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  • There's a lot of excitement right now around the record-speed vaccines for COVID-19,

    目前,人們對 COVID-19 疫苗的創紀錄的速度感到興奮,

  • some of which are already starting distribution in parts of the world.


  • But given that these are mRNA vaccines, a relatively new technology that has not been widely used before,


  • we wanted to explain how they work and what happens to your body from the moment that needle touches your skin.


  • Like the vaccines we're used to seeing, these vaccines will be injected into the upper muscle of your arm.


  • But, unlike typical vaccines, which introduce inactive or weakened forms of a virus,


  • these will release genetic material called messenger RNA.

    這些疫苗會釋放一種被稱為 mRNA 的基因物質。

  • So, what exactly does this mRNA do?

    那麼,這個 mRNA 到底是做什麼的?

  • Well, in a regular cell of your body, you have DNA inside of the nucleus,


  • and this DNA stores all the information and instructions important to the functioning of your cells, your body, and, ultimately, makes you you.

    這個 DNA 存儲了所有對你的細胞和身體功能重要的信息和指令,並最終使你成為你自己

  • Inside your cell is machinery that reads through your DNA and transcribes it into mRNA,


  • which then leaves the nucleus and goes into your cytoplasm.

    然後 mRNA 離開細胞核進入細胞質。

  • And it's here that the ribosomes in your cells read the RNA and, depending on the specific code, build a series of amino acids, which fold in on themselves to make proteins, which keep you alive and functioning.

    正是在這裡,細胞中的核糖體讀取 RNA 訊息,並根據特定代碼構建一系列氨基酸,這些氨基酸自身折疊成蛋白質,,從而使您保持活力和功能。

  • This process is known as translation.


  • In fact, it's this process that viruses take advantage of in the first place.


  • They insert their own genetic information into you, and then your cell machinery unwillingly starts taking that information and building proteins to help create more viruses.


  • So, back to the needle: The mRNA that is being injected into you from the vaccine also carries genetic instructions,

    所以,回到針的問題上,從疫苗注射到你體內 mRNA 也帶有基因指令,

  • but in this case, it's only coding for one small part of the virus instead of the whole thing.


  • You've probably seen SARS-CoV-2 represented like this, with the spikes on it,


  • and it's this spike protein, which, on its own is harmless, that the vaccine's mRNA code's for.

    這種棘狀蛋白本身是無害的,疫苗的 mRNA 代碼正是針對這種棘狀蛋白。

  • The mRNA makes its way into the cytoplasm of your cells where the ribosomes read the information and start to create the spike proteins.

    mRNA 進入細胞的細胞質,即核糖體讀取資訊的地方, 並開始創建棘狀蛋白。

  • Once the protein is made, it goes to the cell membrane, and then your cell breaks down and destroys the injected mRNA instructions.

    蛋白質一旦製成它會進入細胞膜,然後你的細胞就會分解並破壞注入的 mRNA 指令。

  • So, what good does having a tiny fragment of viral spike in your body do?


  • Well, it gives your body and, more importantly, your immune system, a preview of what the virus looks like without causing disease.


  • Suddenly, your antibodies will notice it and go, "Well, this doesn't belong here",


  • which triggers an immune response to recognize and prepare your body for the real thing without ever having to come in contact with the actual virus itself.


  • Your immune system essentially gets a head start by creating powerful antibodies that can neutralize and kill the real virus.


  • And this antibody "memory" is stored in your B cells so that if you are ever infected in the future with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, your body now has the upper hand.

    這種抗體記憶儲存在你的 B 細胞中,這樣一來,如果你將來感染了新型冠狀病毒, 你的身體就處於優勢。

  • This is known as an adaptive immune response.


  • Your body has already seen these spike proteins before, and therefore, it already knows what to do.


  • Essentially, these mRNA vaccines allow your body to protect itself from a future infection without ever having to risk the consequences of getting the disease, COVID-19.

    基本上,這些 mRNA 疫苗讓你的身體,預防未來被感染,且不用冒著感染新冠肺炎的風險。

  • So, why haven't mRNA vaccines been used before?

    那為什麼以前不用 mRNA 疫苗?

  • While they are relatively new, researchers have actually been experimenting with them for decades.


  • But in the past, they've been very unstable.


  • Enzymes in your body would break down the mRNA quickly, so they needed to be packaged well.

    體內的酶會迅速分解 mRNA,所以它們需要被妥善地包裝。

  • The ones being released now have the mRNA encased in lipid nanoparticles, which essentially protects the mRNA from being degraded.

    現在釋出的疫苗,mRNA 封裝於固體脂質納米粒中,這預防了 mRNA 被降解。

  • Since they are more unstable than other types of vaccines, they have to be kept cold.


  • For example, the Pfizer vaccine has to be stored at minus 70 degrees Celsius, and at normal refrigerated temperatures, can only last five days.

    例如,輝瑞公司的疫苗必須保存在零下 70 攝氏度的環境, 在一般冷藏的情況下 只能保持 5 天。

  • Of course, a global pandemic has certainly increased the funding and resources going towards these types of vaccines, which has helped to accelerate their development.


  • What makes these vaccines so appealing is that unlike other vaccines, they can be made in a lab with readily available materials and actually made much quicker than other types of vaccines.

    這種疫苗如此吸引人的原因是,不同於其他疫苗, 它們可以在實驗室裡用現成的材料製成, 製作速度其實比其他類型的疫苗快得多。

  • Instead of fully developing non-infectious viruses and then injecting them, these mRNA vaccines can sort of pass many hurdles by using your own body in an ingenious way.

    與其充分研發非傳染性病毒並注射它們,這些 mRNA 疫苗巧妙地利用人體克服了許多障礙。

  • It's also far more cost-effective to create mRNA molecules rather than the proteins themselves and also a lot more scalable, which is helpful when we are in a global pandemic waiting for a vaccine.

    製造 mRNA 分子的成本效益也比蛋白質要高得多,可擴增性也較高, 這對在全球疫情中等待注射疫苗的我們來說有更有幫助。

  • So, is it safe?


  • And given that it's a relatively new technology, should you be concerned at all?


  • Well, that's what these initial trial stages have been for.


  • Not only to test whether or not they work and cause immunity but to make sure they have minimal side effects.


  • As of now, around 70,000 people have been given these vaccines with no serious concerns,


  • a caveat being that the full research hasn't been published yet as of recording this video.


  • But it's important to remember that just because it's safe doesn't mean there won't be any soreness or pain.


  • Some recipients did report aches and pains, and as of now, you'll need to receive two shots to ensure efficacy.


  • I saw a really great analogy by the professor, Shane Crotty, who works in vaccine research, and he said,

    我看到從事疫苗研究的 Shane Crotty 教授提出的精闢比喻:

  • "It's not unlike going to the gym and getting exercise and really sore muscles⏤a bit of pain can be a positive sign that good things are happening."

    「這和去健身房健身導致的肌肉痠痛沒甚麼兩樣 -輕微的疼痛可能是一個好的徵兆, 代表好事即將發生。」

  • "Sometimes you have to earn your immunity, just like you have to earn those biceps you wanted so bad."


  • We know you've been asking about these vaccines a lotwe have also had our questionsso we hope that all this information was useful and concise and educational for you, 'cause it does sort of help make things seem less unknown and scary in a very strange time.

    我們知道你們對於這些疫苗有很多疑問,我們之前也有過疑問, 所以我們希望這些資訊對你們有幫助, 簡潔明瞭並有教育意義, 因為在這個特殊時期,這些資訊的確有助於讓事情顯得沒有那麼地陌生和可怕。

  • Thank you all so much for watching.


  • If you want to hear more about vaccines, our podcast is on YouTube.

    如果你想了解更多關於疫苗的資訊,在 YouTube 上可以找到我們的podcast。

  • - You can check that out, we have a few episodes on vaccine. - We... gossip about vaccines to be honest.

    - 你們可以去看看,有幾集是關於疫苗的。 - 我們…老實說我們都在聊疫苗的八卦。

  • - Moderna stealing all the glory. - Yes... you'd love to see gossip about vaccines.

    - 莫德納疫苗奪走所有的目光。 - 沒錯…老你一定會喜歡看關於疫苗的八卦。

  • - Otherwise, make sure you like this video, subscribe, and we'll see you next time for some more science. See ya! - Peace!

    - 除此之外,記得點讚和訂閱,我們下次再分享更多的科學知識,再見。 - 掰了!

There's a lot of excitement right now around the record-speed vaccines for COVID-19,

目前,人們對 COVID-19 疫苗的創紀錄的速度感到興奮,

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B1 中級 中文 疫苗 病毒 細胞 身體 免疫 抗體

冠狀病毒疫苗對身體有什麼影響? (What The Coronavirus Vaccine Does To Your Body)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 07 日