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  • Our planet is getting warmer.


  • Exactly how much warmer it's going to get in the future is anybody's guess.


  • But let's just say for fun that the Earth's average temperature increases by.


  • Oh, I don't know, let's say four degrees Celsius by the end of the 21st century.


  • How will that change our planet's geography?


  • And how will it change all of our daily lives?


  • For starters, the scenario is based on a map created by a guy named Parag Khanna in his book, Connect Ah Graffiti, which was published four years ago.

    首先,這個方案是基於一個叫Parag Khanna的人在他四年前出版的《連接啊塗鴉》一書中創作的地圖。

  • Back in 2016, the link for which is down in the description Now.


  • In the book, Khanna created this map that shows what a speculative world would look like.


  • That's four degrees Celsius warmer, and there's a lot of interesting implications to unpack here.


  • First off the bad news.


  • Most of the world is now a desert, which sucks.


  • Just look at how much sand there is on this map.


  • now cheese.


  • Every continent in the world is now home to massive deserts, and Africa is effectively an entire desert continent.


  • Extreme weather, droughts and floods render most of the rest of Earth's surface uninhabitable in their own ways, and the Onley habitable zones left on the planet are the narrow bands of land closer to the poles.


  • So here's a list of the most heavily screwed over countries in the world.


  • And what would happen to them in the scenario followed by the countries that might actually be kind of okay and maybe actually benefit the most china almost entirely an uninhabitable desert, The yellow and Yangtze rivers dry up, and intense weather erodes much of the land away, which leaves behind a vast and sparsely populated desert.


  • Almost everybody living here will have to evacuate, which is over 1.4 billion people.


  • The same thing will happen in Korea and Japan, to which also effectively become hot uninhabitable Desert Indonesia, significant parts of the island chain or submerged underwater from rising seal levels.


  • Borneo becomes a desert and the rest of the island's air, plagued by extreme weather and floods.


  • Most of the islands and Polynesia gone just con all underwater 100% evacuation of the populations are necessary.

    大部分的島嶼和波利尼西亞都被淹沒在水下 100%的人口疏散是必要的。

  • The Indian subcontinent Bangladesh is almost entirely flooded and underwater from rising sea levels, meaning that almost all of the 160 million plus people who live here will have to be relocated.


  • Most of the glaciers in the Himalayas have melted, which contributes toe mighty rivers like the Ganges and the Indus.


  • To dry up.


  • Most of India becomes a desert, with only a tiny habitable area in the far south still remaining suitable for agriculture and human life.


  • Pakistan is plagued by severe droughts after the Indus dries up, meaning that only isolated pockets of human communities will be able to continue existing here.


  • Most of the population will have to be relocated elsewhere.


  • Africa is now an entire desert continent, but with some potential to re force the suhel, Africa's entire population will have to either concentrate into just the suhel or evacuate to the more habitable zones.


  • On other continents, South America is mostly pretty screwed.


  • The Amazon rain forest is destroyed and transforms into a massive desert.


  • The glaciers high up in the Andes mostly melt away, just like in the Himalayas, leaving areas like Peru a dry and uninhabitable wasteland.


  • Brazil is plagued by desserts, floods and droughts and will have to mostly be evacuated.


  • The only part of South America that will be productive and remain highly livable is the far southern reaches of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina.


  • Patagonia is sparsely populated and cold today, but the warming climate and the melting glaciers will give rise to plentiful arable land that could be well suited to agriculture and human life.


  • So most of South America's population will have to either concentrate down just here or flee to other continents.


  • Now Australia is interesting because it's not all bad.


  • The East Coast, where most of the population is concentrated today, would be totally desertified, and most people there would have to evacuate.


  • But new habitable areas that are better for agriculture and development would pop up in northern Australia and Tasmania, while the West Coast would become a pretty ideal place to regrow some forests.


  • New Zealand, on the other hand, will be almost entirely unrecognizable from what it looks like today.


  • The islands will be one of the few truly habitable locations remaining on the planet and tens of millions of refugees from across the world will probably end up having to be resettled here.


  • New Zealand will probably end up becoming one of the most densely populated areas in the world with massive cities, and the country will likely rise up to the status of a global great power.


  • But other great powers will exist in this new, warmer world to the United States.


  • While severely weakened by most of her territory, transforming into a desert will likely still remain at least a great power because of Alaska and the far northern states.


  • States like Washington, Montana, North Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin will still remain habitable and be highly suitable for agriculture.


  • While Alaska will suddenly become extremely pleasant, most of the American population will have to be relocated to these handful of states.


  • But Alaska is enormous, and it's mostly uninhabited Today, it's almost one third of the size of the lower 48 US states, all on its own.


  • And with the warmer climate, Alaska could actually be you used for farming.


  • It's also rich in natural resources, like oil that would be more easily accessible, and it could probably end up sustaining tens of millions of people living there.


  • So just like New Zealand, Alaska would be unrecognizable to what it looks like today.


  • With massive cities home to probably hundreds of millions of people, Anchorage, Fairbanks, Seattle and Minneapolis would probably become the new most significant cities in the United States, a country that would probably diminish in power but likely still remain at least a great power over in Europe.


  • The U.


  • K and Ireland would still remain highly habitable, with a climate that probably more resemble southern France or Spain today.


  • And just like New Zealand in the United States, the U.


  • K would probably be one of the warmer new worlds, great powers.


  • But newer great powers would emerge from the Nordic countries.


  • Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland and Iceland would all find themselves in a very strategic position, with significantly warmer climates than today, much better prospects for farming and a highly strategic location near the now summer ice free Arctic Ocean.


  • All of the Nordic countries would have potential to achieve great power status, with enough room for tens of millions of new people to settle in each.


  • But the one in the best position is probably Denmark because of their ownership over Greenland.


  • Greenland is gigantic, but it's extremely underdeveloped today, with only 56,000 people living there because it's mostly all covered in a huge ice sheets.


  • In this warmer climate, though, Greenland's ice sheet would be rapidly melting, which would reveal in almost new world for colonization and resource exploitation.


  • Greenland would rapidly be becoming very habitable and pleasant to live on, particularly on the west coast of the island, where Denmark could resettle tens of millions of people from across the world on Denmark's overall population could therefore soar into the hundreds of million's, potentially depending on how much of Greenland is opened up by the retreating ice sheet on their own, the Nordic countries will each become the new major European great powers at the expense of other countries, turning largely into deserts like Spain, Italy, France or even Germany and other countries going underwater like the Netherlands and Belgium.


  • If the Nordics could manage to overcome their differences and unite in the warmer world, it's highly likely that they would become a legitimate global superpower.


  • But there would still be to other countries that would be in an even better position to become superpowers, Canada and Russia.


  • Just take a look at all of this nice, warm, inhabitable land that both countries would control.


  • That's mostly a frozen hell hole.


  • Today, nearly all of Canada would become nice and pleasant, with an ideal farming climate that could grow most of the world's crops.


  • The Arctic Passage, meanwhile, would be free of ice year round.


  • And with most so the world's population now living around the Arctic Circle in Canada, Alaska, the Nordic States and Russia, the Arctic Passage is without a doubt going to become the new most valuable trade route in the entire world that connects them all together.


  • Canada's population today is only 37 million people, and the overwhelming majority of all of this land is uninhabited.


  • So if she wishes, Canada could open up the floodgates of resettlement and immigration and resettle hundreds of millions of people from across the world into all of this open land that will now actually be easy to develop.


  • Canada's superpower status would be almost assured in the long run, and she would likely simply replace the United States on the world stage.


  • Meanwhile, the country that would be somehow in an even better position to claim superpower status would give Russia.


  • Russia has even more land than Canada, and even Mawr of this land would become warmer and suitable for agriculture and mining.


  • Siberia is enormous, and it's rich with resource is that are hard to get to right now because of the cold climate.


  • But that drastically changes.


  • Under this scenario, the biggest problems preventing Russia from becoming um, or significant power than she could be have always been the cold climate that she finds herself trapped in.


  • Russia has historically almost always been a nef, effectively landlocked state because most of her coastline is covered by ice for a significant part of the year.


  • In modern times, the Onley ports that Russia controls that air ice free year round are in Kaliningrad on the Baltic and the Crimean caucuses ports on the Black Sea.


  • The problem has always been, though, that both of these port areas are incredibly easy to blockade because ships have to pass through the choke points of either the Danish Straits in the Baltic or the Dardanelles in the Black Sea.


  • Russia's entire history and geopolitical strategy has been dominated for centuries by this geographic reality and the need to have ports on warmer water that aren't as easy to blockade.


  • If the world warms up by four degrees Celsius, though, this entire reality changes forever.


  • Russia's massive northern coast along the Arctic and the Sea of Okhotsk in the Pacific opens up year round without any ice for the first time ever, allowing Russia to finally build ports wherever she wants without having toe 100% rely on the Baltic and Black Sea ports during winter.


  • Russia's enormous and sparsely populated Asian territory is finally available for massive colonization and development efforts with enormous supplies of resource is that will be easy to get to now.


  • Russia will be in the best possible position in the warm new world too quickly accelerate to a superpower status and position is so good, Russia will probably end up becoming the most powerful and dominant country in the world, capable of resettling billions of people from other regions of the world.


  • Inside of her borders, Russia and Canada both will be almost unrecognizable to what they are today, but maybe not so unrecognizable as Antarctica.


  • Antarctica will actually start to be greening if the world gets this warm, which has a lot of interesting implications.


  • The westernmost side of Antarctica will be green and actually suitable for agriculture and colonization Here.


  • Currently, western Antarctica is claimed by the overlapping claims of the United Kingdom, Argentina and Chile, while another fast area is currently not claimed by anybody.


  • Nobody permanently lives here and with the area all of a sudden becoming green, farmable and livable.


  • And with billions of homeless climate refugees needing a new place to go, a new colonial scramble for Antarctica could quickly ensue.


  • The UK, Argentina and Chile could enter into conflicts over their competing claims, while other great powers like Canada and Russia would probably try and stake their own colonial claims over the currently unclaimed land.


  • And all the while, the billions of refugees from uninhabitable desert countries would probably just be clamoring to be resettled onto the currently unoccupied and now green Antarctic land.


  • Antarctica will become one of the potential global flashpoints and source of enormous controversy in this new warm world.


  • Would Antarctica be ruled by various different colonial powers, with settlers reminiscent of the age of discovery?


  • Would the United Nations intervene and attempt to resettle a green Antarctica with the billions of climate refugees in desperate need of a new home would in New Antarctica as a brand new country, rise up out of nowhere over time.


  • That's made up of a culture of people from all over the world displaced by runaway climate change, vengeful at the rest of the world for screwing them over and destroying their ancestral homelands.


  • There's no real way to tell, but the extreme speculation is effectively endless.


  • Natural disasters that destroy communities will be a defining characteristic of the 21st century.


  • Learning about how destructive disasters could be and how societies can avoid them is fascinating to me, and I recently watched an excellent documentary on curiosity stream that details the raw power of one of the greatest of all these disasters, tsunamis.


  • It chronicles a worldwide scientific investigation into tsunami threats across the world, where they strike, how they submerge coastal cities and how you can survive one when they strike.


  • The documentary is nearly an hour long, and it's just one of thousands of documentaries by award making filmmakers that's available on curiosity stream right now and a subscription Onley costs 11 99 for an entire year.

    這部紀錄片時長近一個小時,它只是現在好奇流上數千部獲獎電影人的紀錄片中的一部,訂閱Onley的費用是11 99元,可以看一整年。

  • That's only a dollar a month for three thousands of professionally made documentaries that you could be watching right now.


  • But best of all, with that subscription, you'll also get free access to Nebula, the streaming service created by myself and many of my fellow educational YouTube creators.


  • In fact, on there you can watch all real life floor, fake life floor and Real Life Lord two videos ad free plus big special exclusive projects from creators like the World's Most Useful Airport from Wendover Productions or Tom Scott's new game show Money.

    事實上,在那裡,你可以免費觀看所有的真人樓、假人樓和真人主兩個視頻,還有來自創作者的大型特別獨家項目,比如來自Wendover Productions的《世界上最有用的機場》或Tom Scott的新遊戲節目Money。

  • So go ahead and watch a ton of awesome content on both platforms.


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地球的地理環境將如何隨著氣候變化而變化 (How Earth’s Geography Will Change With Climate Change)

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