為在廢物處理上真正的浪費

  • is that we are wasting it as a resource

    就是我們浪費掉 把它轉化成資源的可能

  • and as an incredible trigger for development,

    也浪費掉把它轉化成 激起巨大發展的可能

  • because these are a few things that toilets

    因為馬桶以及糞便

  • and poop itself can do for us.

    能為我們達成很多事

  • So a toilet can put a girl back in school.

    馬桶可以使一個女孩回到學校

  • Twenty-five percent of girls in India drop out of school

    在印度 百分之25的女孩們放棄就學

  • because they have no adequate sanitation.

    因為她們沒有適當的衛生設施

  • They've been used to sitting through lessons

    多年以來 她們已經習慣

  • for years and years holding it in.

    上課的時候要憋住

  • We've all done that, but they do it every day,

    我們都做過,可是她們每天都如此

  • and when they hit puberty and they start menstruating,

    當她們進入青春期的時候開始有月經

  • it just gets too much.

    對她們來說已經無法承受了

  • And I understand that. Who can blame them?

    我能理解她們 誰能怪她們呢?

  • So if you met an educationalist and said,

    所以如果你對一個教育學者說

  • "I can improve education attendance rates by 25 percent

    “我可以用一個簡單的方法”

  • with just one simple thing,"

    “將學校出席率提高百分之25”

  • you'd make a lot of friends in education.

    你在教育界就會交到許多朋友

  • That's not the only thing it can do for you.

    這還不是全部

  • Poop can cook your dinner.

    糞便可以使你飽餐一頓

  • It's got nutrients in it.

    糞便裡有營養素

  • We ingest nutrients. We excrete nutrients as well.

    我們吃進營養,同時也排出營養

  • We don't keep them all.

    我們不會留住所有的營養

  • In Rwanda, they are now getting

    在盧安達的監獄

  • 75 percent of their cooking fuel in their prison system

    百分之75的烹飪燃料

  • from the contents of prisoners' bowels.

    是來自囚犯腸道中的物質

  • So these are a bunch of inmates in a prison in Butare.

    這些犯人被囚禁在位於布塔雷的監獄

  • They're genocidal inmates, most of them,

    大部份的犯人都參與了種族滅絕的行動

  • and they're stirring the contents of their own latrines,

    他們在攪拌自己的排泄物

  • because if you put poop in a sealed environment, in a tank,

    如果你把糞便放在密封的環境里, 譬如一個儲槽

  • pretty much like a stomach,

    就像胃一樣

  • then, pretty much like a stomach, it gives off gas,

    所以呢 像胃一樣 會有氣體產生

  • and you can cook with it.

    而你可以運用氣體來烹飪

  • And you might think it's just good karma

    你可能覺得 這些人現在要攪拌自己的屎

  • to see these guys stirring shit,

    是得到應有的報應

  • but it's also good economic sense,

    可這也是符合經濟概念的

  • because they're saving a million dollars a year.

    因為他們一年可以省下一百萬元

  • They're cutting down on deforestation,

    他們減少了森林砍伐