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  • In May of 1822, Count Christian Ludwig von Bothmer

    1822年5月,克里斯蒂安-路德維希-馮-博特默伯爵。

  • shot down a stork over his castle grounds in North Germany.

    在北德的城堡上空擊落了一隻鸛鳥。

  • However, he wasn't the first person to hunt that specific bird.

    然而,他並不是第一個獵殺這種特殊鳥類的人。

  • Upon recovering the stork,

    收回鸛鳥後。

  • von Bothmer found it impaled by a yard long wooden spear.

    馮-博特默發現它被一碼長的木矛刺穿了。

  • A local professor determined the weapon was African in origin,

    當地教授確定該武器來自非洲。

  • suggesting that somehow, this stork was speared in Africa

    這說明這隻鸛鳥是在非洲被人用魚叉釣上來的。

  • and then flew over 2,500 kilometers to the count's castle.

    然後飛了兩千五百多公里,來到了伯爵的城堡。

  • This astonishing flight wasn't just evidence of the stork's resilience.

    這種驚人的飛行不僅證明了鸛鳥的韌性。

  • It was an essential clue in a mystery that plagued scientists for centuries:

    這是困擾科學家數百年之久的一個謎團的重要線索。

  • the seasonal disappearance of birds.

    鳥類的季節性消失;

  • Ancient naturalists had various theories to explain the annual vanishing act

    古代自然學家有各種理論來解釋每年的消失行為。

  • we now know as migration.

    我們現在知道的移民。

  • Aristotle himself proposed three particularly popular ideas.

    亞里士多德自己提出了三個特別流行的觀點。

  • One theory was that birds transformed into different bodies that suited the season.

    有一種說法是,鳥兒會根據季節變換成不同的身體。

  • For example, summer time garden warblers

    例如,夏季的花園鶯

  • were believed to transform into black caps every winter.

    相信每年冬天都會變成黑帽。

  • In reality these are two distinct speciessimilar in shape and size,

    實際上這是兩個不同的物種--形狀和大小相似。

  • but never appearing at the same time.

    但從不同時出現。

  • Over the following centuries, birds were said to morph into humans,

    在隨後的幾個世紀裡,據說鳥類蛻變成了人類。

  • plants, and even the timbers of ships.

    植物,甚至船舶的木材。

  • This last transmutation was especially popular with many Christian clergy.

    最後的這種嬗變尤其受到許多基督教神職人員的歡迎。

  • If barnacle geese were truly made of wood,

    如果藤壺鵝真的是木頭做的。

  • they could be deemed vegetarian and enjoyed during meatless fasts.

    它們可以被視為素食,在無肉齋期間享用。

  • Aristotle's second and even more enduring hypothesis was that birds hibernate.

    亞里士多德的第二個、也是更持久的假說是鳥類冬眠。

  • This isn't so far-fetched.

    這並不是那麼牽強。

  • Some species do enter short,

    有些品種確實進入短。

  • deep sleeps which lower their heart rates and metabolisms.

    深度睡眠,降低他們的心率和新陳代謝。

  • And there's at least one truly hibernating bird:

    而且至少有一隻真正的冬眠鳥。

  • the common poorwill sleeps out winters in the deserts of North America.

    普通的窮人會在北美洲的沙漠裡過冬。

  • But researchers were proposing much more outlandish forms of hibernation

    但研究人員提出了更離奇的冬眠形式。

  • well into the 19th century.

    一直到19世紀。

  • Barn swallows were said to remove their feathers and hibernate in holes,

    據說,穀倉燕會脫去羽毛,在洞中冬眠。

  • or sleep through the winter at the bottom of lakes and rivers.

    或在湖底、河底露宿過冬。

  • Aristotle's final theory was much more reasonable,

    亞里士多德最後的理論更為合理。

  • and resembled something like realistic migration.

    並類似於現實遷移的東西。

  • However, this idea was also taken to extremes.

    然而,這種想法也被推向了極端。

  • In 1666, the leading migration advocate was convinced that each winter,

    1666年,主要的移民倡導者確信,每年冬天。

  • birds flew to the moon.

    鳥兒飛到了月球上。

  • It might seem strange that prominent researchers considered such bizarre ideas.

    著名的研究人員認為這樣的怪異想法似乎很奇怪。

  • But to be fair, the true story of migration

    但平心而論,移民的真實故事

  • may be even harder to believe than their wildest theories.

    可能比他們最瘋狂的理論更難相信。

  • Roughly 20% of all bird species migrate each year,

    每年大約有20%的鳥類會遷徙。

  • following warm weather and fresh food around the planet.

    繼溫暖的天氣和新鮮的食物在地球上。

  • For birds who spend their summers in the northern hemisphere,

    對於在北半球度過夏天的鳥類。

  • this journey can span from 700 to over 17,000 kilometers,

    這段旅程可以從700公里到17000多公里。

  • with some flights lasting as long as four months.

    有些飛行時間長達四個月。

  • Birds who migrate across oceans may soar without stopping for over 100 hours.

    跨洋遷徙的鳥類可能會不停歇地飛翔100多個小時。

  • Sleeping and eating on the fly, they navigate the endless ocean

    睡覺和吃飯都在飛,它們在無邊無際的海洋中航行

  • by the stars, wind currents, and Earth's magnetic field.

    由恆星,風流,和地球磁場。

  • Tracking the specifics of these epic expeditions is notoriously difficult.

    追蹤這些史詩性探險的具體情況是出了名的困難。

  • And while birds often take the most direct route possible,

    而鳥類往往走的是最直接的路線。

  • storms and human development can alter their paths,

    風暴和人類發展會改變它們的路徑。

  • further complicating our attempts to chart migration.

    使我們繪製遷移圖的嘗試更加複雜。

  • Fortunately, Count von Bothmer's stork offered physical proof

    幸運的是,馮-博特梅爾伯爵的鸛鳥提供了實物證明。

  • not only that European storks were migrating south for the winter,

    不僅如此,歐洲的鸛鳥也在南遷過冬。

  • but also where they were migrating to.

    但也是他們遷徙到哪裡。

  • Ornithologists across the continent

    整個大陸的鳥類學家

  • were eager to map the trajectory of this flight,

    急於繪製這次飛行的軌跡。

  • including Johannes Thienemann.

    包括Johannes Thienemann。

  • Owner of the world's first permanent bird observatory,

    世界上第一個永久性鳥類觀測站的主人。

  • Thienemann was a major public advocate for the study of birds.

    Thienemann是鳥類研究的主要公共倡導者。

  • And to solve the field's biggest mystery,

    並解開這個領域最大的謎團。

  • he wrangled an army of volunteers from across Germany.

    他召集了一支來自德國各地的志願者軍隊。

  • His team used aluminum rings to tag the legs of two thousand storks

    他的團隊用鋁環給兩千只鸛鳥的腿貼上標籤。

  • with unique numbers and the address of his offices.

    有獨特的號碼和辦公室地址。

  • Then he advertised the initiative as widely as possible.

    然後,他儘可能廣泛地宣傳這一舉措。

  • His hope was that word of the experiment would find its way to Africa,

    他希望實驗的消息能傳到非洲。

  • so people finding the tags would know to mail them back with more information.

    這樣發現標籤的人就會知道把標籤寄回去,並提供更多的資訊。

  • Sure enough, from 1908 to 1913,

    果然,從1908年到1913年。

  • Thienemann received 178 rings, 48 of which had been found in Africa.

    Thienemann收到178枚戒指,其中48枚是在非洲發現的。

  • Using this data, he plotted the first migration route ever discovered,

    利用這些數據,他繪製了有史以來發現的第一條遷徙路線。

  • and definitively established that storks were not, in fact, flying to the moon.

    並明確地確定了鸛鳥其實並沒有飛到月球上。

In May of 1822, Count Christian Ludwig von Bothmer

1822年5月,克里斯蒂安-路德維希-馮-博特默伯爵。

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 鳥類 伯爵 繪製 非洲 移民

3個關於鳥類遷徙的奇異(和令人愉快)的古老理論--露西-庫克。 (3 bizarre (and delightful) ancient theories about bird migration - Lucy Cooke)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 17 日
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