Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

由 AI 自動生成
  • In the 1970's

    在70年代

  • the US government commissioned a group of 100 freelance photographers to document life

    美國政府委託100名自由攝影師記錄生活。

  • in the US. With a particular focus on the environment. And on the pollution and waste

    在美國。特別關注環境問題。以及汙染和浪費的問題

  • that ended up in our rivers and streams and lakes. These photos captured the unregulated

    最終流入我們的河流、溪流和湖泊。這些照片拍下了無節制的

  • dumping of industrial waste into these waters, marring

    向這些水域傾倒工業廢物,破壞了這些水域的環境。

  • their natural beauty. It helped the public see what a serious problem water

    他們的自然之美。它幫助公眾看到了一個多麼嚴重的問題,水。

  • had become in the US. And show why one of the country's first environmental laws

    曾在美國成為。並說明為什麼我國最早的一部環保法。

  • in 1972 was the Clean Water Act, a law that gave federal protection to

    1972年的《清潔水法》,該法給予聯邦保護。

  • US waterways from pollution from industries like mining, oil and gas extraction, real-

    美國的水道受到採礦、石油和天然氣開採等行業的汙染,真實地反映了美國人的生活方式。

  • estate developers, municipal waste agencies and agriculture. But the US has millions of

    房地產開發商、城市垃圾處理機構和農業。但美國有數百萬人

  • miles of waterways and which specific

    英里的水路,以及哪些具體的

  • waterways get this protection has been a major source of disagreement between

    水道得到這種保護的問題,一直是雙方意見分歧的主要根源。

  • the past two Presidents. And nowhere is this disagreement

    過去兩任總統。而這種分歧沒有一處是

  • felt more, than in the state of New Mexico.

    感受到了更多,比在新墨西哥州。

  • We need everything we have in our power to protect our water, for drinking, for habitat

    我們需要盡我們的力量來保護我們的水,用於飲用,用於棲息地。

  • and really for growing food

    而真正用於種植糧食

  • And as we say here in New Mexico "El agua es vida." "Water is life."

    就像我們在新墨西哥州說的那樣 "El agua es vida."(水就是生命)"水就是生命"

  • This is a map of the rivers that run through New Mexico.

    這是一張流經新墨西哥州的河流地圖。

  • The Rio Grande Valley is the main artery of New Mexico. Many people depend on it for drinking

    格蘭德河谷是新墨西哥州的主要動脈。許多人依靠它來飲用

  • water, for irrigation, for recreation and

    水、灌溉、娛樂和其他用途。

  • for spiritual values.

    為精神價值。

  • Behind me is the Rio Fernando.

    我身後就是里約費爾南多河。

  • It starts in the Carson National Forest

    它從卡森國家森林開始

  • and it comes down all the way through the town of Taos and it continues through the

    它一路向下,通過陶斯鎮,並繼續通過。

  • valleys where food is grown and it meets up with the Rio Pueblo, which then eventually

    谷地,糧食在那裡生長,並與里約普韋布洛匯合,然後最終與里約普韋布洛匯合

  • spills into the Rio Grande. It's an important river for birding, for habitat, for irrigation,

    溢出到格蘭德河。這條河對觀鳥、對棲息地、對灌溉都很重要。

  • for our farms and for drinking water, too. For the town of Taos. We are sitting alongside

    為我們的農場和飲用水,也。為了陶斯鎮我們正坐在旁邊

  • the Santa Fe River in the city of Santa Fe. Santa Fe River is basically the lifeblood

    聖菲河在聖菲市。聖達菲河基本上是生命線

  • of northern New Mexico, especially the county of Santa Fe, and it is a source of drinking

    在新墨西哥州北部,特別是聖菲縣,它是飲用水的來源。

  • water for over 80,000 people. On a map, these rivers all look like blue lines but in

    8萬多人的用水。在地圖上,這些河流看起來都像藍色的線條,但在地圖上

  • real life, they have some major differences. Some are perennial, meaning they flow year-round,

    現實生活中,它們有一些重大的區別。有的是多年生的,也就是常年流動的。

  • all the time. That describes the Rio Grande river. Some are ephemeral, meaning they flow

    一直都是這是對格蘭德河的描述。有些河流是短暫的,意思是說它們流淌著

  • as the result of precipitation; or intermittent meaning they only flow for part of the year.

    由於降水的結果;或間歇性的意思是它們只在一年中的部分時間流動。

  • The Santa Fe river and the Rio Fernando are both combinations of these two types.

    聖菲河和費爾南多河都是這兩種類型的組合。

  • Most major rivers in the US are perennial. But some regions, like the arid American West,

    美國的大部分主要河流都是常年性的。但有些地區,比如干旱的美國西部。

  • have a lot more ephemeral and intermittent water sources, than perennial.

    有更多的短暫和間歇性的水源,比常年。

  • A lot of our river flow is dependent on snowmelt

    我們的河水很多都是靠融雪來流的

  • and to a lesser degree, our monsoon rains that that come in the summer. These

    而在較小程度上,我們的季風雨是在夏天來的。這些

  • water types are basic ecological markers that help scientists classify streams and rivers.

    水類型是幫助科學家對溪流和河流進行分類的基本生態標誌。

  • But over the past several years, they've become a political distinction that determines

    但在過去的幾年裡,他們已經成為一種政治上的區別,決定了他們的命運。

  • what gets protected and what doesn't. After the Clean Water Act went into effect

    哪些會受到保護,哪些不會。在《清潔水法》生效後

  • in 1972, the assumption was that waters of the United States, although vague,

    在1972年的時候,人們認為美國的水域雖然模糊不清。

  • meant all types of water would be protected. And it made it a

    意味著所有類型的水都將受到保護。而且它使它成為一個

  • prosecutable offense for industries to pollute or degrade waterways unless they got explicit

    除非得到明確的許可,否則工業界汙染或惡化水道的行為將被起訴。

  • permission through a permit. But a pair of Supreme court cases in 2001 and 2006, brought

    通過許可證獲得許可。但最高法院在2001年和2006年的兩起案件中,帶來的是

  • by real estate developers and municipal waste agencies

    由房地產開發商和城市垃圾處理機構

  • started making exceptions for which water bodies could be protected, like

    開始對可以保護的水體做出例外規定,如

  • some wetlands and ponds. This stripping of

    一些溼地和池塘。這種剝離

  • protections prompted the Obama administration, in 2015, to release this massive,

    保護,促使奧巴馬政府在2015年,發佈了這一大規模。

  • 400-page report, based on 1,200 peer-reviewed studies on how watersheds work. The report

    400頁的報告,基於1,200項關於流域如何運作的同行審查研究。該報告

  • laid out something important about how these types of water sources interact with each

    闡述了這些類型的水源如何相互作用的重要內容。

  • other. In a watershed, like this. Where a perennial water source may be a primary waterway.

    其他。在一個流域,像這樣。的地方,多年生水源可能是一條主要的水道。

  • But ephemeral and intermittent streams and rivers feed into it. And surrounding wetlands

    但偶發性和間歇性的溪流和河流匯入其中。而周圍的溼地

  • are either connected on the surface through flooding, or under the surface, through groundwater.

    要麼通過洪水在地表連接,要麼通過地下水在地表下連接。

  • This whole watershed acts like a sponge, expanding and contracting with the volume of water,

    這整個流域就像一塊海綿,隨著水量的膨脹和收縮。

  • and sharing organisms, nutrients and pollutants. Basically the different types of waterways

    並共享生物、營養物質和汙染物。基本上不同類型的水道

  • are all connected. And if you dump pollution in one part of

    都是相通的。如果你把汙染傾倒在一個地方

  • the system, it will eventually make its way to other parts.

    系統,它最終會進入其他部分。

  • This report informed the Obama Administration's Clean Water Rule, which established that all

    該報告為奧巴馬政府的《清潔水規則》提供了資訊,該規則規定所有的

  • of these waters should be protected under the Clean Water Act, because they promote

    這些水體應根據《清潔水法》加以保護,因為它們促進了以下方面的發展

  • the health of all water. But in 2020, to appease industry

    全水的健康。但在2020年,為了安撫行業

  • leaders, the Trump administration finalized

    領導人,特朗普政府最終確定了

  • a rule that reversed Obama's Clean Water Rule, and excluded

    顛覆奧巴馬的《清潔水規則》的規則,並排除了《清潔水規則》。

  • intermittent, ephemeral, and isolated wetlands from federal protection.

    間歇性、短暫性和孤立的溼地,不受聯邦保護;

  • The dirty water rule. It's so much easier to call it that because it is taking away

    髒水規則。它是如此更容易調用它,因為它是奪走了

  • 90 percent of the protections in New Mexico.

    新墨西哥州90%的保護措施。

  • Trump's ruling means that there's no more federal protection

    特朗普的裁決意味著沒有聯邦保護了

  • for more than 2 million miles of US rivers

    為美國200多萬英里的河流提供服務

  • and streams, which ultimately flow into other water bodies. As well as more than half

    和溪流,最終流入其他水體。以及一半以上的

  • of all remaining wetlands in the country, roughly 56 million acres, water bodies that

    佔全國所有剩餘溼地的比例,約5600萬畝,水體的

  • help prevent

    有助於防止

  • flooding and serve as a wildlife habitat for migrating birds. And because

    洪水,並作為候鳥的野生動物棲息地。而且由於

  • there's no penalty for polluters in these waters,

    在這些水域中,對汙染者沒有懲罰。

  • it means that the cost of cleaning up pollution

    這意味著清理汙染的成本

  • will now fall on local and state governments. This is an affront to every single county

    現在將落在地方和州政府身上。這是對每個縣的侮辱

  • commissioner throughout the United States...who has to clean their water. The more money they

    專員在美國各地... ...誰必須清潔他們的水。他們的錢越多

  • have to spend on cleaning their water, the more taxes they have to raise to take care

    要花錢清潔他們的水,更多的稅收,他們必須提高照顧。

  • of their constituents... Some states lose more protection than

    的選民...有些州失去的保護比

  • others, like in northern New Mexico, where a

    另一些地方,比如在新墨西哥州北部,在那裡,有很多人都是在新墨西哥州。

  • watershed like this one,

    像這樣的分水嶺。

  • lost protection on more than 55% of its wetland acres, and 63%

    55%以上的溼地面積失去保護,63%的溼地面積失去保護。

  • of its protection of streams and rivers. And across the state, up to 90% of waterways lost

    其對溪流和河流的保護。而在全州範圍內,高達90%的水道失去了。

  • protection because of this new rule.

    由於這一新規則,保護。

  • So when those federal protections are taken away we do not have a state structure or regulation

    所以,當這些聯邦保護被取消後,我們就沒有了州的結構和法規。

  • in place to fill that gap. And that leaves our waters really at risk to unregulated dumping

    以填補這一空白。而這讓我們的水域真正面臨著無管制傾倒的風險。

  • in the wake of this rule.

    在這一規則出臺後,。

  • Lots and lots of threatened and endangered birds live

    很多很多受威脅和瀕臨滅絕的鳥類生活在這裡。

  • here on this property and all up and down the Rio Fernando.

    這裡的財產和所有上下里奧費爾南多。

  • It's a devastating impact to our community, to New Mexico.

    這對我們的社區,對新墨西哥州都是毀滅性的影響。

  • The fate of which waterways get protection under the Clean Water Act now lies with the

    哪些水道能得到《清潔水法》的保護,現在取決於政府。

  • Biden administration, Which is likely to overturn the Trump administration rule, and revert

    拜登政府很可能會推翻特朗普政府的規則,並恢復

  • back to the stricter protections from the Obama era, based on

    回到奧巴馬時代更嚴格的保護,基於。

  • the science of the 2015 water report. But that won't be without a legal fight from

    2015年水報告的科學性。但是,這不會沒有法律鬥爭,從

  • the industries that have a lot to gain from looser protections.

    寬鬆的保護措施會給這些行業帶來很多好處。

  • The dirty water rule was supported by polluters... And I imagine that they're going to fight

    髒水規則得到了汙染者的支持... ...我猜想,他們將與之鬥爭

  • to ensure that this rule makes it into the next administration's priorities. We worked

    以確保這項規則被納入下一屆政府的優先事項。我們努力

  • so hard since the 1970's to clean up our rivers, it's just shame to take these steps

    自七十年代以來,我們一直在努力清理我們的河流,只是可惜了這些步驟。

  • backwards in protecting our nation's waters.

    在保護我們國家的水域方面出現了倒退。

In the 1970's

在70年代

字幕與單字
由 AI 自動生成

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B1 中級 中文 Vox 保護 河流 水道 規則 汙染

美國西部為什麼要為保護水資源而戰? (Why the American West is fighting for water protections)

  • 3 0
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 05 日
影片單字