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  • María Teresa Kumar: Much has been made of the 2020 US election.

    María Teresa Kumar。2020年的美國大選已經被炒得沸沸揚揚。

  • Right now, just over a week later,

    現在,才過了一個多星期。

  • pollsters are issuing mea culpas,

    民調機構都在發聲辯解。

  • Democrats are tentatively celebrating,

    民主黨人初步慶祝。

  • Republicans are blowing their collective tops,

    共和黨人在集體吹頂。

  • lawyers are busier than ever,

    律師比以往任何時候都要忙。

  • ballot-counters are still hard at it,

    計票員還在努力。

  • and demographers are desperately trying to understand

    和人口學家們都在拼命地試圖瞭解

  • who voted, for whom, where and why.

    誰投的票,投給誰,在哪裡投,為什麼投。

  • Much has been said of the Latino vote in this election,

    關於這次選舉中拉美裔的選票,已經說了很多。

  • which is something I know a little bit about,

    這是我知道一點的。

  • having been working obsessively over it for the last 16 years.

    在過去的16年裡,一直在為它痴迷地工作。

  • Latinos are the fastest-growing demographic,

    拉美裔是增長最快的人口。

  • with the largest voter registration cap in America.

    擁有全美最大的選民登記上限。

  • A Latino youth turns 18 every 30 seconds.

    每30秒就有一個拉丁裔青年滿18歲。

  • While the mode for whites in America is 58,

    而美國白人的模式是58。

  • the mode for Latinx is 11 years old.

    拉美克斯的模式是11歲。

  • You heard that right.

    你沒聽錯

  • And it's these new voters

    而正是這些新的選民

  • and the youth who are translating America for their immigrant families

    以及為他們的移民家庭翻譯美國的年輕人。

  • who are leading the charge for audacious change.

    他們正在帶頭進行大膽的變革。

  • An estimated 73 percent of Latinx youth voted for Biden.

    據估計,73%的拉丁裔青年投票給拜登。

  • As members of the largest generation globally,

    作為全球最大一代人的成員。

  • these Latino youth mirror their peers,

    這些拉丁裔青年與他們的同齡人一樣。

  • seeking intervention for climate equity,

    為氣候公平尋求干預;

  • racial justice

    種族正義

  • and gender parity.

    和性別均等。

  • What we're hearing right now in America and around the globe

    我們現在在美國和全球各地聽到的是

  • is a demand for a massive reset on how we will govern in the 21st century

    要求對我們在21世紀的治理方式進行大規模的重新設定。

  • for a world that is livable,

    為一個宜居的世界。

  • equitable and just.

    公平和公正;

  • Too many young people are drowning in student debt

    太多的年輕人被學生債淹沒了

  • here in America,

    在美國這裡。

  • their families have been ravaged by the pandemic,

    他們的家庭已經被這一流行病蹂躪。

  • who have lost jobs, lives and housing,

    失去工作、生活和住房的人。

  • and still, in 2020, they showed up for an America to believe in.

    但在2020年,他們還是出現了一個讓人相信的美國。

  • Many say that 1914, the eve of World War I,

    很多人說,1914年,第一次世界大戰前夕。

  • defined the 20th century in America.

    定義了20世紀的美國。

  • That meant FDR's New Deal that doubled down on its citizens

    那就是指FDR的新政,對公民加倍的照顧。

  • by nation-building,

    通過國家建設。

  • offering pathways to the middle class

    提供通往中產階級的途徑

  • through public works, education and sponsoring artists and musicians,

    通過公共工程、教育和贊助藝術家和音樂家。

  • building roads to provide jobs and sponsoring science-driven blueprints

    修建道路以提供就業,並贊助科學驅動的藍圖。

  • that allowed a man almost 40 years later

    讓一個男人在將近40年後

  • to look up at the Moon and say that he wanted to go there.

    仰望月球,說他想去那裡。

  • And we did that with less technology than the smartphone feeding this talk.

    而我們做到了這一點,所使用的技術比餵養這個說話的智能手機還要少。

  • So my hope is that the 21st century

    所以我的希望是,21世紀

  • will be remembered as starting February 2020,

    將從2020年2月開始被人們記住。

  • not because that was when COVID ravaged us

    不是因為那是COVID蹂躪我們的時候。

  • and in doing so, exposed the real, deep socioeconomic and racial disparities

    並在這樣做的時候,暴露了真正的、深刻的社會經濟和種族差異。

  • that ail us,

    困擾我們的問題。

  • but because that was when Americans cast a ballot for the future

    但因為那是美國人為未來投下的一票。

  • that believes in addressing the climate crisis,

    認為要解決氣候危機,

  • that health care is a right,

    保健是一項權利;

  • that racial inequities hinder us all.

    種族不平等阻礙了我們所有人,

  • We have a window to meet the precedent set by the Greatest Generation

    我們有一個窗口,可以滿足最偉大的一代所開創的先例。

  • and define our century

    並界定我們的世紀

  • as one that is equitable and sustained.

    作為一種公平和持續的方法,

  • I, for one, am excited to get to work.

    我這個人,很興奮,要開始工作了。

  • I hope you'll join me to usher in this audacious change together.

    我希望你能和我一起迎來這場大膽的變革。

  • Bianca DeJesus: María Teresa, thank you so much for that.

    Bianca DeJesus。瑪麗亞-特雷莎,非常感謝你。

  • MTK: Thank you, Bianca. Thank you for this conversation.

    MTK:謝謝你,比安卡。謝謝你的這次談話。

  • BD: It is an honor.

    BD:這是一種榮譽。

  • So, some commentators seem to be confounded

    所以,一些評論員似乎被迷惑了。

  • that in certain places,

    這在某些地方。

  • Republicans received meaningful numbers of Latinx votes.

    共和黨人獲得了有意義的拉丁裔選票。

  • Of course, it's kind of silly to imagine that any demographic is a monolith,

    當然,想象任何一個人群都是單一的,這有點傻。

  • and within our community, there are so many differences.

    而在我們的社會中,有這麼多的不同。

  • So what is the most productive way to think about heterogeneity

    那麼,什麼是最有效的異質性思維方式呢?

  • within the Latinx, and really, within any community?

    在拉美人中,真的,在任何社區內?

  • MTK: If we don't have public elected officials

    MTK:如果我們沒有公選的官員。

  • talking to our community, especially a new community,

    與我們的社區,特別是新社區交談。

  • that is coming of age,

    正在成年的。

  • that is relatively new to the democratic process,

    這對民主進程來說是比較新的。

  • someone else will fill that vacuum.

    別人會填補這個真空。

  • But I can share with you

    但我可以和你分享

  • one of the things that we knew at Voto Latino

    我們在拉丁美洲選票上知道的一件事就是

  • was that young Latinos are navigating America for their families.

    是年輕的拉美人正在為他們的家庭導航美國。

  • Those youth turned up to protect their families,

    那些青年為了保護自己的家人而出動。

  • and it was not just in Arizona,

    而且不只是在亞利桑那州。

  • but we also saw it Nevada, we also saw it in Pennsylvania,

    但我們也看到它內華達州, 我們也看到它在賓夕法尼亞州。

  • we saw it in Georgia and in North Carolina.

    我們在佐治亞州和北卡羅來納州看到了它。

  • And if you want to have an inclusive America,

    而如果你想擁有一個包容的美國。

  • you have to fight for the vote,

    你必須爭取投票。

  • and that is basically what we need to see right now.

    而這基本上是我們現在需要看到的。

  • But when we talk to young people,

    但當我們和年輕人交談時。

  • they voted disproportionately because they wanted climate change,

    他們投票不成比例,因為他們想要氣候變化。

  • they wanted access to health care,

    他們希望獲得保健服務。

  • and they wanted to talk about the real racial inequities.

    他們想談談真正的種族不平等。

  • When George Floyd sadly was murdered tragically,

    當喬治-弗洛伊德不幸被謀殺時。

  • Latinos were side by side with the African American community

    拉美人與非裔美國人社區並肩作戰。

  • because we recognize that that is something

    因為我們認識到這是

  • that truly plagues our American existence

    困擾我們美國人的問題

  • and that we have to address it if we want to move forward.

    如果我們要向前邁進,就必須解決這個問題。

  • BD: Absolutely.

    BD:當然。

  • So do you see evidence that patterns change

    所以你看到了模式改變的證據嗎?

  • regarding first- and second- generation Latinx voters,

    關於第一代和第二代拉丁裔選民;

  • and how does assimilation play out

    又是如何同化的

  • in terms of long-term voting trends?

    從長期投票趨勢來看?

  • MTK: That's interesting.

    MTK:這很有意思。

  • So at Voto Latino,

    所以在拉丁裔選票。

  • we don't believe that there's an assimilation. Right?

    我們不相信有一個同化。對不對?

  • What we want is an enhancement of American culture.

    我們要的是美國文化的提升。

  • Just like we celebrate St. Patrick's Day,

    就像我們慶祝聖帕特里克節一樣。

  • we want to be able to celebrate our roots

    我們希望能夠慶祝我們的根。

  • and recognize the importance of that richness.

    並認識到這種豐富性的重要性。

  • We are in a very unique moment in America,

    在美國,我們正處於一個非常獨特的時刻。

  • where we have the most diverse population in the world,

    在這裡,我們擁有世界上最多樣化的人口。

  • and one can argue that that is why some people don't want us to succeed,

    可以說,這就是為什麼有些人不希望我們成功的原因。

  • because it's our human capital,

    因為這是我們的人力資本。

  • our vision,

    我們的願景。

  • our ability to move forward

    前進心

  • and our diversity

    和我們的多樣性

  • that prepares us for this century.

    讓我們為這個世紀做好準備。

  • And so when we talk about the differences in the Latino community,

    所以當我們談論拉丁裔社區的差異時。

  • it's also the differences in America

    這也是美國的差異

  • that makes us so much richer

    豐富了我們的生活

  • with our imagination,

    與我們的想象力。

  • with our ability to have entrepreneurship,

    與我們有創業的能力。

  • and we have to use that and harness it for good.

    我們必須利用這一點,並利用它為好。

  • Some people will say race is what is our Achilles' heel.

    有人會說,種族是我們的致命弱點。

  • I actually believe that it's the diversity of our races and our cultures

    其實我相信,這是我們的種族和文化的多樣性。

  • that actually prepares us to battle the 21st century

    為21世紀的戰鬥做好了準備。

  • that it's already interglobal.

    它已經是全球範圍內的。

  • And the more that we harness that beauty of that diversity,

    而我們越是利用這種多樣性的美。

  • that is what prepares us to compete and define the 21st century.

    這就是讓我們準備好競爭和定義21世紀的原因。

  • BD: Wow. Yeah. I think that's beautiful and totally agree.

    BD:哇。是啊,我覺得那很美,完全同意。

  • So how can we make first-time voters repeat voters

    那麼,如何才能讓第一次投票的人成為常客呢?

  • who are engaged in future elections

    參與未來選舉的人

  • and not just for presidential elections

    不僅僅是總統選舉

  • but for local government as well?

    但對地方政府來說也是如此?

  • MTK: One of the things that we are seeing

    MTK:我們看到的一件事是

  • is that we're seeing more young people run for office,

    是我們看到更多的年輕人競選辦公室。

  • and the more people start running for office,

    和更多的人開始競選辦公室。

  • they realize that local government is what makes the most impact,

    他們意識到,地方政府才是最有影響力的。

  • at least here in America.

    至少在美國這裡。

  • So if you want, for example, some racial reform

    所以,如果你想,例如,一些種族改革。

  • in your judicial system,

    在貴國的司法系統中。

  • vote for your district attorney,

    投票給你的地區檢察官。

  • vote for your city councilman.

    投票給你的市議員。

  • If you think that there's disparities in our education system,

    如果你認為我們的教育制度有不平等,

  • run for your school board.

    競選你的校董會。

  • So that's one.

    所以這是一個。

  • But the other thing to send very clearly to politicians

    但另一件事要非常清楚地送給政治家們。

  • is that when young --

    是,當年輕 -

  • Americans voted their heart out.

    美國人投出了自己的心聲。

  • Young Latinos, youth in general,

    拉美青年,一般的青年。

  • outvoted the people before them,

    勝過前人。

  • but they're voting on making a bet that their life will change,

    但他們是在投票打賭,他們的生活會發生變化。

  • because the last four years could not have been rockier.

    因為過去的四年是不能再搖滾了。

  • And if the folks that are elected

    如果當選的人

  • don't meet the challenges of addressing climate change,

    不能應對應對氣候變化的挑戰;

  • addressing racial equity and gender parity

    解決種族平等和兩性均等問題

  • and health care for all,

    和人人享有保健服務。

  • they run the risk of not having those people vote again in 2024,

    他們有可能在2024年沒有這些人再次投票。

  • and we need everybody on deck.

    我們需要每個人都在甲板上。

  • And so our job as citizens

    所以我們作為公民的工作

  • is to ensure that we give the people that we just voted into office

    是為了確保我們給剛剛投票上任的人。

  • the courage to do the right thing,

    有勇氣做正確的事情。

  • and that means to continue the rallies,

    而這意味著要繼續集會。

  • continue calling our members of Congress, writing those letters

    繼續給我們的國會議員打電話,寫那些信。

  • and running for office ourselves.

    而自己也在競選。

  • BD: So one question that speaks to the theme of this year's TED Women,

    BD:那麼,有一個問題,說的是今年TED女性的主題。

  • "Fearless,"

    "無所畏懼"

  • I think it's accurate to say

    我認為準確的說法是

  • that there's been a lot of fear within the Latinx community

    拉美裔社區內有很多恐懼感

  • over the last few years.

    在過去的幾年裡,。

  • How does that begin to change now?

    現在開始如何改變?

  • MTK: I will share with you,

    MTK:我會和你分享。

  • the day after Donald Trump was elected,

    唐納德-特朗普當選後的第二天。

  • all of our worst nightmares came to fruition.

    我們所有最糟糕的噩夢都成了現實。

  • We saw family separation,

    我們看到了家庭分離。

  • one of the cruelest forms of our nation's history

    史上最殘酷的形式之一。

  • came back to haunt us,

    回來困擾我們。

  • because we've done it before,

    因為我們之前已經做過了。

  • and everyone lived in fear.

    每個人都生活在恐懼之中。

  • And the day after Joe Biden's declaration on Saturday,

    而在週六喬-拜登發表聲明的第二天。

  • I can tell that there was a collective --

    我可以告訴你,有一個集體 -

  • we've been holding our breath for so long,

    我們已經憋了這麼久的氣了。

  • there was a collective release of not only that are we going to be OK

    有一個集體的釋放,不僅是我們要去確定

  • but that fellow Americans stood up

    但美國同胞站了起來

  • as allies

    結為盟友

  • and said, "Not one more."

    並說:"不能再多了。"

  • And so that is what gives me hope,

    所以,這才是我的希望。

  • is that this was a collective America

    是,這是一個集體的美國

  • who outvoted their hearts out,

    誰投出了他們的心。

  • because we see that in our celebration of our country's future

    因為我們看到,在我們對國家未來的慶祝中

  • is believing in democracy,

    就是相信民主。

  • believing in a transition of power,

    相信權力的過渡;

  • believing that the most votes won and the electoral college was on our side,

    相信最多票數獲勝,選舉團站在我們這邊。

  • and more importantly,

    更重要的是。

  • that these issues that Trump tried to ascend his presidency

    這些問題,特朗普試圖登上他的總統任期

  • for the second time

    二次

  • that were based on racism,

    基於種族主義的問題。

  • that were based on the callousness of treating people and women differently,

    這些都是基於對人和女人不同的冷漠態度。

  • that they were not going to withstand.

    他們是無法承受的。

  • And so we do have to rebuild,

    所以我們確實要重建。

  • but we have to rebuild not because of the four years of Donald Trump.

    但我們必須重建,不是因為唐納德-特朗普的四年。

  • If anything, I think he just exposed a lot of our fractures.

    如果說,我覺得他只是暴露了我們很多的破綻。

  • We have to rebuild based on the last, I would say, 20 years.

    我們必須在過去的基礎上重建,我想說,20年。

  • But the great thing is that the voters are here for it,

    但最大的好處是,選民們都來了。

  • and young people are here for it.

    和年輕人在這裡為。

  • I don't have to change a young person's mind

    我不需要改變一個年輕人的想法

  • that we are in a climate crisis.

    我們正處於氣候危機中,

  • They get it.

    他們明白了。

  • Cultural change is the hardest to do,

    文化變革是最難做到的。

  • but we have generations there with us,

    但我們有幾代人和我們在一起。

  • because they're there and they get it.

    因為他們在那裡,他們得到它。

  • BD: (Exhales) That's a relief.

    BD:(呼氣)這下放心了。

  • So, you yourself have been fearlessly outspoken.

    所以,你自己也一直無所畏懼地直言不諱。

  • What drives you forward personally?

    是什麼驅使你個人前進?

  • MTK: I deeply -- I don't know if I've been fearless --

    MTK:我深深地--我不知道我是否已經無所畏懼--。

  • I deeply believe in our country,

    我深深相信我們的國家。

  • and I deeply believe in us,

    我深深地相信我們。

  • and I deeply believe that when we are present,

    而我深深相信,當我們在。

  • there's nothing we can't do.

    沒有什麼是我們不能做的。

  • And when I say that, we ...

    當我說,我們... ...

  • As a generation, we will not have an opportunity

    作為一代人,我們不會有機會。

  • to reimagine what our country looks like,

    重新想象我們國家的樣子。

  • our systems of governments look like,

    我們的政府系統是這樣的。

  • and there will be people --

    會有人...

  • you know, my children are six and eight,

    你知道,我的孩子是六和八。

  • who will ask me 15 years from now, "What did you do?"

    誰會在15年後問我,"你做了什麼?"

  • And I want to say that I was alongside allies and the American people

    我想說的是,我曾與盟友和美國人民並肩作戰。

  • to rebuild better

    以期重建得更好

  • and to reimagine better.

    並進行更好的再設想。

  • And we have always been a country of entrepreneurship,

    而我們一直是一個創業的國家。

  • design and imagination,

    設計和想象力。

  • and what a perfect place to start

    多麼完美的地方開始

  • when the majority of Americans are with us.

    當大多數美國人和我們在一起的時候。

  • BD: Absolutely.

    BD:當然。

  • Well, thank you so, so much, María Teresa.

    好吧,非常非常感謝你,瑪麗亞・特蕾莎。

  • MTK: Thank you.

    MTK:謝謝你。

María Teresa Kumar: Much has been made of the 2020 US election.

María Teresa Kumar。2020年的美國大選已經被炒得沸沸揚揚。

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B1 中級 中文 拉丁裔 種族 美國 年輕人 氣候 社區

新一代拉美裔選民如何改變美國選舉|瑪麗亞-特雷莎-庫馬爾 (How the new generation of Latinx voters could change US elections | María Teresa Kumar)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 03 日
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