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  • I've been a journalist for 32 years,

    我是一位記者,入行三十二年,

  • and I'm going to tell you about the saddest story that I've ever heard.

    如今,我想告訴大家,一個我聽過最悲傷的故事。

  • Inside Camp 14, 13-year-old inmate named Shin Dong-hyuk

    在 14 號集中營,一名十三歲囚犯,名叫申東赫,

  • betrayed his family.

    他背叛了自己的家人。

  • It was late at night, he was supposed to be asleep

    在一個深夜的晚上,本該已入睡的他,

  • but he heard his mother and brother

    無意中聽到自己的母親和哥哥

  • talking about a plan to escape from the camp.

    商討一個逃離 14 號集中營的計劃。

  • The rules of Camp 14 are clear.

    14 號集中營的規則很清楚。

  • If you try to escape, you'll be shot.

    企圖逃獄的人,一律槍決。

  • If you hear someone talking about escape

    倘若你聽見別人商量逃獄,

  • and you fail to report it, you'll be shot.

    卻知情不報,也一律槍決。

  • Shin got out of bed, told his mother he had to pee

    申東赫爬起床,跟母親說要小解,

  • walked outside and found a guard.

    就走了出去。他見到一名守衛。他決定告密。

  • While he was snitching, he asked for more food

    當他告發時,他要求有多些食物

  • and easier work.

    和少些苦差。

  • About seven months later --

    過了約七個月 --

  • about seven months later,

    過了約七個月,

  • he was taken to the execution grounds in the camp.

    他被帶到集中營的行刑場。

  • A place that he'd gone to twice a year

    這個地方,自他五歲起,

  • ever since he was five years old.

    一年就會來兩次。

  • There, the entire camp was assembled.

    整個集中營的囚犯,都被召集到那裏。

  • There were about 20,000 people in Camp 14 at the time.

    14 號集中營的囚犯,當時為數約二萬人。

  • He was taken to the front, and he witnessed

    申東赫被帶到人前,親眼目睹

  • the shooting death of his brother, and the hanging of his mother.

    他的哥哥被槍斃,母親被絞斃,

  • Before his mother died, she tried to catch his eye.

    在他母親斷氣前,她想看看他最後一眼。

  • He refused to look at her.

    他避開了她的目光。

  • For the next 10 years, he felt no guilt

    此後十年,他心中一直沒有愧疚,

  • for his role in the death of his brother and mother.

    不認為是自己害死了哥哥和母親。

  • In concentration camps survivor stories,

    在云云集中營生還者的故事中,

  • there is a conventional narrative arc.

    通常都有這樣一段經典的敘述橋段。

  • The protagonist is taken away by security forces

    主人翁被武力帶走,

  • from a comfortable home and a loving family.

    原來舒適的家、美滿的家庭亦隨之破滅。

  • The most famous of these stories, I'm sure most of you've read

    最著名的故事,我相信在座大部分人都讀過,

  • is by Elie Wiesel, it's called "Night."

    就是埃利·維瑟爾 (Elie Wiesel) 的著作《夜》("Night")。

  • In the book, he writes that, after his entire family perished

    在書中,維瑟爾寫道,當他所有的家人

  • in the Nazi death camps, he was alone.

    都在納粹集中營被殺光後,剩下他一個人。

  • Terribly alone. In a world without man,

    他何其孤單。獨自遺落在一個世界,沒有他人,

  • without God, without love, without mercy.

    沒有主,沒有愛,沒有仁慈。

  • Shin's story is even darker.

    申東赫的故事卻更黑暗。

  • Words like love, mercy, family --

    愛、仁慈、家人,這些言詞 --

  • for him had no meaning at all.

    對他根本全無意義。

  • God did not disappear or die. Shin had never heard of him.

    主不是消失或離去。申東赫根本從未聽過祂。

  • In "Night," Wiesel writes

    在《夜》,維瑟爾寫道,

  • that an adolescent's knowledge of evil should come from reading books.

    一位少年應該是從博覽群書接觸到邪惡。

  • In Camp 14,

    在 14 號集中營,

  • Shin saw only one book, a Korean grammar

    申東赫只見過一本書,就是他老師手上的

  • in the hands of his teacher. A man who wore a uniform,

    一本韓語文法書。那老師是一個穿軍服的男人,

  • had a gun on his hip, and who beat one of Shin's classmates

    腰間綁上一把槍,曾經試過用一枝黑板棒

  • to death with a chalkboard pointer.

    將申東赫的一個同學打死。

  • Shin did not abandon

    申東赫並不是看着文明

  • civilization and descend into hell.

    捨他而去,然後墜進地獄去。

  • Uniquely among all the concentration camp survivors

    有別於我們認識的所有集中營生還者,

  • we know, he was born there. He accepted its rules.

    申東赫是在集中營出世的。他對營規安之若命。

  • He regarded it as home.

    他視集中營為家。

  • In a very real way, Shin was a creation

    實實在在,申東赫可謂是一個由 14 號集中營的守衛

  • of the guards in Camp 14. They were quite literally his breeders.

    創造的成品。他們可謂是他的再世父母。

  • They chose his parents, who were young adults in the camp

    他們選擇他的父母,兩位都是營內的年青人,

  • and they ordered them to have sex.

    然後命令他們交配。

  • He was raised mostly by the guards. He had a very bad relationship with his mother.

    大部分時間,申東赫都是由守衛養大的。 他與母親的關係很差。

  • But he was raised by the guards,

    但他的確由守衛養大了,

  • to snitch on his parents, and to snitch on his friends.

    到頭來告發父母,告發朋友。

  • It was a long playing behavioral experiment

    那是一個由北韓國安部門

  • run by the security apparatus of North Korea.

    策劃實行的長期行為實驗。

  • And, it continues to this day. The rules are very simple.

    而且時至今日。矩則很簡單。

  • The more you snitched, the more you ate.

    告密愈多,吃得愈多。

  • Let me ask you, how many of you knew

    讓我問問大家,在座有多少人

  • before I started talking, that there are concentration camps in North Korea?

    在我開始說之前,早已知道北韓有集中營?

  • That's good.

    很好。

  • Well, there are about six of them. Between four and six.

    其實,北韓有大約六個集中營。大約四至六個。

  • 135,000 to 200,000 people are in them right now.

    現時約有 135,000 至 200,000 人被囚。

  • Half of them are the relatives

    半數是北韓境內

  • of perceived political enemies of the state.

    被認為是人民公敵的人的親戚。

  • The relatives.

    是親戚。

  • The way justice works in North Korea, there's collective punishment.

    北韓的司法制度,就是集體懲罰。

  • If I were to say that the leaders were stupid and corrupt

    如果我膽敢說偉大的領袖愚昧腐敗,

  • my kids and my parents would go with me to a camp

    上至高堂,下至妻房,都會陪我一起關進類似 14 號的

  • like Camp 14, and eating a diet of corn, cabbage and salt, we would all be worked to death.

    集中營,三餐吃粟米、白菜和鹽,最後勞動至死。

  • These camps have existed for half a century.

    這些集中營存在已半個世紀。

  • They're clearly visible on Google Earth, you can see them on your Smartphone.

    而且在 Google Earth 上清晰可見, 你可以在智能手機上找到。

  • North Korea continues to deny,

    北韓繼續否認,

  • officially deny that they exist.

    官方式否認集中營的存在。

  • North Korea didn't invent these camps.

    北韓並不是這些集中營的始作俑者。

  • They were invented in this form by Stalin.

    這種形式的集中營是史達林 (Stalin) 的作品。

  • But, when Stalin died in the former Soviet Union,

    但是,當史達林在前蘇聯身故後,

  • the camps died out too.

    集中營也一併滅亡。

  • In North Korea however, the camps have survived the death of founding dictator,

    不過在北韓,集中營在首任獨裁者身故後,仍繼續存在,

  • they've survived the death of his son,

    獨裁者之子死時,集中營也不受影響.

  • and they're thriving now with the third generation

    時至今日,在第三代接班人金正恩的極權領導下,

  • of totalitarian leadership, Kim Jong Un.

    集中營依然繼續旺盛。

  • Who's about 28, 29 years old. Coincidentally, he happens to be

    金正恩現年約 28、29 歲,

  • about the same age as Shin.

    恰巧與申東赫年齡相約。

  • But you can see from this slide the camps have existed

    而從這張投影片中清晰可見,

  • twice as long as the camps in the Soviet Union,

    北韓的集中營,歷時是俄聯的兩倍之長,

  • about 12 times as long as the camps in Hitler's Germany.

    更是希特拉統治德國時約十二倍之久。

  • And the reason North Korea seems to have lost none of its appetite

    而箇中原因是,北韓似乎對殘害人民

  • for being cruel to its own people.

    經已麻木不仁。

  • They're just as cruel now as they were 50 years ago.

    他們今日跟五十年前一樣殘酷。

  • The camps are operated in almost exactly the same way.

    集中營運作的方式,和以前也幾乎一模一樣。

  • Shin's story is the case study in that cruelty.

    申東赫就是那種殘酷的案例。

  • He's the only person,

    他是目前為止,

  • the only person so far, born and raised in those camps

    惟一一位,在集中營出世長大,

  • to get out and tell the story.

    並能逃脫出來,並道出故事的人。

  • But, his story is more than just a tale of state-sponsored sadism.

    不過,他的故事不只是一篇國家墜落的悲詩。

  • It is an escape adventure, and it's a story about the resilience

    他的故事是個逃亡的歷險,

  • of the human spirit.

    也是個重拾人性的故事。

  • The guards in Camp 14 spent 23 years trying to turn Shin

    14 號集中營的守衛花了 23 年時間,希望將申東赫

  • into a blinkard, malleable slave and they failed.

    變成一個唯命是從、可搓可揉的奴隸,然而他們失敗了。

  • They failed because he was very lucky when he was 23.

    他們失敗了,因為申東赫 23 歲那年,十分幸運。

  • A newcomer came to the camp, and this was an individual who had been raised in Pyongyang.

    集中營來了個新人,他是個在平壤長大的人。

  • A member of the elite. He'd been educated in the former Soviet Union.

    他是個菁英份子,在前蘇聯受過教育。

  • Shin's job, was to teach Park, that was the guy's name,

    申東赫的工作,就是教導朴先生,那位新人姓朴,

  • how to fix sewing machines in the uniform factory.

    怎樣在軍服製衣廠中修理縫紉機。

  • Shin was also supposed to snitch on Park, to find out what he thought

    申東赫也應該告發朴先生,暗中調查他對領導的想法,

  • about the leadership, and then report to his superior.

    並向上司匯報。

  • For the first time in his life, though, instead of snitching

    不過,在申東赫人生裏頭,他第一次沒有告密,

  • Shin listened to what Park had to say.

    而選擇了聆聽一下朴先生想說的話。

  • Park told him -- broke the news to him

    朴先生告訴他 -- 將驚人的消息告知他,

  • that the world was round, which was news to Shin.

    世界是圓的,對於申東赫而言是新知。

  • He told him that the United States,

    他告訴他,世界上還有美國、

  • South Korea and China existed.

    南韓和中國。

  • But, he also said, and this is what got Shin's interest --

    但是,他也說了,獨是一件吸引申東赫興趣的事 --

  • He said, "If you get out of here, if you get out of this camp,

    他說:「若你走出這裏,若你逃出集中獄,

  • and went to China, you could eat grilled meat".

    並走到中國,你可以吃烤肉」。

  • That's what interested Shin. (Laughter)

    而那就是吸引申東赫興趣的地方。(眾笑)

  • He started dreaming about grilled meat.

    他開始發白日夢.夢想着烤肉。

  • Within a few weeks he asked Shin --

    幾個星期之後,他問申東赫 --

  • Shin asked Park to escape together.

    申東赫叫朴先生一起逃獄。

  • Park agreed.

    朴先生同意了。

  • On January 2nd, 2005

    在二零零五年一月二日,

  • they went for the fence. The electric fence.

    他們前往圍欄。電圍欄。

  • The electrified fence that surrounds the camp.

    那個圍繞整個集中營的接電圍欄。

  • Shin was supposed to be the Mr Inside Guy in this escape attempt.

    申東赫本應擔當今次逃離計劃的內接應。

  • He was supposed to get to the fence first, then Park having more knowledge

    他本應先到達圍欄,然後

  • of the outside world, would lead them to China.

    對外面世界有較多認識的朴先生,就會帶路到中國。

  • Unfortunately, as they ran towards the fence, on a snowy cold evening up in the mountains,

    不幸地,當他們跑向圍欄,在一個風雪寒冷黃昏的山上,

  • Shin slipped and fell on his face

    申東赫滑倒,頭栽在雪上,

  • and Park got to the fence first.

    而朴先生首先到達圍欄。

  • He was electrocuted on the fence. Shin did not hesitate, though.

    他在圍欄上被電死。不過申東赫並無猶豫。

  • He crawled over Park's smoldering body and ran off.

    他爬過朴先生燒焦的身體,拔足而逃。

  • The Mr. Outside Guy on that escape attempt

    就是這樣,今次逃離計劃的外接應

  • unfortunately was dead on the fence.

    不幸地葬身圍欄。

  • But Shin still, through a combination of luck,

    不過,申東赫仍然,憑着運氣、

  • keeping his mouth shut, and being shrewd, he found his way out of North Corea in 30 days.

    三緘其口和一點小聰明,在三十日內找到路逃出北韓。

  • In a year-and-a-half he'd found his way across China

    在一年半時間,他找到路越過中國

  • and found his way to South Korea.

    並逃到南韓。

  • Two years later he was living in Southern California.

    兩年後,他就居住在南加州。

  • Eating at In-and-Out Burger, which he still says it's the best burger in the US.

    吃着 In-N-Out 漢堡,他至今仍然說 那家店的漢堡包是全美國最棒的。

  • (Laughter)

    (眾笑)

  • And he was working for LiNK, 'Liberty in North Korea'

    他為朝鮮人權團體 LINK, 'Liberty in North Korea' 工作,

  • as a Human Rights volunteer.

    做一位人權自願工作者。

  • But, he's not been a very happy person outside the camp.

    不過,他出了集中營後,並不是一位開心快活人。

  • He's struggling to understand what it means to be free.

    他一直在掙扎,去了解所謂的自由,究竟是甚麼。

  • He says that he's physically outside, but not psychologically outside barbed wire.

    他說,雖然人走了出來,心靈仍困在帶刺的鐵絲網中。

  • One of the things he told me is

    他曾經跟我說,

  • that he's evolving from being an animal into trying to be a human being.

    他正在從一隻牲畜演變,嘗試去做一個人。

  • But it's going very, very slowly.

    但進程緩慢,十分緩慢。

  • Very slowly. He still has dreams

    非常緩慢。他仍經常夢見

  • about his mother's death.

    母親的死。

  • What's terrifying though is that Shin's story is not an isolated tale of horror.

    可怕的是,申東赫並不是單獨成書的一部恐怖故事。

  • The two other big adjustment problems that are going on, or that will soon go on.

    還有兩個巨大的適應問題,遲早需要面對。

  • There are 24,000 North Koreans now living in South Korea.

    有二萬四千名北韓人現居南韓。

  • Almost all of them have come there in the past 12 years.

    當中幾乎所有人都是過去十二年才逃出來的。

  • Almost all of them have been examined by government psychiatrists and psychologists

    當中幾乎所有人都接受過南韓政府的精神科醫生

  • in South Korea who say that, virtually all of them are clinically paranoid,

    和心理學家的檢驗,而且都被認為是臨床性的偏執狂,

  • a useful adjustment for life in North Korea, a place that crawls with security agents

    為了在北韓這個充斥國安部隊的國度生存,也無可厚非,

  • but they have a very difficult time adapting to modern life.

    但到了適應現代生活時,就困難重重。

  • They have a hard time distinguishing between criticism and betrayal.

    他們很難分辨,何謂批評,何謂背叛。

  • And, there are 24 million people in North Korea who, if that state ever collapses

    而且,北韓現有二千四百萬人民,倘若政權崩潰,

  • will have to go through the same adjustment problems.

    他們每一個人,都將要經歷相同的適應問題。

  • And no one is thinking that North Korea is on the verge of collapse,

    雖然無人認為北韓在崩潰邊緣,

  • but totalitarian systems don't last forever.

    極權制度卻不能直到永遠。

  • And, someday, all of those people will have to go through a version

    總有一天,這些人民,每一個都要經歷

  • of what Shin has gone through.

    類似申東赫走過的歷程。

  • Now, the reason Shin told me his awful story

    現在,申東赫之所以將自己悲淒的故事告訴我,

  • was because he wants you to know

    原因是因為他想你們知道

  • that these camps are still in operation.

    這些集中營依然運作至今。

  • They're still breeding children. They're still teaching them to betray their parents.

    他們仍在繁衍兒童。他們仍在教導兒童背叛父母。

  • He doesn't believe that knowing about this is going to overthrow North Korea.

    申東赫並不認為,道出一切能夠推翻北韓政權。

  • But, he went through the humiliation of telling me his story

    然而,他向我道出自己的故事時,經歷過內心一番恥辱,

  • and he's traveling the world talking about it,

    而他現在正走遍世界,道出自己的故事,

  • because he believes that knowledge is better than ignorance.

    因為他相信,知識遠勝於無知。

  • Thank you very much.

    多謝各位。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

I've been a journalist for 32 years,

我是一位記者,入行三十二年,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 集中營 北韓 圍欄 守衛 故事 先生

【TEDx】逃出14號勞改營:從人間煉獄到自由世界的脫北者傳奇 (Escape from camp 14 -- Shin Dong-hyuk's odyssey: Blaine Harden at TEDxRainier_

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    Lim Chun Aun 發佈於 2014 年 07 月 13 日
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