Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • We all start life as one single cell.

    我們的生命都是從單細胞開始。

  • Then that cell divides and we are two cells, then four, then eight.

    然後我們的細胞分裂成兩個,接著四個,再來八個。

  • Cells form tissues, tissues form organs, organs form us.

    細胞構成組織,組織構成器官,而器官組成我們。

  • These cell divisions, by which we go from a single cell to 100 trillion cells, are called growth.

    細胞分裂讓我們從單一細胞,變成一百兆個細胞,這就是生長。

  • And growth seems like a simple thing because when we think of it, we typically think of someone getting taller or, later in life, wider, but to cells, growth isn't simple.

    生長這件事看似簡單,因為當我們想到它時,我們通常聯想到長高或長胖,但對細胞而言,生長並非如此單純。

  • Cell division is an intricate chemical dance that's part individual, part community-driven.

    細胞分裂是一場複雜,而精密的化學之舞。一部份在細胞本身,另一部份則受所處群落影響。

  • And in a neighborhood of 100 trillion cells, sometimes things go wrong.

    而在這個由一百兆細胞組成的社群中,難免有出錯的時候。

  • Maybe an individual cell's set of instructions, or DNA, gets a typo, what we call a mutation.

    可能是細胞內的指令或 DNA 出了錯,這就是所謂的突變。

  • Most of the time, the cell senses mistakes and shuts itself down, or the system detects a troublemaker and eliminates it.

    通常細胞能偵測錯誤並自我了斷,或由系統偵測到麻煩製造者,並消除它。

  • But, enough mutations can bypass this fail-safes, driving the cell to divide recklessly.

    但如果有突變通過這些保護機制,就會造成細胞毫無節制的分裂下去。

  • That one rogue cell becomes two, then four, then eight.

    一個細胞瘋狂的分裂成兩個、四個,到八個。

  • At every stage, the incorrect instruction are passed along to the cells' offspring.

    在每個階段,錯誤的訊息都會被傳遞給子細胞。

  • Weeks, months, or years after that one rogue cell transformed, you might see your doctor about a lump in your breast.

    在這個惡性細胞轉型的幾週、幾月,甚至幾年後,你可能就會因乳房硬塊去看醫生。

  • Difficulty going to the bathroom could reveal a problem in your intestine, prostate, or bladder.

    如廁困難可能表示你的腸道、前列腺、或是膀胱出了問題。

  • Or, a routine blood test might count too many white cells or elevated liver enzymes.

    也可能在例行性的驗血中,發現白血球數過高或肝臟酵素升高。

  • Your doctor delivers the bad news: It's cancer.

    醫師就會告訴你這個壞消息:你得了癌症。

  • From here your strategy will depend on where the cancer is and how far it's progressed.

    你所採用的療程會依據病灶及惡化程度而有所不同。

  • If the tumor is slow-growing and in one place, surgery might be all you need, if anything.

    若腫瘤成長速度慢且集中於一處,必要時手術切除即可。

  • If the tumor is fast-growing or invading nearby tissue, your doctor might recommend radiation or surgery followed by radiation.

    若腫瘤成長速度快且入侵到鄰近組織,醫生可能會建議使用放射線治療或在手術後再以放射線治療。

  • If the cancer has spread, or if it's inherently everywhere like a leukemia, your doctor will most likely recommend chemotherapy or a combination of radiation and chemo.

    如果癌細胞已擴散,或像是血癌一般存在身體各處,醫生最可能推薦化學療法,或結合放射線療法和化療。

  • Radiation and most forms of chemo work by physically shredding the cells' DNA or disrupting the copying machinery.

    放射線和大部份化療的作用機制是以物理方法破壞細胞 DNA 或干擾細胞複製機制。

  • But neither radiation nor chemotherapeutic drugs target only cancer cells.

    但不論放射線治療或化學療法都無法只針對癌細胞。

  • Radiation hits whatever you point it at, and your blood stream carries chemo-therapeutics all over your body.

    放射線會攻擊任何被照射的地方,而血液會將化療藥物運送到身體各處。

  • So, what happens when different cells get hit?

    那這對各種細胞又會有什麼影響呢?

  • Let's look at a healthy liver cell, a healthy hair cell, and a cancerous cell.

    讓我們看看健康的肝細胞、健康的毛髮細胞和癌細胞吧!

  • The healthy liver cell divides only when it is stressed; the healthy hair cell divides frequently; and the cancer cell divides even more frequently and recklessly.

    健康的肝細胞僅在受到壓力時分裂;健康的毛髮細胞分裂頻繁;而癌細胞分裂更加頻繁,也更不受控制。

  • When you take a chemotherapeutic drug, it will hit all of these cells.

    服用化療藥物時,藥物會影響所有細胞。

  • And remember that the drugs work typically by disrupting cell division.

    請注意藥物作用是干擾細胞分裂。

  • So, every time a cell divides, it opens itself up to attack, and that means the more frequently a cell divides, the more likely the drug is to kill it.

    所以,每一次細胞分裂都會讓自身受到藥物影響,這表示分裂越頻繁的細胞,越容易被藥物毒殺。

  • So, remember that hair cell?

    還記得毛髮細胞嗎?

  • It divides frequently and isn't a threat.

    它經常分裂但對人體不構成威脅。

  • And, there are other frequently dividing cells in your body like skin cells, gut cells, and blood cells.

    而且人體中還有其他經常在分裂的細胞諸如:皮膚細胞、腸細胞和血球。

  • So the list of unpleasant side effects of cancer treatment parallels these tissue types:

    所以在抗癌藥物的副作用項目中,可以對應到這些組織:

  • hair loss, skin rashes, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, weight loss, and pain.

    掉髮、皮膚起疹、噁心、嘔吐、倦怠、體重減輕和疼痛。

  • That makes sense because these are the cells that get hit the hardest.

    這很合理,因為這些都是受藥物影響最多的細胞。

  • So, in the end, it is all about growth.

    到頭來,一切都和生長有關。

  • Cancer hijacks cells' natural division machinery and forces them to put the pedal to the metal, growing rapidly and recklessly.

    癌症挾持了細胞自然的分裂機制,並迫使其走向極端,在毫無限制的狀況下快速生長。

  • But, using chemotherapeutic drugs, we take advantage of that aggressiveness, and we turn cancer's main strength into a weakness.

    但是,化療藥物充分利用癌細胞快速分裂的特性,並將它的長處轉換成了弱點。

We all start life as one single cell.

我們的生命都是從單細胞開始。

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 細胞 分裂 癌細胞 藥物 治療

【TED-Ed】認識癌細胞與癌症治療 (How do cancer cells behave differently from healthy ones? - George Zaidan)

  • 24402 2517
    Zenn 發佈於 2022 年 03 月 03 日
影片單字