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• we explained the 2016 Nobel Physics Prize meet tests.

我們解釋了2016年諾貝爾物理學獎迎接測試。

• She relies on technology throughout her day, which simplifies her life.

她整天依靠科技，這讓她的生活變得簡單。

• She knows that innovations in technology rely on our abilities to understand the materials that create thumb and that physics is one way to uncover these insights.

她知道，技術的創新有賴於我們理解創造拇指的材料的能力，而物理學是發現這些見解的一種方式。

• So she is curious to learn more about the Nobel Laureates who discovered a new set of regularities in the way matter Behaves Test learns that David Hollis, Duncan Haldane and Michael Costal It's made new discoveries in physics, using concepts found in a branch of mathematics called topology.

是以，她很想了解更多關於諾貝爾獎得主發現了一組新的規律性物質的方式Behaves測試瞭解到，大衛-霍利斯，鄧肯-哈爾丹和邁克爾-科斯特爾它在物理學中取得了新的發現，使用在數學分支中發現的概念，稱為拓撲學。

• Topology describes properties that air preserved under deformation and manipulations in topology, an integer number called atop a Logical in variant can be assigned to all objects that share the same properties.

拓撲學描述了在拓撲學的變形和操作下空氣保存的屬性，一個整數稱為頂點的Logical in variant可以分配給所有共享相同屬性的對象。

• One example of a top.

一個例子是頂。

• A logical in variant is the number of holes.

邏輯上的在變體是孔的數量。

• An object has an orange, A ball and a muffin.

一個物體有一個橘子，一個球和一個鬆餅。

• All have zero holes, so they can all be assigned the top, a logical in variant and equal zero.

都有零孔，所以它們都可以被分配到頂部，一個邏輯上的在變體和等於零。

• In contrast, Ah, coffee cup and a bagel each have one hole and can be assigned the top.

相比之下，啊，咖啡杯和百吉餅各有一個孔，可以分配到上面。

• A logical in variant n equals one.

變式n中的邏輯等於一。

• Objects can't transform from one top ology class to another unless a significant force is applied to them, like cutting blue ing or telling them their top a logical properties air protected against small changes.

對象不能從一個頂層邏輯類轉換到另一個頂層邏輯類，除非對它們施加一個重要的力量，比如切割藍英或告訴它們它們的頂層邏輯屬性空氣保護，以防止微小的變化。

• This was noteworthy to scientists because microscopic objects are usually observed as being fragile.

這一點值得科學家們注意，因為通常觀察到的微觀物體都是脆弱的。

• They typically can Onley survive in very specific conditions.

它們通常可以在非常特殊的條件下昂利生存。

• But physicists observed some objects that had surprisingly robust properties.

但物理學家觀察到一些物體具有令人驚訝的強大特性。

• They were puzzled by these exceptions.

他們對這些例外情況感到疑惑。

• This year's Nobel Laureates discovered that the robust properties were caused by the top, a logical nature of electrons in those objects.

本年的諾貝爾獎得主發現，健壯的特性是由這些物體中電子的頂部、邏輯性質引起的。

• From this realization, Solis used topology to explain the famous Quantum Hall effect experiment.

從這個認識出發，索利斯用拓撲學解釋了著名的量子霍爾效應實驗。

• This experiment showed that in very thin layers and in the presence of high magnetic fields, electrons behave in such a way that the conduct inst through the system is robust against disorder, and can Onley change in steps as the magnetic field is increased.

該實驗表明，在非常薄的層中和高磁場的存在下，電子的行為方式是這樣的，即通過系統的傳導inst是穩健的，不受無序的影響，並且可以Onley隨著磁場的增加而發生階梯式的變化。

• Solis was able to explain this behavior by assigning an integer en to each of the conducting steps observed later.

索利斯能夠通過給後面觀察到的每一個進行步驟分配一個整數en來解釋這種行為。

• All Dane predicted that a similar effect was possible without having a magnetic field before scientists believe phase transitions could not occur in extremely thin layers of matter, however, cost her lips, and Solis found that it was possible for vortices to appear in some two D materials because of their top a logical nature.

所有戴恩預言，在科學家認為極薄的物質層中不可能發生相變之前，沒有磁場也能產生類似的效果，然而，花費了她的脣舌，索利斯發現，在一些二D材料中出現渦旋是可能的，因為它們頂一個邏輯性質。

• They found that each vortex could be assigned an integral number, determined by the number of times it turns at low temperatures.

他們發現，每個旋渦都可以被分配一個積分數字，由它在低溫下轉動的次數決定。

• The vortices are always seen in tight pairs that stay together.

渦流總是以緊密的對子出現，並保持在一起。

• These pairs influenced the electric conductivity of the matter, But when the temperature is raised, the vortex pairs break away from each other.

這些對子影響了物質的電導率，但當溫度升高時，渦流對子就會相互脫離。

• This is a completely new kind of phase transition.

這是一種全新的階段轉換。

• Finally, Haldane studied one dimensional change of atomic magnets.

最後，Haldane研究了原子磁體的一維變化。

• He found another example of top.

他又找到了一個榜樣。

• A logical order, a different type of top, a logical object called a scare.

邏輯順序，不同類型的頂，邏輯對象叫嚇。

• Me in explained the change from conducting to insulating behavior of the chain.

我在解釋了鏈條從導電到絕緣行為的變化。

• Tess is excited to hear that the ideas developed by the Nobel Laureates have sparked revolutions in many other fields.

苔絲聽到諾貝爾獎得主所提出的觀點引發了許多其他領域的革命，感到非常興奮。

we explained the 2016 Nobel Physics Prize meet tests.

# 物質的拓撲相位--2016年諾貝爾物理學獎。 (Topological Phases of Matter - Nobel Prize in Physics 2016)

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林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 03 日