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  • One summer evening in 335 BCE, Alexander the Great

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • was resting by the Danube River after a day of fighting the Scythian tribes

    西元前 335 年的一個夏日夜晚,

  • when a band of strangers approached his camp.

    在與斯基泰部落打了一整天的戰之後,

  • Alexander had never seen anything like these tall,

    亞歷山大大帝在多瑙河畔休息,

  • fierce-looking warriors with huge golden neck rings and colorful cloaks

    此時有一群陌生人接近他的營地。

  • so he invited them to feast with him.

    亞歷山大從來沒有看過 這麼高大的人,

  • They proudly said they were Keltoi or Celts who came from the far-away Alps.

    這些外型可怕的戰士戴著大型 金項圈,披著彩色的斗篷——

  • Alexander asked what they feared the most in the world,

    於是,他用盛宴款待他們。

  • hoping they would say him.

    他們很自傲地說自己是凱爾特人,

  • They laughed and said they feared nothing at all.

    來自遙遠的阿爾卑斯山脈。

  • This is one of the earliest stories about the ancient Celts.

    亞歷山大問他們 在這個世界上最怕什麼,

  • While we don't know where the first Celts came from,

    希望他們會說是他。

  • by Alexander's time they had spread across Europe

    他們笑了,說他們什麼都不怕。

  • from Asia Minor in the east to Spain

    這是關於古凱爾特人 最早的故事之一。

  • and the Atlantic islands of Britain and Ireland in the west.

    雖然我們不知道 最早的凱爾特人來自何處,

  • The Celts were never one unified empire, and they didn't build cities or monuments.

    但到了亞歷山大的時代, 他們已經散佈在歐洲各地,

  • Instead, they were hundreds of independent tribes who spoke the same language.

    從東邊的小亞細亞,

  • Each had its own warrior-king and religious center.

    到西邊的西班牙、

  • The tribes fought each other

    不列顛的大西洋島嶼和愛爾蘭。

  • as enthusiastically as they fought their enemies.

    凱爾特人從未成為統一的帝國,

  • Few armies could stand up to them.

    也沒有建立城市或紀念碑,

  • Somewhat unusually for the time, the Celts believed in reincarnation

    而是數百個說相同語言的獨立部落,

  • that they would be reborn on Earth to live and feast and fight again,

    每個部落有自己的 戰士國王以及宗教中心。

  • which may have contributed to their fearlessness in battle.

    部落間也會對戰,

  • Some of them fought naked, scoffing at their enemies' armor.

    且激烈程度不亞於和敵人對戰。

  • The greatest trophy a Celtic warrior could possess

    很少有軍隊能對抗他們。

  • was the severed head of a foe.

    在當時有一點十分不尋常,

  • They preserved these heads in jars of cedar oil

    凱爾特人相信轉世輪迴——

  • and showed them to guests who visited their homes.

    相信他們會在地球重生,

  • Celtic warriors were so valued in the ancient world

    再次生活、吃喝、打戰,

  • that foreign kings often hired them as mercenary soldiers

    這可能是他們在作戰時 一無所懼的原因之一。

  • to serve in their armies.

    他們有些人會裸體上戰場, 嘲笑他們的敵人還要穿盔甲。

  • But the Celts were much more than just warriors.

    對凱爾特戰士而言, 最偉大的戰利品

  • Among them were many skilled craftsmen, artists, and great poets called bards.

    就是砍下對手的頭顱。

  • The bards sang of the brave deeds of their ancestors

    他們把這些頭顱裝在罐中 浸泡在雪松油裡,

  • and praised the accomplishments of warrior kings

    展示給來家裡的訪客看。

  • and composed biting satires about cowardly or selfish leaders.

    凱爾特戰士在古時非常受到重視,

  • The Celts worshipped many gods,

    外國的國王經常僱用他們,

  • and priests known as druids oversaw this worship.

    在軍隊裡擔任傭兵。

  • Anyone could become a druid,

    但凱爾特人不只是戰士而已。

  • but the training required many years of study and memorization

    他們當中有許多 技藝精湛的工匠、藝術家,

  • the druids were not allowed to record any of their teachings in writing.

    以及所謂的吟遊詩人。

  • Druids supervised religious practices and sacrifices to the gods,

    吟遊詩人會唱出 他們祖先的勇敢作為,

  • but they were also teachers, healers, judges, and scientists.

    並讚頌戰士國王的成就——

  • They were so respected that they could step between warring tribes

    還會針對膽小或自私的領導人 創作犀利的諷刺作品。

  • in the middle of a battle and call an end to the fighting.

    凱爾特人崇拜的神很多,

  • No Celt would dare to harm a druid, or question their decisions.

    督伊德教僧侶負責監督他們的崇拜。

  • In the 2nd century BCE, the Romans began to encroach on Celtic territory,

    人人都能成為督伊德教僧侶,

  • conquering the tribes of northern Italy.

    但要經過多年的研究和記憶訓練——

  • Rather than unite against the Roman legions in response to this defeat,

    督伊德教僧侶不可以把 教導的內容書寫記載下來。

  • the Celts maintained their tribal divisions.

    督伊德教僧侶 監管宗教相關事宜和向神獻祭,

  • The tribes of Spain fell soon after.

    也是老師、治療者、判官及科學家。

  • In the 1st century BCE, Julius Caesar marched his armies across France,

    他們受尊敬的程度之高, 讓他們甚至可以踏上

  • using bribery, threats, and lies to turn tribes against each other.

    兩個部落交戰的戰場宣佈停戰。

  • Only in the closing days of this great war

    凱爾特人都不敢傷害 督伊德教僧侶或執疑他們的決策。

  • did the Celts unite against their common enemy

    在西元前二世紀,

  • under the leadership of king Vercingetorix,

    羅馬人開始入侵凱爾特領土,

  • but it was too late.

    征服北義大利的部落。

  • Countless warriors and their families died or were enslaved

    凱爾特人並沒有因為戰敗 就團結起來對抗羅馬人,

  • as the Romans conquered France.

    部落仍然維持各自獨立的狀態。

  • Protected by the surrounding waters,

    西班牙的部落沒多久後就陷落了。

  • the Celtic tribes of Britain and Ireland were the last holdouts.

    西元前一世紀,

  • When the Romans finally invaded Britain,

    凱撒大帝帶領大軍橫掃法國,

  • the queen Boudicca united her tribe in a revolt after her husband was killed.

    用賄賂、威脅、謊言

  • She almost succeeded in driving the Roman legions out of Britain

    讓各部落反目為仇。

  • before dying as she led a final battle against the enemy.

    一直到這場大戰快要結束的時候,

  • By the end of the 1st century CE, Ireland alone, far out at sea,

    凱爾特人才在維欽托利 國王的領導下,

  • remained unconquered by Rome.

    團結起來對抗共同的敵人,

  • There, the ways of the ancient Celts survived untouched by the outside world

    但為時已晚。

  • long after Rome itself lay in ruins.

    當羅馬征服法國時,

One summer evening in 335 BCE, Alexander the Great

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B1 中級 中文 部落 凱爾特人 僧侶 戰士 羅馬 國王

The rise and fall of the Celtic warriors - Philip Freeman

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 03 日
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