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  • When you think about it, humans are just long donutsThere's a long and winding canal

    仔細想想,人類就是長長的甜甜圈。有一條蜿蜒曲折的長長的運河。

  • that goes from our mouths to our anuses called the alimentary canal or sometimes the gastrointestinal

    消化道

  • tract. This tube starts and ends outside of your body, and it's how you process and

    道。這條管子的起點和終點都在你的身體之外,它是你處理和處理的方式

  • extract nutrients and materials from the food you eat. But it's also a spot for potential

    從你所吃的食物中提取營養和材料。但它也是一個潛在的點

  • pathogens to sneak in. Our digestive system interfaces with all kinds of nasty germs,

    病原體潛入。我們的消化系統與各種討厭的病菌有接口。

  • and as a result, it's armed with multiple immune system resources to protect our insides

    是以,它配備了多種免疫系統資源來保護我們的內臟

  • from the outside. So today, we're taking a tour of the alimentary canal with a focus on immunity.

    從外面看所以今天,我們要帶大家參觀一下消化道,重點是免疫力。

  • Digestion itself is a long process and involves everything from mechanically

    消化本身是一個漫長的過程,涉及到從機械上的消化,再到機械上的消化。

  • grinding down food in our mouths to treating food with enzymes so that we can better absorb nutrients.

    把食物在嘴裡磨碎,到用酶處理食物,讓我們更好地吸收營養。

  • Therefore, there isn't just one immune system checkpointthere

    是以,並不是只有一個免疫系統檢查點--有

  • are safeguards along the entire system. Like the saliva in our mouths is really good at

    是沿著整個系統的保障。就像我們嘴裡的唾液,真的很擅長於。

  • starting carbohydrate digestion, but molecular components in saliva can also act as a first

    開始碳水化合物的消化,但唾液中的分子成分也可以作為第一道工序。

  • layer of defense against pathogens. For instance, an enzyme in our saliva called lysozyme can

    對抗病原體的一層防禦。例如,我們唾液中的一種叫做溶菌酶的酶,可以做到

  • slice open bacteria cells, and there are antimicrobial peptides like histatins that can inhibit the

    切開細菌細胞,有組織蛋白等抗菌肽,可以抑制。

  • growth of certain fungi. And some of those salivary glands have cells that make an antibody

    某些真菌的生長。而其中一些唾液腺的細胞能產生一種抗體。

  • called immunoglobulin A which provides protection to the cells coating the mouth. But as we

    稱為免疫球蛋白A,它為口腔塗層細胞提供保護。但是,當我們

  • get closer to the organs that absorb nutrients into our bloodstream, we need more sophisticated

    我們需要更先進的技術,以便更接近吸收血液中營養的器官。

  • safeguards in place. The first thing your food sees before being swallowed are the tonsils

    保障措施到位。食物在被吞嚥之前,首先看到的是扁桃體。

  • bits of lymphatic tissue that provide a little more protection. While we might not

    - 淋巴組織的位,提供更多的保護。雖然我們可能不會

  • care about them unless they get inflamed and we need them removed, they create an immune

    除非他們發炎,我們需要去除他們,他們創造一個免疫的

  • checkpoint between the mouth and the throat. After we swallow this chewed up chunk of food,

    口腔和喉嚨之間的檢查點。當我們吞下這塊嚼碎的食物後。

  • it goes down the esophagusjust a tube that transports that bolus of food from the

    它進入食道 - 只是一個管子,從食道運送食物栓。

  • mouth to the stomach. And the stomach itself is a major contributor to chemical digestion,

    口到胃。而胃本身就是化學消化的主要貢獻者。

  • allowing us to create enzymes like pepsin to break down peptide bonds in proteins. But

    讓我們能夠創造出像胃蛋白酶這樣的酶來分解蛋白質中的肽鍵。但是

  • it also keeps us safe from ingested pathogensThe stomach is coated in glands called oxyntic

    它還能讓我們免受攝入的病原體的傷害。胃部塗有稱為 "氧合 "的腺體。

  • glands which include cells called parietal cells that secrete gastric juice. Gastric

    腺體,其中包括被稱為頂葉細胞的細胞,可分泌胃汁。胃

  • juice is highly acidic, with a pH anywhere from 1 to 3.0. It's made up mostly of hydrochloric

    汁是高度酸性的,pH值在1到3.0之間。它的主要成分是鹽酸

  • acid, which you might've experimented with in chemistry class. This creates a hostile

    酸,你可能在化學課上做過實驗。這樣就會產生一種敵對的

  • environment that many microorganisms wouldn't be able to survive in. As we continue down

    許多微生物無法生存的環境。當我們繼續往下走

  • the canal, we see a bunch of defenses once we get into the small intestine. It is, after

    甬道,一旦進入小腸,我們就會看到一堆的防線。它是,後

  • all, where a lot of nutrient absorption happens during digestion. And if we're absorbing

    所有,其中很多營養物質的吸收發生在消化過程中。如果我們吸收

  • anything into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, we need to make sure it's not going

    血液或淋巴系統中的任何東西,我們需要確保它不去

  • to hurt us. So it's coated in a single layer of cells called the intestinal epithelium

    來傷害我們。所以它被塗上了一層單層的細胞,叫做腸上皮細胞

  • which creates a barrier against microbes. Some of these epithelial cells secrete mucins

    這就形成了一道抵禦微生物的屏障。其中一些上皮細胞會分泌粘液素。

  • that keep microbes out of the more sensitive epitheliumkind of like a sticky fly trap.

    阻止微生物進入更敏感的上皮層--有點像一個粘性的捕蠅器。

  • Others act like alarm systems that release chemical messengers when they detect a pathogen

    其他的就像警報系統一樣,當它們檢測到病原體時,會釋放化學信使。

  • and recruit white blood cells to the scene. Then there are a bunch of little lymphatic

    並招募白血球到現場。還有一堆小淋巴管

  • tissue buds scattered around the intestine that we call, appropriately, gut-associated

    散佈在腸道周圍的組織芽,我們恰當地稱之為腸道相關的

  • lymphoid tissue, or GALT. But we also have trillions of good microbes in our intestines

    淋巴組織,或GALT。但我們的腸道中也有數萬億的好微生物

  • which you might've heard of referred to as your gut microbiome. It's not the only

    你可能聽說過它被稱為你的腸道微生物組。這不是唯一的

  • colony of non human microbes you have on your body either. You have different microbiomes

    你身上的非人類微生物群落也。你有不同的微生物組

  • on your tongue and mouth, on your skin or vagina. And among the many digestive jobs

    在你的舌頭和嘴上,在你的皮膚或陰道上。在眾多的消化系統工作中

  • the gut microbiome has, it helps us defend against pathogens by competing for space and

    腸道微生物組有,它幫助我們抵禦病原體,通過競爭空間和。

  • nutrients and also secreting substances that are toxic to those pathogens. Plus, they can

    營養物質,還能分泌出對這些病原體有毒性的物質。另外,它們還可以

  • trigger our innate immune response, a generalized, first pass of immune responses, when they

    觸發我們的先天性免疫反應,這是免疫反應的一個普遍性的第一關,當他們

  • detect potential infection and to help kick start our immune systems when we're born.

    檢測潛在的感染,並在我們出生時幫助啟動我們的免疫系統。

  • These gut microbes are present all throughout your gut, and pop up again when we move into

    這些腸道微生物存在於你的整個腸道中,當我們進入了

  • the next portion of our GI tract, a chamber called the cecum, which features a little

    我們腸胃道的下一個部分,一個叫做盲腸的腔室,它的特點是有一個小的盲腸。

  • dangly organ, the appendix. In recent years, researchers have gotten rid of the idea that

    dangly器官,闌尾。近年來,研究人員已經擺脫了這樣的想法,即

  • the appendix is a useless remnant of evolution and started to understand its role in immunity.

    闌尾是進化過程中無用的遺留物,開始瞭解它在免疫中的作用。

  • The inner layers of the appendix are home to all kinds of immune cells like B and T

    闌尾的內層是各種免疫細胞如B、T等的家。

  • cells, along with natural killer cells. Plus, it houses a reservoir of those good bacteria

    細胞,以及自然殺手細胞。另外,它還儲存著那些好的細菌。

  • that can replenish your normal gut microbiome in cases where the colon needs more like after

    可以補充你正常的腸道微生物組,在結腸需要更多的像後

  • diarrhea. Our large intestines, or colons, have similar immune defenses as our small

    腹瀉。我們的大腸或結腸,與我們的小腸有類似的免疫防禦系統。

  • intestinemore lymph tissue and a slightly different makeup of gut microbes.

    腸道--更多的淋巴組織和腸道微生物的構成略有不同。

  • And those differences are due to how the large intestine

    而這些差異是由於大腸的方式。

  • doesn't absorb nutrients into the bloodstream like the small intestine doesBy the end

    並不像小腸那樣將營養物質吸收到血液中。到最後

  • of the alimentary canal, your gut and immune system will hopefully have kept you safe from

    您的腸道和免疫系統有望使您免受消化道疾病的影響。

  • all kinds of potential ingested pathogensThanks for watching this episode of Seeker Human.

    各種潛在的攝取病原體。感謝收看本期《探索者人類》。

  • If you want to learn more about the history of the immune system, check out this video

    如果你想了解更多關於免疫系統的歷史,請看這個視頻。

  • we made a few months ago. Otherwise, make sure you're subscribed so you don't miss

    我們幾個月前做的。否則,請確保您已訂閱,這樣您就不會錯過以下內容

  • any future uploads from us.

    我們今後的任何上傳。

When you think about it, humans are just long donutsThere's a long and winding canal

仔細想想,人類就是長長的甜甜圈。有一條蜿蜒曲折的長長的運河。

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B2 中高級 中文 腸道 免疫 細胞 微生物 消化 病原體

消化系統如何對抗病原體? (How Your Digestive System Fights Pathogens)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 21 日
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